Preamble to the Constitution Class 7 Civics Notes Maharashtra Board

Preamble to the Constitution Class 7 Civics Notes Maharashtra State Board

Our Constitution is the fundamental and the highest law of the land. There are definite aims or purposes in making any law. Basic provisions in the law are made after clarifying these objectives. A systematic arrangement of all the aims and objectives of a law is the Preface to the law. The Preface to the Indian Constitution is called the ‘Preamble’. The Preamble sets out the objectives of our Constitution.

We all are Indian citizens. The Preamble tells us what we all have to achieve as a people. The values, thoughts, and ideas in it are noble. The entire Constitution lays down the provisions through which these goals are to be realized. The Preamble begins with the words, ‘We, the people of India’. It talks about the resolve of the Indians to constitute India into a ‘Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic’. We shall now understand the meaning of each of these terms.

1. Sovereign State:
India was ruled by Britain for a long period. The British rule ended on 15th August 1947. Our country became independent. India became sovereign. We are now free to make decisions as we think fit in our own country. The word sovereign means that a State is not under the control of a foreign power.

Preamble to the Constitution Class 7 Civics Notes Maharashtra Board

The most important goal of our freedom struggle was to acquire sovereignty. Sovereignty means the ultimate authority to govern yourself. In a democracy, sovereignty rests with the people. The people elect their representatives and grant them permission to exercise sovereign authority on their behalf. Thus the Constitution reflects the principle of popular sovereignty and the government elected by the people makes laws on behalf of the people.

2. Socialist State:
A Socialist State is such a State where the gap between the rich and the poor is minimal. All have a right over the wealth of the country. It is ensured that wealth is not concentrated in the hands of a few people.

3. Secular State:
The Preamble states secularism as one of our goals. In a secular State, all religions are considered equal. No one religion is considered to be the State religion. The citizens are free to follow their own religion. The state cannot discriminate among citizens on the basis of religion.

We have endeavored to preserve the multi-religious nature of our society. We cannot exercise the rights given to us by our Constitution, in an unrestrained manner. The same is true of religious freedom as well. Whenever we celebrate our festivals, we are required to be concerned about public cleanliness, health, and the environment.

4. Democratic State:
In a democracy, the sovereign power is in the hands of the people. The government makes decisions and draws up policies in keeping with the people’s wishes. The government has to make important financial, social, and other decisions to promote the common welfare. All the people are not able to come together and make such decisions on a day-to-day basis. Therefore, elections are conducted after a fixed period when voters elect their representatives. These representatives sit in the institutions created by the Constitution like the Parliament or Legislature and the Executive. They make decisions for the entire population as per the procedure laid down by the Constitution.

5. Republic:
Along with being a democracy, we are a Republic. All public positions in a Republic are elected by the people. No public position is occupied on the basis of hereditary succession. The positions like the President, Prime Minister, Governor, the Chief Minister, the Mayor, the Sarpanch, etc. are public positions. Any Indian citizen fulfilling the prescribed age criterion can get himself/herself elected to any of these positions. In a monarchy, these positions may be occupied by members of a single-family following the principle of heredity.

Preamble to the Constitution Class 7 Civics Notes Maharashtra Board

The Preamble has guaranteed the Indian citizens the three values of Justice, Liberty, and Equality. It has enjoined upon the Indian citizens to practice these values and make laws in keeping with these values. Let us understand these values:

1. Justice:
Justice implies the removal of injustice and ensuring that everybody has the opportunity for progress. Establishing justice is adopting such policies that will promote the public good. Three types of justice are talked of in the Preamble. They are as follows:

  • Social Justice: There should be no discrimination among individuals on the basis of caste, creed, race, language, region, place of birth, or sex. As human beings, all have the right to the same dignity and respect, the same status.
  • Economic Justice: Poverty leads to the evils of hunger, hunger deaths, or malnourishment. If poverty is to be eradicated, everyone should have the right to a source of livelihood so as to look after oneself and one’s family. Our Constitution has given this right to every citizen without any discrimination.
  • Political Justice: We have adopted a universal adult franchise to enable equal participation in the running of the country. Accordingly, all citizens completing 18 years of age have the right to vote in elections.

2. Liberty:
Liberty implies that there should be no coercive, unfair restrictions upon us and that there should be an atmosphere conducive to the development of our inherent capacities. In a democracy, citizens enjoy liberty. In fact, democracy becomes mature only if citizens enjoy freedom.

Freedom of thought and expression is the most fundamental freedom for an individual. Everyone is free to express their own views and opinions. A give-and-take of ideas enhances the spirit of cooperation and unity among us. Similarly, it also enables us to understand the various dimensions of any problem.

The liberty of belief, faith, and worship implies religious freedom. Every Indian citizen is free to act as per the teachings of their religion or the religion of their choice. It implies the freedom of celebrating the festivals and the freedom of faith and worship.

Preamble to the Constitution Class 7 Civics Notes Maharashtra Board

3. Equality:
The Preamble guarantees the Indian citizens equality of status and of opportunity. It means that all have equal human status and there will be no discrimination based on caste, creed, race, sex, place of birth, etc. The guarantee of equal status means not to discriminate between people in terms of high-low, superior-inferior. The Preamble has given great importance to equality of opportunity as well. All will get opportunities for development without any discrimination.

The Preamble to our Constitution refers to a unique ideal or principle. It is the goal to promote fraternity among the citizens and to assure the dignity of the individual.

The makers of the Constitution believed that merely guaranteeing justice, freedom, and equality would not lead to establishing equality in Indian society. No amount of laws would help us achieve these goals if fraternity is lacking among Indians. Hence the promotion of fraternity has been included in the Preamble as a goal. Fraternity implies a ‘we-feeling’ towards one another. It creates a feeling of empathy. People become more understanding towards each others’ problems and needs.

Fraternity is closely related to human dignity. Human dignity implies equal respect for each individual as a human being. It does not depend upon the criteria of caste, creed, race, sex, language, etc. Just as we would like to be treated with dignity and respect by others, we should also treat others with the same dignity and respect.

Preamble to the Constitution Class 7 Civics Notes Maharashtra Board

When every individual respects another and honors their freedom and rights, the dignity of the individual will be established. In such an atmosphere, the fraternity will grow automatically. The task of bringing about a new society based on the values of justice and equality will be facilitated. The Preamble to the Constitution of India guides us to this very goal. The Preamble ends with a mention of the fact that the people of India have given the Constitution to themselves.

Good Maharashtra State Board Class 7 Civics Notes Preamble to the Constitution can simplify complex concepts and make studying more efficient.

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