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Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Solutions Aksharbharati Chapter 9 औक्षण (कविता) Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण (कविता)

Marathi Aksharbharati Std 10 Digest Chapter 9 औक्षण Textbook Questions and Answers

प्रश्न 1.
खालील प्रश्नांची प्रत्येकी एका वाक्यात उत्तर: लिहा.
(अ) कष्टाचे सामर्थ्य अपुरे केव्हा वाटते?
उत्तरः
जेव्हा मुठीमध्ये द्रव्य नसते तसेच जेव्हा शिरेमध्ये रक्त नसते, तेव्हा कष्टाचे सामर्थ्य अपुरे वाटते.

(आ) सैनिकाचे पाऊल जिद्दीचे का वाटते?
उत्तरः
धडाडत्या तोफांतून, धुरांच्या कल्लोळातून, घोंघावणाऱ्या बंबाऱ्याचा सामना करून सैनिक पुढे जातो म्हणून त्याचे पाऊल जिद्दीचे वाटते.

(इ) डोळे भरून पाहावे असे दृश्य कोणते?
उत्तरः
जवानाची विजयाची दौड हे डोळे भरून पहावे असे दृश्य आहे.

प्रश्न 2.
योग्य पर्याय निवडा.

(अ) सैनिकाचे औक्षण केले जाते ……………………………
(१) भरलेल्या डोळ्यांनी/भरलेल्या अंत:करणाने
(२) डोळ्यांतील आसवांच्या ज्योतींनी
(३) तबकातील निरांजनाने
(४) भाकरीच्या तुकड्याने
उत्तरः
सैनिकाचे औक्षण कसे केले जाते डोळ्यातील आसवांच्या ज्योतींनी.

(आ) कवितेतील ‘दीनदबळे’ म्हणजे ……………………………
(१) कष्टाचे, पैसे नसलेले.
(२) सैनिकाबरोबर लढणारे.
(३) शारीरिकदृष्ट्या सक्षम नसलेले.
(४) सैनिकांच्या कार्याचा अभिमान बाळगणारे देशवासीय.
उत्तर:
कवितेतील ‘दीन दुबळे’ म्हणजे सैनिकांच्या कार्याचा अभिमान बाळगणारे देशवासीय.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

प्रश्न 3.
काव्यसौंदर्य.
(अ) खालील ओळींचे रसग्रहण करा. ‘अशा असंख्य ज्योतींची तुझ्यामागून राखण; दीनदुबळ्यांचे असें तुला एकच औक्षण.’
उत्तरः
‘औक्षण’ या कवितेत दीनदुबळे याचा मार्मिक अर्थ कवयित्री इंदिरा संत यांनी सांगितला आहे. आम्हा भारतीयांचे आपल्या भारत देशावर अत्यंत प्रेम आहे. आमच्यापैकी काहीजण असेही आहेत की, ज्यांच्याकडे पैसा – अडका, संपत्ती कदाचित नसेलही, तसेच त्यांच्या शिरेमध्ये सळसळणारे रक्तही नसेल, पण तरीही सीमेवर लढाईसाठी जाणाऱ्या जवानांबद्दल त्यांच्या प्रत्येकाच्या मनात अभिमान आहे. लढाईसाठी जाणाऱ्या सैनिकांचे आपल्या डोळ्यांतील ज्योतींनी ते औक्षण करत आहेत. आम्ही सारे दीनदुबळे भारतीय लोक तुझे असे औक्षण करत आहोत. येथे दीनदुबळे म्हणजे कमजोर किंवा पैसे नसलेले गरीब असा अर्थ नसून ‘दीनदुबळे’ म्हणजे ज्यांच्यामध्ये सैनिकांसारखे सामर्थ्य नाही. रक्तामध्ये उमेद नाही पण ‘सैनिकांच्या कार्याचा अभिमान आहे, अशी जनता’ असा अर्थ कवयित्रीला अभिप्रेत आहे.

(आ) ‘सैनिक सीमेवर तैनात असतो, म्हणून आपण सुरक्षित राहतो’, या विधानातील भाव स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
देशाच्या सीमेचे रक्षण करणारा सैनिक नेहमीच देशासाठी भूषणास्पद असतो. त्याच्या देशरक्षणाच्या कर्तव्यामुळे देशातील नागरिक सुखाची झोप घेऊ शकतात. अन्यथा परकीय आक्रमण, लढाई या संकटांमुळे आपली सुरक्षितता धोक्यात आली असती. ऊन, पाऊस, थंडी याला सामोरे जाऊन ‘देशरक्षण’ हेच त्यांचे ध्येय असते. जीवावर उदार होऊन ते सीमेवर न डगमगता उभे असतात. त्यांचे कुटुंब, मुले-बाळे यांना ते महिनोंमहिने भेटत नाहीत. देशरक्षणाच्या कर्तव्यासाठी आप्त स्वकीयांनाही त्यांना भेटता येत नाही. खाजगी आयुष्याचा, सुखांचा संपूर्ण त्याग करुन केवळ सीमेवर हे जवान देशरक्षणासाठी सज्ज असतात.

(इ) कवितेच्या संदर्भात ‘दीनदुबळे’ याचा कवयित्रीला अभिप्रेत असलेला अर्थ स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
‘औक्षण’ या कवितेत दीनदुबळे याचा मार्मिक अर्थ कवयित्री इंदिरा संत यांनी सांगितला आहे. आम्हा भारतीयांचे आपल्या भारत देशावर अत्यंत प्रेम आहे. आमच्यापैकी काहीजण असेही आहेत की, ज्यांच्याकडे पैसा – अडका, संपत्ती कदाचित नसेलही, तसेच त्यांच्या शिरेमध्ये सळसळणारे रक्तही नसेल, पण तरीही सीमेवर लढाईसाठी जाणाऱ्या जवानांबद्दल त्यांच्या प्रत्येकाच्या मनात अभिमान आहे. लढाईसाठी जाणाऱ्या सैनिकांचे आपल्या डोळ्यांतील ज्योतींनी ते औक्षण करत आहेत. आम्ही सारे दीनदुबळे भारतीय लोक तुझे असे औक्षण करत आहोत. येथे दीनदुबळे म्हणजे कमजोर किंवा पैसे नसलेले गरीब असा अर्थ नसून ‘दीनदुबळे’ म्हणजे ज्यांच्यामध्ये सैनिकांसारखे सामर्थ्य नाही. रक्तामध्ये उमेद नाही पण ‘सैनिकांच्या कार्याचा अभिमान आहे, अशी जनता’ असा अर्थ कवयित्रीला अभिप्रेत आहे.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

(ई) ‘देशसेवा हीच ईश्वरसेवा’ असे समजून कार्य करणाऱ्या सैनिकांसाठी तुम्हाला काय करावेसे वाटते ते लिहा.
उत्तरः
देश हाच देव समजून सैनिक देशाची सेवा करीत असतात. त्यांचे हे काम अतुलनीय आहे. अनेक महिने ते आपले घरदार, कुटुंब सोडून सीमेवर लढत असतात. ऊन, थंडी, पावसाची तमा न बाळगता देशासाठी प्राण अर्पण करायला तयार होतात. अशा वेळेस आम्ही त्यांच्या या गुणांचे कौतुक भेटकार्ड देऊन करु शकतो. १५ ऑगस्ट या स्वातंत्र्यदिनी त्यांना शुभेच्छा कार्ड पाठवू शकतो. रक्षाबंधनच्या दिवशी त्यांना राखी पाठवू शकतो. मकर संक्रांतीला सीमेवरच्या जवानांसाठी तीळगुळ पाठवून स्नेह प्रदर्शित करू शकतो. त्यांच्या शहरातील वा गावातील कुटुंबाकडे स्थळभेट देऊन त्यांच्या कुटुंबाची ख्याली खुशाली विचारु शकतो, त्यांच्याशी प्रेमाचे अतुट नाते जोडू शकतो.

Marathi Akshar Bharati Class 10 Textbook Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण Additional Important Questions and Answers

प्रश्न १. खालील कवितेच्या आधारे दिलेल्या सूचनेनुसार कृती करा.
कृती १ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण 1

प्रश्न 2.
खालील प्रश्नांची उत्तर एका वाक्यात लिहा.

(i) कवयित्रीकडे कोणते सामर्थ्य नाही?
उत्तर:
कवयित्रीकडे कष्टाचे सामर्थ्य नाही.

(ii) कशापुढे जीवही लहान आहे?
उत्तर:
जवानाच्या शौर्यगाथेपुढे जीवही लहान आहे.

(iii) पुढे कशाचे कल्लोळ आहेत?
उत्तरः
पुढे धुराचे कल्लोळ आहेत.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

(iv) धडाडत्या तोफांतून काय पुढे पडत आहे?
उत्तरः
धडाडत्या तोफांतून जिद्दीचे पाऊल पुढे पडत आहे.

(v) जवानांचे रक्षण कसे होणार आहे?
उत्तर:
जवानांचे रक्षण असंख्य ज्योतींनी होणार आहे.

प्रश्न 3.
‘दीनदुबळयांचे’ उत्तर येईल असा प्रश्न तयार करा.
उत्तरः
जवानाला कोणाचे औक्षण’ आहे, असे कवयित्री सांगते?

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
समान अर्थाच्या काव्यपंक्ती शोधून लिहा.

(i) हातात द्रव्यसंपत्ती, रक्त वा बल नाही.
(ii) कष्टाचे सामर्थ्यही अंगी नाही, म्हणून काय करावे सुचत नाही.
उत्तर:
(i) नाही मुठीमध्ये द्रव्य, नाही शिरेमध्ये रक्त.
(ii) काय करावे कळेना, नाही कष्टाचे सामर्थ्य.

प्रश्न 2.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरुन रिकाम्या जागा भरा.
(i) नाही कष्टाचे ………………………. (मोल, सामर्थ्य, द्रव्य)
(ii) तुझ्या शौर्यगाथेपुढे, त्याची केवढीशी ………………………. (मान, किंमत, शान)
(iii) ………………………. किती हा लहान. (जीव, मुठ, शान)
(iv) नाही ………………………. द्रव्य. (हातात, मुठीमध्ये, पेटीत)
उत्तर:
(i) सामर्थ्य
(ii) शान
(iii) जीव
(iv) मुठीमध्ये

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

प्रश्न 3.
जोड्या जुळवा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण 2
उत्तर:
(i – ड),
(ii – क),
(iii – अ),
(iv – ब)

प्रश्न 4.
सहसंबंध लिहा.
(6) घोंघावे : बंबारा : : धडाडत्या : ……………………….
(ii) मुठीमधे : द्रव्य : : शिरेमध्ये : ……………………….
(iii) ज्योत : आसवांची : : दौड : ……………………….
उत्तर:
(i) तोफा
(ii) रक्त
(iii) विजयाची

प्रश्न 5.
विशेषण विशेष्य जोड्या जुळवा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण 3
उत्तर:
(i- ब),
(ii – अ),
(iii – ड),
(iv – क)

कृती ३: कवितेतील शब्दांचा अर्थ

प्रश्न 1.
खालील कवितेतील शब्दांचा अर्थ लिहा.
(i) द्रव्य
(ii) शिर
(iii) कष्ट
(iv) सामर्थ्य
उत्तर:
(i) पैसा, धन
(ii) नस
(iii) मेहनत
(iv) बळ, ताकद

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

कृती ४ : काव्यसौंदर्य

खालील काव्यपंक्तीतील आशयसौंदर्य स्पष्ट करा.

प्रश्न 1.
जीव ओवाळावा तरी
जीव किती हा लहान;
तुझ्या शौर्यगाथेपुढे
त्याची केवढीशी शान;
उत्तरः
कवयित्रीला जवानाबद्दल नितांत आदर, प्रेम, जिव्हाळा आहे. त्याचे औक्षण करत असताना कवयित्री म्हणतात, या जवानांचे कार्य इतके मोठे आहे की, माझा जीव जरी ओवाळून टाकला तरी तो जवानांच्या शौर्यगाथेपुढे, त्यांच्या पराक्रमापुढे, त्यांच्या धैर्यापुढे, त्यांच्या कर्तव्यापुढे लहान आहे. तिचे आयुष्य त्याच्या शौर्यापुढे अगदी कवडीमोल (लहान) आहे. जवानाची शौर्यगाथा इतकी महान आहे की त्या शौर्यगाथेपुढे आपल्या सामान्य जीवाची काय शान असणार? असे कवयित्रीला वाटते.

प्रश्न 2.
वर घोंघावे बंबारा,
पुढे कल्लोळ धुराचे
धडाडत्या तोफांतून
तुझें पाऊल जिद्दीचे;
उत्तरः
सीमेवर लढायला जाण्यासाठी सुसज्ज झालेल्या जवानाला त्याच्या देशवासीयांकडून औक्षण केले जात आहे. याचे इंदिरा संत यांनी अत्यंत ह्रदयद्रावक वर्णन केले आहे.

युद्धभूमीत शस्त्रांचा, तोफांचा भडिमार आहे. अशा वेळेस जवानाच्या मागेपुढे,खाली-वर सर्वत्र बंदुकीच्या गोळ्या झाडल्या जात ओहत. तोफा डागल्या जात आहेत. त्याचे कर्कश आवाज आहेत. दारूगोळ्यांचा स्फोट व धुराचे कल्लोळ आकाशात दिसत आहेत. सर्वत्र भीतीचे, युद्धाचे, आक्रमकतेचे सावट आहे. डोक्यावर मृत्यूची तलवारच आहे. या परिस्थितीतही न डगमगता हा जवान धैर्याने पुढे जात आहे. देशासाठी लढण्याची त्याची जिद्द प्रशंसनीय आहे.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

प्रश्न 3.
तुझी विजयाची दौड
डोळेभरून पहावी;
डोळ्यांतील आसवांची
ज्योत ज्योत पाजळावी.
उत्तरः
प्रसिद्ध कवयित्री इंदिरा संत यांनी ‘औक्षण’ या कवितेत सीमेवर लढण्यासाठी सज्ज झालेल्या जवानास ‘औक्षण’ करण्याची वेगळीच पद्धत सुचवली आहे.

युद्धभूमीतील बंदूकांना, तोफांना धैर्याने सामोरा जाणारा जवान पराक्रमी व जिद्दीचे पाऊल टाकणारा आहे. प्राणपणाने लढून तो विजयी होणार यात शंका नाही. ती विजयाची दौड कवयित्रीला आपल्या डोळ्यांनी पहायची आहे. डोळ्यातील आसवांनी अनेक ज्योती लावाव्या व त्याचे औक्षण करावे असे कवयित्रिला वाटते.

प्रश्न २. दिलेल्या मुद्द्यांच्या आधारे कवितेसंबंधी पुढील कृतीसोडवा.

(१) प्रस्तुत कवितेचे कवी / कवयित्री:
इंदिरा संत

(२) प्रस्तुत कवितेचा विषयः
सीमेवर लढायला जाण्यासाठी सज्ज झालेल्या जवानाचे औक्षण करताना मनात येणाऱ्या भावनांचे वर्णन केले आहे.

(३) प्रस्तुत कवितेतील दिलेल्या दोन ओळींचा सरळ अर्थ:
नाही मुठीमध्ये द्रव्य
नाही शिरेमध्ये रक्त,
काय करावे कळेना
नाही कष्टाचे सामर्थ्य

कवयित्रिला खंत आहे की तिच्याकडे धनदौलत नाही. देशाला समर्पित करण्याचे बळ नाही. अंगात, शिरेत रक्त नाही. शारीरिक, आर्थिक सामर्थ्य नाही, पण हा जवान शारीरिक आणि मानसिक सामर्थ्यासह देशाच्या सेवेस जात आहे, याचा तिला सार्थ अभिमान आहे.

(४) प्रस्तुत कवितेतून मिळणारा संदेशः
देशाच्या सीमेचे रक्षण करणारे सैनिक नेहमीच देशासाठी भूषण असतात. जीवावर उदार होऊन ते सीमेवर न डगमगता उभे असतात. त्यांचे कुटुंब, मुले-बाळे यांना ते महिनोंमहिने भेटतही नाहीत. त्यांच्या देशरक्षणाच्या कर्तव्यामुळे देशातील नागरिक सुखाची झोप घेऊ शकतात. सण, उत्सव साजरे करू शकतात. अशा या सैनिकांच्या पाठिशी आपण भक्कपणे उभे राहिले पाहिजे. तसेच त्यांचा आदर, कौतुक करून त्यांच्या कार्याचा आपण नेहमीच अभिमान बाळगला पाहिजे, असा संदेश आपल्याला मिळतो.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

(५) प्रस्तुत कविता आवडण्याची वा न आवडण्याची कारणः
‘औक्षण’ ही ‘इंदिरा संत’ यांची कविता मला खूप आवडली आहे. त्याचे मुख्य कारण म्हणजे कवयित्रीचे चित्रदर्शी वर्णन. त्यांच्या शब्दांमधून युद्धभूमीवरचे चित्र हुबेहूब डोळ्यांसमोर उभे राहते. युद्धभूमीवर शत्रूशी लढायला जाण्यासाठी सज्ज झालेल्या आपल्या जवानाचे औक्षण करताना कवयित्रीच्या मनात आलेल्या भावना या केवळ तिच्या भावना नाहीत तर त्या प्रत्येक भारतीयाच्या भावना आहेत. ‘डोळ्यातील आसवे’, ‘असंख्य ज्योती’ अशा प्रतिमा वापरून अपेक्षीत परिणाम त्यांनी साधला आहे.

(६) प्रस्तुत कवितेतील शब्दांचे अर्थ:
(i) जीव – प्राण
(ii) विजय – जीत, यश
(iii) दौड – धाव
(iv) डोळे – नयन

स्वाध्याय कृती

काव्यसौंदर्य

(i) सैनिक सीमेवर तैनात असतो, म्हणून आपण सुरक्षित राहतो, या विधानातील भाव स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
देशाच्या सीमेचे रक्षण करणारा सैनिक नेहमीच देशासाठी भूषणास्पद असतो. त्याच्या देशरक्षणाच्या कर्तव्यामुळे देशातील नागरिक सुखाची झोप घेऊ शकतात. अन्यथा परकीय आक्रमण, लढाई या संकटांमुळे आपली सुरक्षितता धोक्यात आली असती. ऊन, पाऊस, थंडी याला सामोरे जाऊन ‘देशरक्षण’ हेच त्यांचे ध्येय असते. जीवावर उदार होऊन ते सीमेवर न डगमगता उभे असतात. त्यांचे कुटुंब, मुले-बाळे यांना ते महिनोंमहिने भेटत नाहीत. देशरक्षणाच्या कर्तव्यासाठी आप्त स्वकीयांनाही त्यांना भेटता येत नाही. खाजगी आयुष्याचा, सुखांचा संपूर्ण त्याग करुन केवळ सीमेवर हे जवान देशरक्षणासाठी सज्ज असतात.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 9 औक्षण

(ii) कवितेच्या संदर्भात ‘दीनदुबळे’ याचा कवयित्रीला अभिप्रेत असलेला अर्थ स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
‘औक्षण’ या कवितेत दीनदुबळे याचा मार्मिक अर्थ कवयित्री इंदिरा संत यांनी सांगितला आहे. आम्हा भारतीयांचे आपल्या भारत देशावर अत्यंत प्रेम आहे. आमच्यापैकी काहीजण असेही आहेत की, ज्यांच्याकडे पैसा – अडका, संपत्ती कदाचित नसेलही, तसेच त्यांच्या शिरेमध्ये सळसळणारे रक्तही नसेल, पण तरीही सीमेवर लढाईसाठी जाणाऱ्या जवानांबद्दल त्यांच्या प्रत्येकाच्या मनात अभिमान आहे. लढाईसाठी जाणाऱ्या सैनिकांचे आपल्या डोळ्यांतील ज्योतींनी ते औक्षण करत आहेत. आम्ही सारे दीनदुबळे भारतीय लोक तुझे असे औक्षण करत आहोत. येथे दीनदुबळे म्हणजे कमजोर किंवा पैसे नसलेले गरीब असा अर्थ नसून ‘दीनदुबळे’ म्हणजे ज्यांच्यामध्ये सैनिकांसारखे सामर्थ्य नाही. रक्तामध्ये उमेद नाही पण ‘सैनिकांच्या कार्याचा अभिमान आहे, अशी जनता’ असा अर्थ कवयित्रीला अभिप्रेत आहे.

(iii) देशसेवा हीच ईश्वरसेवा असे समजून कार्य करणाऱ्या सैनिकासाठी तुम्ही काय करू शकता ते लिहा.
उत्तरः
देश हाच देव समजून सैनिक देशाची सेवा करीत असतात. त्यांचे हे काम अतुलनीय आहे. अनेक महिने ते आपले घरदार, कुटुंब सोडून सीमेवर लढत असतात. ऊन, थंडी, पावसाची तमा न बाळगता देशासाठी प्राण अर्पण करायला तयार होतात. अशा वेळेस आम्ही त्यांच्या या गुणांचे कौतुक भेटकार्ड देऊन करु शकतो. १५ ऑगस्ट या स्वातंत्र्यदिनी त्यांना शुभेच्छा कार्ड पाठवू शकतो. रक्षाबंधनच्या दिवशी त्यांना राखी पाठवू शकतो. मकर संक्रांतीला सीमेवरच्या जवानांसाठी तीळगुळ पाठवून स्नेह प्रदर्शित करू शकतो. त्यांच्या शहरातील वा गावातील कुटुंबाकडे स्थळभेट देऊन त्यांच्या कुटुंबाची ख्याली खुशाली विचारु शकतो, त्यांच्याशी प्रेमाचे अतुट नाते जोडू शकतो.

औक्षण Summary in Marathi

औक्षण काव्यपरिचय‌‌
‘औक्षण’‌ ‌या‌ ‌कवितेत‌ ‌कवयित्री‌ ‌’इंदिरा‌ ‌संत’‌ ‌यांनी‌ ‌सीमेवर‌ ‌लढायला‌ ‌जाण्यासाठी‌ ‌सुसज्ज‌ ‌झालेल्या‌ ‌जवानाला‌ ‌औक्षण‌ ‌करताना‌ ‌मनात‌ ‌येणाऱ्या‌ ‌विविध‌ ‌भावनांचे‌ ‌वर्णन‌ ‌केले‌ ‌आहे.‌‌

औक्षण Summary in English

In‌ ‌this‌ ‌poem,‌ ‌the‌ ‌poetess‌ ‌wishes‌ ‌to‌ ‌bless‌ ‌a‌ ‌soldier‌ ‌who‌ ‌is‌ ‌ready‌ ‌for‌ ‌battle.‌ ‌In‌ ‌the‌ ‌act‌ ‌of‌ ‌blessing,‌ ‌she‌ ‌goes‌ ‌through‌ ‌a‌ ‌lot‌ ‌of‌ ‌emotions‌ ‌that‌ ‌are‌ ‌beautifully‌ ‌captured‌ ‌in‌ ‌this‌ ‌poem‌ ‌by‌ ‌Indira‌ ‌Sant.‌‌

औक्षण भावार्थ‌‌

नाही‌ ‌मुठीमध्ये‌ ‌द्रव्य‌‌
नाही‌ ‌शिरेमध्ये‌ ‌रक्त,‌
‌काय‌ ‌करावे‌ ‌कळेना‌‌
नाही‌ ‌कष्टाचे‌ ‌सामर्थ्य

‌देशाच्या‌ ‌रक्षणासाठी‌ ‌सीमेवर‌ ‌अहोरात्र‌ ‌आपले‌ ‌जवान‌ ‌शत्रूशी‌ ‌दोन‌ ‌हात‌ ‌करत‌ ‌असतात.‌ ‌आपल्या‌ ‌भारतमातेचे‌ ‌रक्षण‌ ‌करतात.‌ ‌त्यामुळेच‌ ‌आपण‌ ‌सर्व‌ ‌आनंदाने,‌ ‌सुखाने‌ ‌जगत‌ ‌असतो.‌ ‌सण,‌ ‌उत्सव‌ ‌साजरे‌ ‌करत‌ ‌असतो,‌ ‌आपणांस‌ ‌त्यांचा‌ ‌नेहमीच‌ ‌अभिमान‌ ‌वाटत‌ ‌असतो.‌ ‌त्याचप्रमाणे‌ ‌कवयित्री‌ ‌इंदिरा‌ ‌संत‌ ‌या‌ ‌सुद्धा‌ ‌जवानांवर‌ ‌खूप‌ ‌प्रेम‌ ‌करतात.‌ ‌जवानांप्रती‌ ‌त्यांच्या‌ ‌मनात‌ ‌जिव्हाळा,‌ ‌प्रेम,‌ ‌आदर‌ ‌आहे.‌ ‌घरातून‌ ‌सीमेवर‌ ‌लढण्यासाठी‌ ‌जायला‌ ‌निघालेल्या‌ ‌जवानाला‌ ‌त्या‌ ‌ओवाळत‌ ‌आहेत.‌ ‌त्याला‌ ‌ओवाळणी‌ ‌करत‌ ‌असताना‌ ‌कवयित्रिच्या‌ ‌मनात‌ ‌विविध‌ ‌भावना‌ ‌निर्माण‌ ‌होतात.‌ ‌त्या‌ ‌म्हणतात,‌ ‌मी‌ ‌ओवाळणी‌ ‌करत‌ ‌आहे;‌ ‌पण‌ ‌माझ्याकडे‌ ‌संपत्ती,‌ ‌पैसे‌ ‌नाहीत,‌ ‌मी‌ ‌श्रीमंत‌ ‌नाही.माझ्या‌ ‌शरीरात‌ ‌लढण्यासाठी‌ ‌शिरेमध्ये‌ ‌सळसळणारे‌ ‌रक्तही‌ ‌नाही.‌ ‌त्यामुळे‌ ‌ओवाळणी‌ ‌कशाप्रकारे‌ ‌करावी‌ ‌हे‌ ‌कवयित्रीला‌ ‌कळेनासे‌ ‌झाले‌ ‌आहे.‌

‌जीव‌ ‌ओवाळावा‌ ‌तरी‌‌
जीव‌ ‌किती‌ ‌हा‌ ‌लहान‌ ‌
तुझ्या‌ ‌शौर्यगाथेपुढे‌
त्याची‌ ‌केवढीशी‌ ‌शान;‌‌

कवयित्रीला‌ ‌जवानाबद्दल‌ ‌नितांत‌ ‌आदर,‌ ‌प्रेम,‌ ‌जिव्हाळा‌ ‌आहे.‌ ‌त्याचे‌ ‌औक्षण‌ ‌करत‌ ‌असताना‌ ‌कवयित्री‌ ‌म्हणतात,‌ ‌या‌ ‌जवानांचे‌ ‌कार्य‌ ‌इतके‌ ‌मोठे‌ ‌आहे‌ ‌की,‌ ‌माझा‌ ‌जीव‌ ‌जरी‌ ‌ओवाळून‌ ‌टाकला‌ ‌तरी‌ ‌तो‌ ‌जवानांच्या‌ ‌शौर्यगाथेपुढे,‌ ‌त्यांच्या‌ ‌पराक्रमापुढे‌ ‌त्यांच्या‌ ‌धैर्यापुढे,‌ ‌त्यांच्या‌ ‌कर्तृत्वापुढे‌ ‌लहान‌ ‌आहे.‌ ‌तिचे‌ ‌आयुष्य‌ ‌त्याच्या‌ ‌शौर्यापुढे‌ ‌अगदी‌ ‌कवडीमोल‌ ‌(लहान)‌ ‌आहे.‌ ‌त्या‌ ‌जवानाची‌ ‌शौर्यगाथा‌ ‌इतकी‌ ‌महान‌ ‌आहे‌ ‌की‌ ‌त्या‌ ‌शौर्यगाथेपुढे‌ ‌आपल्या‌ ‌सामान्य‌ ‌जीवाची‌ ‌काय‌ ‌शान‌ ‌असणार?‌ ‌असे‌ ‌कवयित्रीला‌ ‌वाटते.‌‌

वर‌ ‌घोंघावे‌ ‌बंबारा,‌‌
पुढे‌ ‌कल्लोळ‌ ‌धुराचे,‌ ‌
धडाडत्या‌ ‌तोफांतून‌‌
तुझें‌ ‌पाऊल‌ ‌जिद्दीचें;‌ ‌

सैनिक‌ ‌सीमेवर‌ ‌शत्रूशी‌ ‌लढत‌ ‌असतात,‌ ‌त्यावेळची‌ ‌परिस्थिती‌ ‌अतिशय‌ ‌हृदयद्रावक,‌ ‌हृदयाला‌ ‌हेलावून‌ ‌टाकणारी‌ ‌असते.‌ ‌युद्धभूमीवर‌ ‌शत्रू‌ ‌आक्रमण‌ ‌करत‌ ‌असतो.‌ ‌त्याचा‌ ‌परतवार‌ ‌करत‌ ‌असताना‌ ‌अनेक‌ ‌सैनिक‌ ‌घायाळ‌ ‌होतात.‌ ‌तोफांचा‌ ‌आवाज‌ ‌होत‌ ‌असतो,‌ ‌बंदुकीतून‌ ‌सुटणाऱ्या‌ ‌असंख्य‌ ‌गोळया‌ ‌अनेकांची‌ ‌छाताडे‌ ‌उडवत‌ ‌असतात.‌ ‌धुराचा‌ ‌लोळ‌ ‌उठत‌ ‌असतो.‌ ‌कवयित्री‌ ‌म्हणतात;‌ ‌हे‌ ‌सारे‌ ‌चालू‌ ‌असताना‌ ‌आपला‌ ‌हा‌ ‌जवान‌ ‌मागे‌ ‌हटत‌ ‌नाही‌ ‌तर‌ ‌दोन‌ ‌पावले‌ ‌नेहमी‌ ‌पुढेच‌ ‌टाकत‌ ‌असतो.‌ ‌न‌ ‌घाबरता,‌ ‌डगमगता,‌ ‌शत्रूशी‌ ‌दोन‌ ‌हात‌ ‌करून‌ ‌जिद्दीने‌ ‌लढत‌ ‌असतो.‌‌

तुझी‌ ‌विजयाची‌ ‌दौड‌
डोळे‌ ‌भरून‌ ‌पहावी;‌
‌डोळ्यांतील‌ ‌आसवांची‌‌
ज्योत‌ ‌ज्योत‌ ‌पाजळावी‌ ‌

सीमेवर‌ ‌चालू‌ ‌असलेल्या‌ ‌रणसंग्रामामध्ये‌ ‌आपल्या‌ ‌जवानाचा‌ ‌विजय‌ ‌निश्चित‌ ‌आहे.‌ ‌कवयित्री‌ ‌म्हणतात,‌ ‌या‌ ‌जवानांचा‌ ‌पराक्रम‌ ‌मला‌ ‌डोळे‌ ‌भरून‌ ‌पाहायचा‌ ‌आहे.‌ ‌तसेच‌ ‌आपल्या‌ ‌जवानाकडून‌ ‌भारतीयांची‌ ‌असलेली‌ ‌अपेक्षा‌ ‌व्यक्त‌ ‌करताना‌ ‌त्या‌ ‌म्हणतात,‌ ‌शत्रूला‌ ‌पराजित‌ ‌करून‌ ‌प्रत्येक‌ ‌युद्धात‌ ‌तुझाच‌ ‌विजय‌ ‌झाला‌ ‌पाहिजे.‌ ‌तुझ्या‌ ‌विजयाची‌ ‌दौड‌ ‌अशीच‌ ‌राहिली‌ ‌पाहिजे.‌ ‌तुझ्या‌ ‌विजयाने‌ ‌माझ्या‌ ‌डोळयांमध्ये‌ ‌आनंदाश्रू‌ ‌दाटून‌ ‌येतील.‌ ‌ज्याप्रमाणे‌ ‌दिव्याची‌ ‌ज्योत‌ ‌नेहमी‌ ‌तेवत‌ ‌असते‌ ‌तशीच‌ ‌माझ्या‌ ‌डोळ्यांतील‌ ‌अणूंची‌ ‌ज्योत‌ ‌नेहमीच‌ ‌पाजळत‌ ‌राहिली‌ ‌पाहिजे.‌ ‌

अशा‌ ‌असंख्य‌ ‌ज्योतींची‌‌
तुझ्यामागून‌ ‌राखण;‌
‌दीनदुबळ्यांचे‌ ‌असें‌‌
तुला‌ ‌एकच‌ ‌औक्षण.

कवयित्री‌ ‌सीमेवर‌ ‌लढण्यासाठी‌ ‌जाणाऱ्या‌ ‌जवानाला‌ ‌म्हणतात‌ ‌की,‌ ‌सर्व‌ ‌जनमानसांच्या‌ ‌असंख्य‌ ‌ज्योती‌ ‌तुझ्या‌ ‌रक्षणासाठी‌ ‌सदैव‌ ‌तुझ्याच‌ ‌पाठीशी‌ ‌आहेत.‌ ‌म्हणजेच‌ ‌असंख्य‌ ‌लोकांचा‌ ‌आशीर्वाद‌ ‌तुझ्या‌ ‌पाठीशी‌ ‌आहे.‌ ‌आम्ही‌ ‌सर्वजण‌ ‌दीनदुबळे‌ ‌आहोत.‌ ‌आमच्यामध्ये‌ ‌तुझ्यासारखे‌ ‌सामर्थ्य‌ ‌नाही.‌ ‌रक्तामध्ये‌ ‌ती‌ ‌उमेद‌ ‌नाही.‌ ‌तुझ्याकडे‌ ‌हे‌ ‌सर्व‌ ‌आहे.‌ ‌तुझ्यामध्ये‌ ‌आणखी‌ ‌उर्जा‌ ‌निर्माण‌ ‌होण्यासाठी‌ ‌आशीर्वाद‌ ‌स्वरूपात‌ ‌तुझे‌ ‌औक्षण‌ ‌आम्ही‌ ‌सर्व‌ ‌भारतीय‌ ‌करत‌ ‌आहोत.‌‌

औक्षण शब्दार्द्ध

  • मुठ‌ ‌–‌ ‌हाताची‌ ‌बोटे‌ ‌मिटून‌‌ होणारी‌ ‌हाताच्या‌ ‌पंजाची‌ ‌रचना‌‌ – (fist)
  • द्रव्य –‌ ‌पैसा,‌ ‌धन‌ ‌–‌ ‌(money,‌ ‌wealth)‌
  • शिर‌ ‌–‌ ‌नस‌ ‌‌–‌ ‌(vein)‌
  • रक्त‌ ‌– रुधिर‌ ‌‌–‌ ‌(blood)‌ ‌
  • कष्ट‌ ‌–‌ ‌परिश्रम‌ ‌–‌ ‌(hard‌ ‌work)‌ ‌
  • सामर्थ्य‌ ‌–‌ ‌क्षमता,‌ ‌कुवत‌ ‌–‌ ‌(capacity)‌ ‌
  • जीव‌ ‌–‌ ‌प्राण‌ ‌–‌ ‌(life,‌ ‌virility)‌ ‌
  • ओवाळणे‌ ‌–‌ ‌औक्षण,‌‌ आरती‌ ‌करणे‌‌ –‌ ‌(to‌ ‌move‌ ‌a‌ ‌lamp‌ ‌in‌ ‌a‌‌ circular‌ ‌motion‌ ‌before god‌ ‌or‌ ‌man)‌
  • शौर्यगाथा‌ ‌–‌ ‌पराक्रम‌‌ –‌ ‌(valour,‌ ‌heroism)‌ ‌
  • शान‌ ‌–‌ ‌थाट‌‌ –‌ ‌(great‌ ‌pomp)‌ ‌
  • बंबारा‌ ‌–‌ ‌गोळीबार‌ ‌–‌ ‌(firing)‌ ‌
  • धुराचा‌ ‌–‌ ‌धुराचा‌ ‌लोळ‌ ‌कल्लोळ‌ ‌–‌ ‌(rolling‌ ‌smoke‌ ‌of‌ ‌fire)‌ ‌
  • घोंघावणे‌ ‌–‌ ‌मोठा‌ ‌आवाज‌‌ –‌ ‌(to‌ ‌roar,‌ ‌to‌ ‌growl)‌ ‌
  • धडाडते‌ ‌–‌ ‌गडगडाट‌ ‌–‌ ‌(thunderous‌ ‌sound)‌ ‌
  • तोफ‌ ‌–‌ ‌तोफ,‌ ‌बंदुक‌‌ –‌ ‌(cannon)‌ ‌
  • जिद्द‌ ‌–‌ ‌निश्चय‌‌ –‌ ‌(determination)‌ ‌
  • विजय‌ ‌–‌ ‌जय‌‌ –‌ ‌(victory,‌ ‌triumph)‌ ‌
  • दौड‌ ‌–‌ ‌धाव‌‌ –‌ ‌(to‌ ‌run)‌ ‌
  • आसवे‌ ‌–‌ ‌अश्रू‌‌ –‌ ‌(tears)‌ ‌
  • ज्योत‌ ‌–‌ ‌दिव्याची‌ ‌ज्वाला‌ ‌–‌ ‌(flame,‌ ‌light)‌ ‌
  • पाजळणे‌ ‌–‌ ‌प्रकटवणे‌‌ –‌ ‌(to‌ ‌kindle)‌ ‌
  • असंख्य‌ ‌–‌ ‌अगणित‌‌ –‌ ‌(innumerable)‌ ‌
  • राखण‌ ‌–‌ ‌रक्षण‌‌ –‌ ‌(toguard)‌ ‌
  • दीनदुबळे‌ ‌–‌ ‌कमकुवत‌ ‌–‌ ‌(weak)

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Solutions Aksharbharati Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश (स्थूलवाचन) Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश (स्थूलवाचन)

Marathi Aksharbharati Std 10 Digest Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश Textbook Questions and Answers

प्रश्न 1.
टीप लिहा.
व्युत्पत्ती कोशाचे कार्य
उत्तर:
वाचन करताना अनेक वेगवेगळे शब्द डोळ्यांखालून जातात, काही शब्द लक्ष वेधून घेतात. हे शब्द कसे तयार होत असावेत याची उत्सुकता निर्माण होते. मग अशावेळेस त्या शब्दाची निर्मिती कशी झाली हे पडताळण्यासाठी व्युत्पत्ती कोश उपयोगी पडतो. व्युत्पत्ती कोश शब्दाचे मूळ रूप दाखवतो. इतकेच नव्हे तर त्यातील विस्तार संदर्भ, उच्चारातील बदल व फरक दाखवतो. शब्दांची उत्पत्ती पाहणे, उच्चार जाणून घेणे ही भाषासमृद्धीच्या दृष्टीने आनंददायी क्रिया आहे. एकाच शब्दाचे वेगवेगळ्या परिस्थितीमध्ये वेगवेगळे अर्थ असतात, हे जाणून घेणे अत्यंत महत्त्वाचे आहे. उदा. धूळ चारणे; खरे पाहता धूळ चारणे व फसवणे हे दोन अर्थ आहेत. वेगवेगळ्या संदर्भानुसार ते ते अर्थ जुळवले जातात. व्युत्पत्ती कोशातून उच्चारातील बदलांचे कारण स्पष्ट होते. अर्थातील स्पष्ट केलेला बदल अभ्यासता येतो, व्युत्पत्ती कोशातून एखादया शब्दाची अन्य कोणी मांडलेली व्युत्पत्ती सांगून ती योग्य की अयोग्य हे ही कळते. भाषेचे कालिक स्वरूप स्पष्ट करणे हे व्युत्पत्ती कोशाचे प्रमुख कार्य आहे.

प्रश्न 2.
खालील मुद्यांच्या आधारे एक परिच्छेद तयार करा. (७ ते ८ वाक्यांत)
उत्तर:
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश 1

१९३८ साली मुंबई येथे अखिल भारतीय मराठी साहित्य संमेलन भरले होते. स्वातंत्र्यवीर सावरकर या संमेलनाचे अध्यक्ष होते. ‘व्युत्पत्ती कोश रचनेचे कार्य हाती घ्यावे’ असा ठराव संमेलनात मंजूर करण्यात आला. सर्वांच्या मतानुसार हे निर्मिती कार्य कृ.पां.कुलकर्णी यांच्यावर सोपविण्यात आले. बॅ. मुकुंदराव जयकर यांच्या आर्थिक सहकार्यामुळे व श्री. दाजीसाहेब तुळजापूरकर यांनी पुरस्कृत केल्यामुळे व्युत्पत्ती कोश निर्मितीस भरीव मदत झाली. तसेच सर्वांच्या सहकार्यामुळे १९४६ साली ‘मराठी व्युत्पत्ती कोशाचे’ पहिले प्रकाशन झाले.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश

प्रश्न 3.
पाठाबाहेरची उदाहरणे शोधून खालील कृती करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश 2
उत्तर:
(i) शब्द अनेक, अर्थ एक
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश 2

(ii) शब्द एक, अर्थ अनेक
एकच शब्द वेगवेगळ्या संदर्भात वेगवेगळे अर्थ धारण करतो.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश 3

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश

प्रश्न 4.
टिपा लिहा.

(i) शब्द तयार होण्याचे विविध प्रकार.
(अ) भाषेत बदल होण्यामागे बऱ्याचदा सुलभीकरणाची अर्थात सोपे करण्याची प्रवृत्ती असते.

उदा.
जसे अग्निपासून अग्नि व नंतर आग हा सोपा शब्द तयार झाला.

(आ) कुठल्याही दोन भाषा बोलणारे भाषिक जेव्हा एकमेकांच्या संपर्कात येतात, तेव्हा त्यांच्या भाषांतील शब्दांची देवाणघेवाण होते. त्यावरून शब्द तयार होतात.

उदा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश 4

(इ) आपलाच शब्द थोडेसे रूप बदलून इतर भाषांमध्येही वापरला जातो.

उदा.
दिवाळी हा शब्द मूळ संस्कृत शब्द दीपावलि पासून आला आहे.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश 5

प्रश्न 5.
‘काळाप्रमाणश ‘काळाप्रमाणे शब्दाच्या स्वरूपात, त्यांच्या अर्थात, त्यांच्या परस्पर संबंधात बदल होतात’ हे सोदाहरण स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
काळाप्रमाणे, पिढ्यांप्रमाणे बोलण्याची भाषा, त्यांचे अर्थ बदलत जातात. आपले आजी-आजोबा बोलत असलेली भाषा, आई बाबा बोलत असलेली भाषा आपली व आपल्या भावंडांची भाषा यात तफावत असते. मित्रांच्या समुहातील भाषा, ही अगदी भिन्न असते.

उदा.
आजी म्हणते, “आज माझे मामजी येणार आहेत”.
आई म्हणते, “आज माझे सासरे येतील”.
मुलगी म्हणते, “आज माझे इन लॉज येणार’.
मित्रांमध्ये – ‘आज सगळ्या सिनीअर सिटीझन्स चे गेट टुगेदर
आहे’. एकच बातमी विविध शब्दयोजनेनी विविध लोकांकडून
सांगितली जाते. नवऱ्याच्या वडिलांसाठी मामंजी. सासरे, इन
लॉज, दादा, बाबा, डॅडी असे अनेक शब्द वापरात येतात.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश

प्रश्न 6.
पाठाबाहेरची उदाहरणे शोधून खालील कृती करा.
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश 6

प्रश्न 7.
व्युत्पत्ती कोशातून खालील शब्दांची व्युत्पत्ती शोधून लिहा.
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश 7

व्युत्पत्ती कोश Summary in Marathi

व्युत्पत्ती कोश पाठपरिचय

इयत्ता नववीमध्ये आपण विश्वकोशाची ओळख करून घेतली. कोणत्याही शब्दाचे वेगवेगळे संदर्भ विश्वकोशातून मिळू शकतात हे आपण अनुभवले. हे शब्द तयार कसे होतात किंवा हे शब्द तयार कसे झाले असावेत, हे अनुभवण्यासाठी व्युत्पत्ती कोश पाहणे गरजेचे आहे. व्युत्पत्तीकोश पाहण्याची गरज कळावी व व्युत्पत्ती कोश अभ्यासण्याची सवय लागावी हा हेतू ‘व्युत्पत्ती कोश’ या पाठातून दिसून येतो.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16.1 व्युत्पत्ती कोश

व्युत्पत्ती कोश Summary in English

We have studied about the world dictionary in Std. IX. We have seen how we can get different references for any word from the world dictionary. How have these words come into being? To figure this out, it is necessary to refer to the etymological dictionary. To recognize the need for, and to get habituated to the etymological dictionary is the aim of this lesson.

व्युत्पत्ती कोश शब्दार्थ

  • व्युत्पत्ती कोश – शब्दांची घटना व – (etymology, उगम, शब्दांचे – derivative)
    मूळ त्यांच्या
    उगमाची माहिती
    असणारा कोश
  • कोपरा – कोनाडा – (corner)
  • सतार – एक तंतूवाय – (a string instrument)
  • भिन्न – वेगळा – (different)
  • नोंद – टिपण – (note)
  • अपरिहार्य – टाळता न येणारे – (unavoidable)
  • वाच्यार्थ – शब्दश: अर्थ – (the literal meaning)
  • लक्ष्यार्थ – गर्भितार्थ, वाच्यार्थाहून भिन्न असा लाक्षणिक अर्थ – (implication, connotation)
  • कुतूहल – जिज्ञासा – (curiosity)
  • लघुरूपे – घनरूप – (abbreviation)
  • बागडणे – आनंदाने खेळणे – (play happily)
  • आर्थिक सहकार्य – (financial support)
  • प्रकाशन – प्रकाशित करण्याची क्रिया – (publication)
  • विणकर – कपडे विणणारा – (weaver)
  • माग – कापड विणण्याचे लाकडी यंत्र – (handloom)
  • द्विदल धान्य – (dicotelydonous crop)

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Solutions Aksharbharati Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

Marathi Aksharbharati Std 10 Digest Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार Textbook Questions and Answers

प्रश्न 1.
खालील शब्दसमूहांतील संकल्पना स्पष्ट करा.
(i) श्रमशक्तीचे मंत्र
(ii) हस्त शुभंकर
(iii) आभाळावर उत्क्रांतीचा घुमवू या ललकार
उत्तरः
(i) श्रमशक्तीचे मंत्र – श्रमाचे महत्त्व
(ii) हस्त शुभंकर – राबणारे हात, पवित्र हात, कल्याणकारी हात
(iii) आभाळावर उत्क्रांतीचा घुमवू या ललकार – उत्क्रांतीचा, प्रगतीचा जयघोष

प्रश्न 2.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार 1
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार 5

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

प्रश्न 3.
काव्यसौंदर्य,

(अ) खालील काव्यपंक्तींचे रसग्रहण करा.
या देशाच्या मातीवरती अमुचा रे अधिकार
नव्या पिढीचे, नव्या युगाचे स्वप्न करू साकार।।
उत्तरः
कवी म्हणतात की, या देशाची माती, येथील संस्कृती, येथील परंपरा आम्हा भारतीयांची आहे. त्यावर फक्त आमचाच अधिकार आहे. मुळात भारत हा कृषिप्रधान देश आहे. काळ्या मातीची मशागत करून धनधान्याची निर्मिती करणे व धरतीला सुजलाम् सुफलाम् करणे हे त्याचे कर्तव्यच आहे. त्यासाठी तो आयुष्यभर कष्ट करत असतो.त्याच्या कष्टातूनच कृषिसंस्कृती निर्माण होते. या कृषिसंस्कृतीमुळेच नव्या पिढीचे, नव्या युगाचे स्वप्न साकार होत असते.

(आ) खालील पंक्तींमधून सूचित होणारा अर्थ लिहा.
घराघरांतून जन्म घेतसे तेज नवा अवतार।।
शेतामधुनी पिकवू मोती, धन हे अपरंपार।।
उत्तरः
येथे जन्माला येणारे प्रत्येक बाळ तेजस्वी व प्रबळ असेल. देशाचे रक्षण करण्यासाठी, नवीन कार्यासाठी घराघरातून जणू नवी पिढी जन्म घेईल आणि आपल्या शक्तीतून, आपल्या कार्यातून आपल्या विजयाचा अवतार साऱ्या जगासमोर उभा करेल. म्हणजेच सामर्थ्यशाली बालके जन्मास येऊन देशाचे भविष्य नक्कीच उज्ज्वल करतील, असा एक आशावाद कवीने येथे मांडलेला आहे.

शेतकरी जणू आपल्या कष्टाने चैतन्याचे, आनंदाचे सुदर्शनचक्र फिरवत असतो. त्याच्या मेहनतीमुळेच शेताशेतांतून धान्यरूपी मोत्याचे ‘सुदर्शन’ आपल्याला घडते. त्याच्याबरोबर मेहनत करून आपणही या शेतातून, मातीमधून मोती म्हणजेच धान्यरूपी अपार धन पिकवूया. आपल्या धरतीला सुलजाम् सुफलाम् बनवूया.

(इ) या कवितेत कवीने बघितलेले स्वप्न तुमच्या शब्दांत लिहा.
उत्तरः
प्रस्तुत कवितेत श्री. किशोर पाठक यांनी ‘एकजूटीचे सामर्थ्य’ हे मूल्य मनात रूजविण्याचा सुंदर प्रयत्न केला आहे. कोणतेही काम एकट्याने करून पूर्ण होत नाही. घरी तयार होणाऱ्या अन्नपदार्थांसाठी अगदी शेतकरी दादा पासून, दुकानदार, कामगार, वाहतूक या सर्व घटकांची मदत आवश्यक असते. तसेच देशाच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्यासाठी एकजूटीने काम करणे तितकेच महत्त्वाचे आहे.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

‘हजार आम्ही एकी बळकट, सर्वांचे हो एकच मनगट’ या पंक्तीवरून सिद्ध होते की, देशाची जनता एकत्र आली तर मनगटात बळकटी येईल व प्रगती शक्य होईल. सर्वांची शक्ति पणाला लावून शेती व उदयोग यामध्ये उत्क्रांती होईल. या मातीवर जसा सर्वांचा अधिकार आहे, तसाच सर्वांनी मिळून मिसळूनच नव्या युगाचे स्वप्न साकारायचे आहे. भारताची संस्कृती व परंपरा थोर आहे, पण ती जपून वाढवायची आहे. हे एकजूटीने साध्य होणार आहे. साऱ्या विश्वात एकजुटीने भारताचा जयजयकार करायचा आहे.

(ई) कवितेत व्यक्त झालेला एकात्मतेचा विचार स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
प्रस्तुत कवितेत श्री. किशोर पाठक यांनी ‘एकजूटीचे सामर्थ्य’ हे मूल्य मनात रूजविण्याचा सुंदर प्रयत्न केला आहे. कोणतेही काम एकट्याने करून पूर्ण होत नाही. घरी तयार होणाऱ्या अन्नपदार्थांसाठी अगदी शेतकरी दादा पासून, दुकानदार, कामगार, वाहतूक या सर्व घटकांची मदत आवश्यक असते. तसेच देशाच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्यासाठी एकजूटीने काम करणे तितकेच महत्त्वाचे आहे.

‘हजार आम्ही एकी बळकट, सर्वांचे हो एकच मनगट’ या पंक्तीवरून सिद्ध होते की, देशाची जनता एकत्र आली तर मनगटात बळकटी येईल व प्रगती शक्य होईल. सर्वांची शक्ति पणाला लावून शेती व उदयोग यामध्ये उत्क्रांती होईल. या मातीवर जसा सर्वांचा अधिकार आहे, तसाच सर्वांनी मिळून मिसळूनच नव्या युगाचे स्वप्न साकारायचे आहे. भारताची संस्कृती व परंपरा थोर आहे, पण ती जपून वाढवायची आहे. हे एकजूटीने साध्य होणार आहे. साऱ्या विश्वात एकजुटीने भारताचा जयजयकार करायचा आहे.

Marathi Akshar Bharati Class 10 Textbook Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार Additional Important Questions and Answers

प्रश्न १. खालील कवितेच्या आधारे दिलेल्या सूचनेनुसार कृती करा,
कृती १: आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार 2

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

प्रश्न 2.
चौकट पूर्ण करा.
(i) फुलामुलांतून हसणारा – श्रावण
(ii) मातीचे मंगल – तनमन
(iii) चैतन्याचे – सुदर्शन
(iv) अपरंपार धन – शेतातील मोती

प्रश्न 3.
सहसंबंध लिहा.
(i) हजार आम्ही : एकी बळकट :: सर्वांचे हो : ………………………..
उत्तरः
एकच मनगट

प्रश्न 4.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.
(i) नव्या पिढीचे, नव्या युगाचे ……………………….. करू साकार।। (स्वप्न, दिवास्वप्न, जग, पृथ्वी)
(ii) फुलामुलांतून हसतो ……………………….. मातीचे हो मंगल तनमन, (चैत्र, वैशाख, श्रावण, माघ)
(iii) उदयोगाचे चक्र चालते ……………………….. उत्क्रांतीचा घुमवू या ललकार।। (धरतीवर, पाण्यावर, आभाळावर, हवेवर)
(iv) शक्तीचीही झडते ……………………….. घराघरांतून जन्म घेतसे तेज नवा अवतार।। (दौलत, नौबत, धनदौलत, पत)
(iv) ……………………….. शुभंकर हवा एकदा भविष्य उज्ज्वल या देशाचे करूया जयजयकार।। (हस्त, बाहू, पद, वद)
उत्तर:
(i) स्वप्न
(ii) श्रावण
(iii) आभाळावर
(iv) नौबत
(v) हस्त

प्रश्न 5.
जोड्या जुळवा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार 3
उत्तर:
(1 – ई)
(ii- इ)
(iii – आ)
(iv – अ)

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

कृती २: आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
ओघतक्ता पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार 4

प्रश्न 2.
एका वाक्यात उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) कवी कोणावर आमुचा अधिकार आहे असे म्हणतो?
उत्तरः
कवी या देशाच्या मातीवर आमुचा अधिकार आहे असे म्हणतो.

(ii) कवी शेतामधून काय पिकवायला सांगतात?
उत्तरः
कवी शेतामधून मोती पिकवायला सांगतात.

(iii) कवी उत्क्रांतीचा ललकार कोठे घुमवायला सांगतात?
उत्तरः
कवी आभाळावर उत्क्रांतीचा ललकार घुमवायला सांगतात.

प्रश्न 3.
काव्यपंक्तीचा योग्य क्रम लावा.
(i) भविष्य उज्ज्वल या देशाचे करूया जयजयकार।।
(ii) घराघरांतून जन्म घेतसे तेज नवा अवतार।।
(iii) आभाळावर उत्क्रांतीचा घुमवू या ललकार।।
(iv) शेतामधुनी पिकवू मोती, धन हे अपरंपार।।
उत्तर:
(i) शेतामधुनी पिकवू मोती, धन हे अपरंपार ।।
(ii) आभाळावर उत्क्रांतीचा घुमवू या ललकार।।
(iii) घराघरांतून जन्म घेतसे तेज नवा अवतार।।
(iv) भविष्य उज्ज्वल या देशाचे करूया जयजयकार।।

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

प्रश्न 4.
खालील शब्दांसाठी कवितेतील समानार्थी शब्द शोधा.
(i) हक्क – अधिकार।
(ii) ऐश्वर्य – विभव।

प्रश्न 5.
‘श्रावण’ हे उत्तर येईल असा प्रश्न तयार करा.
उत्तर:
फुलांमुलांतून कोण हसतो?

कृती ३: कवितेतील शब्दांचा अर्थ

प्रश्न 1.
खालील कवितेतील शब्दांचा अर्थ लिहा.
(i) देश
(ii) अधिकार
(iii) मंगल
(iv) चैतन्य
उत्तर:
(i) राष्ट्र
(ii) हक्क
(iii) पवित्र
(iv) उत्साह

प्रश्न २. दिलेल्या मुद्द्यांच्या आधारे कवितेसंबंधी पुढील कृती सोडवा.

(१) प्रस्तुत कवितेचे कवी / कवयित्री:
किशोर पाठक

(२) प्रस्तुत कवितेचा विषयः
भारत देशाच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्याचे स्वप्न रेखाटले आहे.

(३) प्रस्तुत कवितेतील दिलेल्या दोन ओळींचा सरळ अर्थ:
या देशाच्या मातीवरती अमुचा रे अधिकार
नव्या पिढीचे, नव्या युगाचे स्वप्न करू साकार।।

(४) प्रस्तुत कवितेतून मिळणारा संदेश:
या देशाच्या मातीत आपण जन्म घेतला आहे. त्यामुळे हा देश आपला आहे. नवीन पिढीने, नवीन युगाने आपल्या देशात स्वत:च्याच प्रगतीचा विचार न करता देशाचाही विचार केला पाहिजे. देशाला प्रगतीपथावर नेण्याचे स्वप्न पाहिले पाहिजे व ते एकतेने आणि जिद्दीने पूर्ण केले पाहिजे. याचाच अर्थ असा की, आपण श्रमाने मातीतून मोती पिकवू, उद्योग जगतात क्रांती करू, एकजूटीने राहू व देशाचे भविष्य उज्ज्वल करू असाच संदेश या कवितेतून मिळतो.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

(४) प्रस्तुत कविता आवडण्याची वा न आवडण्याची कारण:
‘स्वप्न करू साकार’ ही कविता मला खूप आवडली आहे. त्याचे मुख्य कारण कवितेच्या सुरुवातीलाच कवीने नव्या पिढीच्या व नव्या युगाच्या मनात देशाप्रती आपलेपणाची भावना जागृत केलेली आहे. त्यानंतर या आपल्या देशाच्या उन्नतीसाठी कार्य करण्याची प्रेरणा दिली आहे. पण केवळ प्रेरणा देऊनच ते थांबले नाहीत तर देशाच्या उन्नतीचा मार्गही म्हणजेच कृषिविकास, उदयोग क्षेत्रातील विकास, संस्कृतीचे जतन-संवर्धन त्यांनीच समजावून सांगितला आहे. त्यासाठी एकोप्याने काम करायला हवे, हे सांगायलाही ते विसरले नाहीत. हे सर्व आपण मनापासून केले तर नव्या पिढीचे. नव्या युगाचे आपल्या उज्ज्वल भारत देशाचे स्वप्न पूर्ण होईल असा सुंदर आशावाद त्यांनी मांडला आहे.

(६) प्रस्तुत कवितेतील शब्दांचे अर्थ:
(i) धन – संपत्ती
(ii) श्रम – मेहनत, कष्ट
(iii) ललकार – जयघोष
(iv) बळकट – मजबूत

स्वाध्याय कृती

(२) या कवितेत कवीने बघितलेले स्वप्न तुमच्या शब्दांत लिहा.
उत्तरः
‘स्वप्न करू साकार’ कवितेत कवी ‘किशोर पाठक’ यांनी देशाच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्याचे स्वप्न रंगविले आहे. देशात नव्या पिढीचे आगमन होत आहे. नवे युग चालू आहे तेव्हा नवीन कल्पना, नवी उमेद आहे. कवीला देशाच्या मातीतून मोती पिकवायचे आहेत. भरघोस धान्याचे पिक घ्यायचे आहे. मातीचा कस सुधारायचा आहे. श्रावणसरींनी हसणाऱ्या, फुलणाऱ्या फुलांना व मुलांना पहायचे आहे. श्रमप्रतिष्ठेवर भर देऊन प्रयत्नांची कास धरायची आहे. औक्यौगिक प्रगती करायची आहे. एकोप्याने देशाची वैभव संपदा केवळ जपायचीच नाही तर वाढवायची आहे.

नव्या पिढीला श्रमशक्ती, यंत्र यांचा मंत्र क्यायचा आहे. देशासाठी झटणारे शुभंकर, कल्याणकारी हात तयार करायचे आहेत. देशाचे नाव उज्ज्वल करून सगळ्या जगात आपल्या देशाचा नावलौकिक वाढवायचा आहे.

स्वप्न करू साकार Summary in Marathi

स्वप्न करू साकार काव्यपरिचय
‘स्वप्न करू साकार’ ही कविता ‘किशोर पाठक’ यांनी लिहिली आहे. या कवितेत कवीने श्रमाने मातीतून मोती पिकवू, एकजूटीने राहू व देशाचे भविष्य उज्ज्वल करू असा संदेश दिला आहे. कृषी व उदयोग जगतात क्रांती करण्याची प्रेरणा या कवितेतून मिळते.

स्वप्न करू साकार Summary in English

With consolidated effort, we can have good quality grains. United endeavours can lead to the prosperous future of our country. This is the message given by the poet. The poem motivates us to strive for agricultural and industrial revolution.

या देशाच्या मातीवरती अमुचा रे अधिकार
नव्या पिढीचे, नव्या युगाचे स्वप्न करू साकार।।

कवीने आपल्या भारत देशाच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्याचे स्वप्न सुंदरपणे रेखाटले आहे. कवी म्हणतात की, या देशाची माती, येथील संस्कृती, येथील परंपरा आम्हा भारतीयांची आहे. त्यावर फक्त आमचाच अधिकार आहे. मुळात भारत हा कृषिप्रधान देश आहे. शेतकरी हा इथला भूमिपुत्र आहे. या शेतकऱ्याचा या मातीवर परंपरेपासून खरा अधिकार आहे. काळ्या मातीची मशागत करून धनधान्याची निर्मिती करणे व धरतीला सुजलाम् सुफलाम् करणे हे त्याचे कर्तव्यच आहे. त्यासाठी तो आयुष्यभर कष्ट करत असतो. त्याच्या कष्टातूनच कृषिसंस्कृती निर्माण होते. या कृषिसंस्कृतीमुळेच नव्या पिढीचे, नव्या युगाचे स्वप्न साकार होत असते. म्हणूनच कवी म्हणतात की, येथील संस्कृती, येथील परंपरा यांचे जतन करून आपण सारेजण नव्या पिढीचे, नव्या युगाचे स्वप्न साकार करूया.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार 13

फुलामुलांतून हसतो श्रावण
मातीचे हो मंगल तनमन
चैतन्याचे फिरे सुदर्शन
शेतामधुनी पिकवू मोती, धन हे अपरंपार।।

कवीने आपल्या भारत देशाच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्याचे सुंदर स्वप्न रेखाटतांना कृषिसंस्कृतीचे महत्त्व आपल्याला पटवून दिले आहे. कवी म्हणतात की, शेतकऱ्यांच्या कष्टांमुळेच फुलामुलांतून श्रावण हसत असतो. म्हणजेच श्रावण महिन्यामध्ये सारी धरती व तिची बाळे आनंदित होतात. खरे तर ऊनपावसाचा खेळ चालू असणाऱ्या श्रावण महिन्यामध्ये धरती हिरव्या रानांनी, पाना–फुलांनी सजलेली असते. शेतकऱ्यांच्या मेहनतीने, कष्टाने इथली माती म्हणजेच इथली शेते धनधान्याने डोलू लागलेली असतात. धरतीचे हे सौंदर्य पाहून सगळे जण आनंदित होतात. चैतन्यमय, प्रसन्न वातावरण सर्वत्र निर्माण झालेले असते. ज्याप्रमाणे सुदर्शनचक्र फिरले की, दु:खाचा, अडचणींचा नाश होतो आणि सर्वत्र आनंद पसरतो, त्याचप्रमाणे शेतकरी जणू आपल्या कष्टाने चैतन्याचे, आनंदाचे सुदर्शनचक्र फिरवत असतो. त्याच्या मेहनतीमुळेच शेताशेतातून धान्यरूपी मोत्याचे ‘सुदर्शन’ आपल्याला घडते. त्याच्याबरोबर मेहनत करून आपणही या शेतातून, मातीमधून मोती म्हणजेच धान्यरूपी अपार धन पिकवूया. आपल्या धरतीला सुलजाम् सुफलाम् बनवूया.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

या हातांनी यंत्र डोलते
श्रमशक्तीचे मंत्र बोलते
उदयोगाचे चक्र चालते
आभाळावर उत्क्रांतीचा घुमवू या ललकार।।

भारत देशाच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्याचे चित्र रेखाटताना कवी पुढे म्हणतात की, भारत हा कृषिप्रधान देश असला तरी इथे इतर उदयोगधंदेही चालतात. देशातील अनेक जण यंत्राच्या सहाय्याने काम करून उदयोगचक्रात मग्न आहेत. जसे शेतकरी, मजूर शेतात राबून शारीरिक कष्ट करत आहेत. तसेच अनेक कामगार यंत्रावर काम करत आहेत. त्यांच्या श्रमामुळे यंत्र डोलतात म्हणजेच यंत्र चालतात व प्रगतीची चाके फिरू लागतात. या यंत्रातून येणारा आवाज ऐकून कवीला असे वाटते, जणू हा नुसता आवाज नाही तर श्रमशक्तीचा मंत्र चालू आहे. कवी म्हणतात की, सारेजण श्रमशक्तीचा मंत्र जपत आहेत, म्हणजेच कष्ट करत आहेत व आपल्या देशाच्या प्रगतीमध्ये हातभार लावत आहेत. उदयोगाचे हे चक्र सदैव चाललेलेच आहे. आपणही त्यामध्ये सहभागी होऊन नवनवे शोध लावूया. शेतीमध्ये नवेनवे बदल, नव्या सुधारणा आणून तसेच उद्योगक्षेत्रांमध्ये नव्या संकल्पना आणून आपली व आपल्या देशाची भरभराट करूया. तसेच नव्या उत्क्रांतीचा म्हणजे नव्या बदलांचा, नव्या शोधांचा, नव्या संकल्पनांचा सगळ्या आभाळावर ललकार घुमवूया म्हणजेच साऱ्या जगामध्ये नव्या गोष्टींचा जयजयकार करूया. सगळ्या जगभर हे नवे शोध, नव्या संकल्पना आपण आपल्या मेहनतीने पोहचवूया.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार 14

हजार आम्ही एकी बळकट
सर्वांचे हो एकच मनगट
शक्तीचीही झडते नौबत
घराघरांतून जन्म घेतसे तेज नवा अवतार।।

कवीने आपल्या भारत देशाच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्यासाठी एकजूटीचा मंत्र सांगितला आहे. एकजूटीचे सामर्थ्य पटवून देतांना कवी म्हणतात की, आमच्या देशात अनेक प्रकारची विविधता आहे. वेश, भाषा, धर्म, सण, खाणे अशी हजारो प्रकारची विविधता असली तरी आम्ही एकच आहोत. आमच्यातील एकता जराही कमी झालेली नाही. आम्ही भारतीय लोक देशाच्या विविध प्रांतात राहणारे असलो, वेगवेगळी भाषा बोलणारे जरी असलो, वेगवेगळे वेश परिधान करणारे जरी असलो तरी आम्ही एकजूटीने कार्य करणारे आहोत. त्यामुळे आमच्या हाताचे मनगट बलशाली, शक्तीशाली असेच आहे. याच एकजूटीने आपण आजवर अनेक कठीण प्रसंगावर मात केलेली आहे व पुढेही करत राहू. याच शक्तीने, एकीच्या बळाने आपल्या देशाची प्रगती होईल. शत्रूला धाक बसेल, शक्तीचे प्रदर्शन होईल तसेच एकात्मतेची भावना लोकांच्या मनात अजून वाढेल, जणू सर्वत्र शक्तीची नौबत झडेल. इथे जन्माला येणारे प्रत्येक बाळ तेजस्वी व प्रबळ असेल, देशाचे रक्षण करण्यासाठी, नवीन कार्यासाठी घराघरातून जणू नवी पिढी जन्म घेईल आणि आपल्या शक्तीतून, आपल्या कार्यातून आपल्या विजयाचा अवतार साऱ्या जगासमोर उभा करेल. म्हणजेच सामर्थ्यशाली बालके जन्मास येऊन देशाचे भविष्य नक्कीच उज्ज्वल करतील, असा एक आशावाद कवीने येथे मांडलेला आहे.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार

या विश्वाची विभव संपदा
जपू वाढवू आम्ही लाखदा
हस्त शुभंकर हवा एकदा
भविष्य उज्ज्वल या देशाचे करूया जयजयकार।।

आपल्या भारत देशाला हजारो वर्षांचा इतिहास लाभलेला आहे. आपली संस्कृती अतिप्राचीन व उच्च आहे. कृषिसंस्कृती, श्रमप्रतिष्ठा तसेच एकजूटीचे सामर्थ्य या मूल्यांमुळे साऱ्या जगात आपल्या देशाने मानाचे स्थान संपादन केले आहे. म्हणून कवी म्हणतात की, आपल्या देशाची ही वैभवशाली संपदा आपण मनापासून जपू, तिचे रक्षण करू आणि तिच्यामध्ये चांगली भर घालून तिला वाढवू. त्यासाठीच कृषिसंस्कृती, श्रमप्रतिष्ठा तसेच एकजूटीचे सामर्थ्य ही मूल्ये आपण मनापासून जपली पाहिजेत, या मूल्यांचा आदर वाढविणारा, आपल्या देशाच्या वैभवशाली संपदेला सांभाळणारा शुभंकर, कल्याणकारी हात मात्र हवा अशी इच्छा कवी व्यक्त करतात. त्यामुळे आपल्या देशाचे भविष्य उज्ज्वल होईल. तसेच सर्वत्र आपल्याच देशाचा जयजयकार होईल.

स्वप्न करू साकार शब्दार्थ

  • पिढी – वंश, परंपरा – (generation)
  • युग – काळ – (era)
  • मंगल – पवित्र – (holy)
  • चैतन्य – चेतना – (consciousness)
  • सुदर्शन – चक्र – (a weapon of lord Vishnu)
  • शेत – माळ, शिवार – (farm)
  • धन – संपत्ती – (wealth)
  • अपरंपार – खूप, पुष्कळ – (abundance)
  • यंत्र – मशीन – (machine)
  • मंत्र – स्तुतीयुक्त प्रार्थना – (hymns)
  • चक्र – चाक – (wheel)
  • उदयोग – काम – (work)
  • आभाळ – आकाश – (sky)
  • उत्क्रान्ती – क्रान्ती – (revolution)
  • ललकार – जयघोष – (cheer)
  • एकी – एकजूट – (unity)
  • मनगट – मणिबंध – (wrist)
  • যালি – ताकद – (power)
  • नौबत – काळ, स्थिती – (condition)
  • अवतार – देहधारणा – (incarnation)
  • विश्व – जग, दुनिया – (world)
  • विभव संपदा – ऐश्वर्य, संपत्ती – (wealth)
  • लाखदा – अनेक वेळा – (many times)
  • हस्त – कर, हात – (hand) Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 16 स्वप्न करू साकार
  • शुभंकर – हितकारी – (well being)
  • भविष्य – आगामी – (future)
  • उज्ज्वल – संपन्न – (prosperous)
  • अधिकार – हक्क – (privilege)

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Solutions Aksharbharati Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

Marathi Aksharbharati Std 10 Digest Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक Textbook Questions and Answers

प्रश्न 1.
आकृती पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 1
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 19

प्रश्न 2.
खालील घटनांचे परिणाम लिहा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 2
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 20

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न 3.
निरंजनची दिनचर्या लिहा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 3
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 21

प्रश्न 4.
खालील शब्दांना पाठात आलेले विरुद्धार्थी शब्द शोधून लिहा.

(१) अप्रामाणिक x
(२) बेसावध x
(३) हळूहळू x
(४) पास x
उत्तर:
(i) प्रामाणिक
(ii) सावध
(iii) चटकन, भरभर
(iv) नापास

प्रश्न 5.
निरंजनचे खालील गुण दर्शवणारी कृती किंवा विचार व्यक्त करणारी वाक्ये शोधा.

(i) स्वप्नाळू –
(ii) तार्किक विचार करणारा –
(ii) संवेदनशील –
उत्तर:
(i) स्वप्नाळू – कोकण गाडी बद्दल वाटले की ही कोकण गाडी किती छान दिसते; पण दिसते न दिसते लगेच बोगद्यात शिरते काय मजा येत असेल नाही गाडीतून जायला? आपण ही मोठं झाल्यावर गाडीतून फिरू या विचाराने तो हुरळून गेला.

(ii) तार्किक विचार – त्याचं लक्ष डाव्या बाजूस रूळाखाली करणारा पडलेल्या भल्या मोठ्या भगदाडाकडे गेले. हे छिद्र कसलं? रोज नसतं असं. प्रवाशांनी भरलेली ९.५० ची गाडी येईल तर भयंकर अपघात होईल. हा त्याने तर्कपूर्ण विचार केला.

(iii) संवेदनशील – भीषण अपघात टळण्याची बातमी वर्तमानपत्रात फोटोसह छापून आली होती. घरी मोठमोठी माणसे आली होती. खुद्द जिल्हाधिकारी आले. शाळेचे मुख्याध्यापक आणि भडसावळे गुरूजीही आले. निरंजनने धावत येऊन गुरूजींचे पाय धारले. रडत रडत तो म्हणाला, गुरूजी, मी नापास होणार माझा कालचा नागरिकशास्त्राचा पेपर बुडाला.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न 6.
स्वमत.

(अ) ‘निरंजनच खरा नागरिक’ हे तुमच्या शब्दांत स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
निरंजन कष्टाळू व प्रामाणिक मुलगा होता. घरची, गोठ्यातली कामे करून अभ्यासातही हुशार होता. नागरिकशास्त्राच्या पेपरच्या दिवशी सकाळपासून अभ्यास करून तो वाराने जेवायला म्हणून देशमुखांकडे जात होता; पण पुलावर त्याने अघटितच पाहिले. कुणीतरी पुलाचे काँक्रीट फोडून रेल्वेचे रूळ वेडेवाकडे करून ठेवले होते. घातपात करण्याचा कट त्याच्या लक्षात आला. तो सावध झाला. गाडी येण्यापूर्वीच त्याने स्टेशनाकडे धाव घेतली. प्रसंग व धोका समजावून सांगितला. पंचनामा करण्यासाठी अधिकारी हजर झाले. संभाव्य धोका निरंजनामुळे टळला. केवळ पुस्तकी ज्ञान मिळवून गुण मिळवणे एवढेच मर्यादित ध्येय न ठेवता स्वार्थ बाजूस सारून त्याने सर्वांचा जीव वाचविला. खऱ्या नागरिकाचे कर्तव्य त्याने निभावले होते.

(आ) तुम्हाला अभिप्रेत असलेली आदर्श विदयार्थ्याची गुणवैशिष्ट्ये लिहा.
उत्तरः
विद्यार्थी अनेक गुणांनी युक्त असेल तर त्याला आदर्श विद्यार्थी म्हणवला जातो. सर्वप्रथम अभ्यास, नीटनेटके अक्षर, लेखन कौशल्य अंगी असले पाहिजे. शिस्त, समयपालन, नम्रपणा याला प्राधान्य देणेही तितकेच गरजेचे आहे. अंगच्या गुणांमध्ये अभिमानी न होता विनयशील व मोठ्यांचा आदर राखणारा विद्यार्थी खरा आदर्श विदयार्थी असतो. समयसूचकता, धारिष्ट्य, दुसऱ्यांना मदत हे गुण जीवनात फार महत्त्वाचे असतात. अशा गुणांनी युक्त विद्यार्थी सर्वप्रिय होतो.

(इ) तुम्हांला निरंजनशी मैत्री करायला आवडण्याची वा न आवडण्याची कारणे स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
निरंजनला आईवडील नाहीत, त्याच्या मनातील हा सल काढून टाकण्यासाठी त्याला चांगल्या मित्राची गरज आहे. म्हणून मला निरंजनचा मित्र व्हायला आवडेल. त्याची आर्थिक परिस्थितीही कमकुवत असल्यामुळे जेवणाच्या व शिक्षणाच्या खर्चासाठी मी त्याला काही मदत करू शकतो. याचबरोबर निरंजन हा निस्वार्थी, प्रसंगावधान असलेला, हुशार, मेहनती मुलगा आहे. त्यामुळे या सर्वगुणसंपन्न निरंजनशी मैत्री करायला मला आवडेल.

खालील तक्ता पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 6
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 22
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 23

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

Marathi Akshar Bharati Class 10 Textbook Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक Additional Important Questions and Answers

प्रश्न १. पुढील उताऱ्याच्या आधारे दिलेल्या सूचनेनुसार कृती करा.

कृती १: आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 7

प्रश्न 2.
खालील प्रश्नांची उत्तरे एका वाक्यात लिहा.

(i) कोणता विषय जरा अवघडच असतो?
उत्तरः
नागरिकशास्त्र हा विषय जरा अवघडच असतो.

(ii) मामाने निरंजनला कोठे आणून सोडले?
उत्तर:
मामाने निरंजनला चिपळूणला मावशीकडे आणून सोडले

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

(iii) मावशीचे घर कोठे होते?
उत्तर:
चिपळूण शहरालगतच्या उपनगरात गावापासून दूर डोंगराच्या पायथ्याशी मावशीचे घर होते.

(३) कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.
(i) ………………………… टवटवीत आणि प्रसन्न वातावरणात अभ्यास खूप छान होतो. (सकाळच्या, दुपारच्या, थंडीच्या, रात्रीच्या)
(ii) ………………………… गुरुजींचा सल्ला त्याला मोलाचा वाटे. (भोसले, फाटक, भडसावळे, देशमुख)
(iii) गुरुजींचंही ………………………… खूप प्रेम होतं. (सदानंदवर, निरंजनवर, अतुलवर, सचिनवर)
उत्तर:
(i) सकाळच्या
(ii) भडसावळे
(iii) निरंजनवर

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
योग्य पर्याय निवडा.
(i) निरंजन भल्या पहाटेस उठून अभ्यासाला बसला, कारण
(i) त्याला झोप येत नव्हती.
(ii) अभ्यास पूर्ण झाला नव्हता.
(iii) पहाटे उठायला त्याला आवडत असे.
(iv) त्याचा शेवटचा नागरिकशास्त्राचा पेपर होता.
उत्तर:
निरंजन भल्या पहाटेस उठून अभ्यासाला बसला कारण त्याचा शेवटचा नागरिकशास्त्राचा पेपर होता.

प्रश्न 2.
‘मुंबईला’ हे उत्तर येईल असा प्रश्न तयार करा.
उत्तरः
मामा कोठे निघून गेला?

प्रश्न 3.
सहसंबंध लिहा.
रेडिओ : भक्तिगीत :: पक्षी : …………………………
उत्तरः
सुमधुर संगीत

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न 4.
कोण कोणास म्हणाले ते लिहा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 8

कृती ३ : स्वमत

प्रश्न 1.
‘अभ्यासासाठी पहाटेचे वातावरण पोषक असते’ यावर तुमचे विचार मांडा.
उत्तरः
‘लवकर निजे, लवकर उठे त्यास उत्तम आरोग्य लाभे’ या वचनानुसार राहाणाऱ्यांना आरोग्यप्राप्ती होतेच व आयुष्यात यशप्राप्तीही होते. लवकर उठल्याने पहाटेच्या वेळेचा सदुपयोग करता येतो. पहाटे अभ्यासही छान होतो. केलेला अभ्यास लक्षात राहातो. पहाटे गोंगाट, कलकलाट नसल्याने चित्त एकाग्र होते. पुरेशी झोप झाल्याने शरीर व मन दोन्हीही प्रफुल्लित असतात. हवेत सुखद गारवा असतो. पक्ष्यांचा किलबिलाट असतो. पहाटेची भूपाळी, जात्यावरच्या ओव्या किंवा रेडिओवरची मधुर सनई मन प्रसन्न करते. शांततेत पाठांतर होते. मनन व चिंतन होते. पहाटे कामांची लगबग नसते, वाहनांची ये-जा नसते म्हणून मन स्थिर होण्यास वेळ लागत नाही. एकाग्र मनाने अभ्यास करता येतो.

प्रश्न २. पुढील उताऱ्याच्या आधारे दिलेल्या सूचनेनुसार कृती करा.
कृती १ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 9

प्रश्न 2.
एका वाक्यात उत्तरे लिहा.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

(i) निरंजन दुपारी कोठे जेवायला जायचा?
उत्तरः
दररोज एकाच्या घरी दुपारी निरंजन पाहुणा म्हणून जेवायला जायचा.

(ii) निरंजन कोणाच्या घरी काम करायचा?
उत्तरः
निरंजन मावशीच्या घरी काम करायचा.

(iii) परीक्षा किती वाजता सुरू होणार होती?
उत्तरः
परीक्षा साडेदहा वाजता सुरू होणार होती.

प्रश्न 3.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.

(i) ………………………… परिस्थिती यथातथाच असल्याने निरंजन वार लावून जेवायचा. (काकांची, मावशीची, मामाची, आत्याची)
(ii) गुरुजींवर श्रद्धा ठेवायची आणि परीक्षेत ………………………… नंबर पटकवायचा. (दुसरा, पहिला, तीसरा, चौथा)
(iii) साडेदहाची परीक्षा. त्याआधी ………………………… जायचं होतं. (देशमुखांकडे, थोरातांकडे, भडसावळे गुरुजींकडे, मावशीकडे)
उत्तर:
(i) मावशीची
(ii) पहिला
(iii) देशमुखांकडे

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
योग्य पर्याय निवडा.
भडसावळे गुरुजींनी निरंजनला येथे वार लावून दिले.
(i) स्वत:च्या घरी
(ii) थोरामोठ्यांच्या घरी
(iii) मुख्याध्यापकांकडे
(iv) मावशीकडे
उत्तरः
(ii) थोरामोठ्यांच्या घरी

प्रश्न 2.
सकारण लिहा.

(i) निरंजन आज मनोमन खूश होता कारण …………………………
(ii) निरंजन वार लावून जेवायचा कारण …………………………
उत्तर:
(i) आधीचे पेपर्स चांगले गेले होते.
(ii) मावशीची परिस्थिती यथातथाच होती.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न 3.
‘गुरुजींवर’ हे उत्तर येईल असा प्रश्न तयार करा.
उत्तर:
निरंजन कोणावर श्रद्धा ठेवायचा?

प्रश्न 4.
चूक की बरोबर लिहा.

(i) निरंजन मावशीच्या घरी प्रामाणिकपणे काम करायचा.
(ii) गुरुजींचं वाक्य लक्षात ठेवून निरंजन खेळायला जायचा.
उत्तर:
(i) बरोबर
(ii) चूक

कृती ३ : स्वमत

प्रश्न 1.
गरीब विद्यार्थी मित्राला तुम्ही केलेली मदत स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
अक्षय हा माझ्या बालपणापासूनचा मित्र. घरची परिस्थिती यथातथाच असून तो नेटाने शिकत आहे. दिवसभर स्वत: मोलमजूरी करून तो रात्रशाळेत शिकतो. माझी आई प्रत्येक सणवाराला त्याला जेवायला बोलावते. गोडधोड खाऊ घालते.

माझ्यासारखे त्याला कपडेही घेऊन देते. माझे वडील त्याची वर्षभराची फी भरतात. मी ही जमेल तेवढी त्याला अभ्यासात मदत करतो. त्याचे वडील वाहनचालक आहेत. माझे वडील त्यांनाच गाडी चालवण्यासाठी बोलावून पगार देतात.

प्रश्न ३. पुढील उताऱ्याच्या आधारे दिलेल्या सूचनेनुसार कृती करा.
कृती १ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 10

प्रश्न 2.
एका वाक्यात उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) शेवटची गाडी केव्हां जाते?
उत्तरः
रात्री दोन वाजता शेवटची गाडी जाते.

(ii) निरंजनला कशाचा राग येई?
उत्तर:
लोकांच्या बेफिकीर प्रवृत्तीचा राग येई.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

(iii) निरंजनचे लक्ष कुठे गेले?
उत्तरः
डाव्या बाजूस रुळाखाली पडलेल्या मोठ्या भगदाडाकडे निरंजनचे लक्ष गेले.

(iv) निरंजनाच्या काय ध्यानी आले?
उत्तरः
कुणीतरी काँक्रिट फोडून रेल्वेचे रुळ वेडेवाकडे करून ठेवल्याचे निरंजनच्या ध्यानी आले.

प्रश्न 3.
उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) गावाबाहेर डोंगरपायथ्याशी
घर होते + निरंजनच्या मावशीचे

(ii) निरंजनला भयंकर
राग येई + लोकांच्या बेफिकीर प्रवृत्तीचा

प्रश्न 4.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.
(i) आता ………………………… आल्याने रेल्वेचा छान पूल नदीवर आला. (मध्य रेल्वे, पश्चिम रेल्वे, कोकण रेल्वे, हार्बर रेल्वे)
(ii) या ………………………… जाणं-येणं सोपं झालं होतं. (मार्गामुळं, रस्त्यामुळं, वाटेमुळं, पुलामुळं)
उत्तर:
(i) कोकण रेल्वे
(ii) पुलामुळं

प्रश्न 5.
उताऱ्यानुसार वाक्यांचा क्रम लावा.

(i) रात्री दोन वाजता शेवटची गाडी इथून जाते.
(ii) प्रवाशांनी भरलेली नऊ पन्नासची गाडी येईल
(iii) धाडधाड् आवाज करत दिमाखात पुलावरून जाईल
(iv) निरंजनला आश्चर्य वाटलं.
उत्तर:
(i) धाधाड् आवाज करत दिमाखात पुलावरून जाईल.
(ii) निरंजनला आश्चर्य वाटलं.
(iii) रात्री दोन वाजता शेवटची गाडी इथून जाते.
(iv) प्रवाशांनी भरलेली नऊ पन्नासची गाडी येईल.

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
खालील घटनांचे परिणाम लिहा.

घटना – परिणाम
(i) आता नऊ पन्नासची गाडी येईल. – धाडधाड् आवाज करत दिमाखात पुलावरून जाईल.
(ii) जर दगड बाजूला ठेवायचे विसरलात. – तर दुसरा ठेचकाळून  जीवाला मुकेल.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न 2.
सकारण लिहा –
पूर्वीसारखे या नदीच्या पाण्यात उतरून चालत चालत नदी पार करावी लागत नाही कारण –
उत्तरः
आता कोकण रेल्वे आल्याने रेल्वेचा छान पूल नदीवर आला.

प्रश्न 3.
योग्य पर्याय निवडून विधान पूर्ण करा.
निरंजनला लोकांच्याया बेफिकीर प्रवृत्तीचा. …………………………
(i) भयंकर संताप येई.
(ii) भयंकर राग येई.
(iii) भयंकर चिड येई.
(iv) भयंकर आपुलकी वाटे.
उत्तर:
निरंजनला लोकांच्या या बेफिकीर प्रवृत्तीचा भयंकर राग येई.

प्रश्न 4.
कोण कोणास म्हणाले ते लिहा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 11

प्रश्न 5.
चूक की बरोबर ते लिहा.
(i) रात्री पाच वाजता शेवटची गाडी जाते.
(ii) कोकण रेल्वे आल्याने रेल्वेचा छान पूल नदीवर आला.
उत्तर:
(i) चूक
(ii) बरोबर

कृती ३ : स्वमत

तुमच्या खबरदारीने भावी धोका टळला असा प्रसंग तुमच्या शब्दात मांडा.
उत्तरः
आम्ही सर्व मुले मे महिन्याच्या सुट्टीत हिमाचलप्रदेशाच्या डोंगरात गिर्यारोहणासाठी गेलो होतो. नदीवरचा पूल ओलांडायचा होता. २५ जणांचा चमू घेऊन जाण्याची जबाबदारी माझ्यावर होती. निसर्ग सौंदर्य न्याहाळत सर्वजण पुलावरून जात असताना माझे लक्ष पुलाच्या पुढच्या टोकाकडे गेले. दोरखंडांनी बांधलेल्या पुलाचे एक दोरखंडी टोक तुटून गेले होते. प्रसंगावधान राखून मी सर्व मुलांना मागे जाण्याचे आदेश दिले. दुसऱ्या बाजूने उतरून गावकऱ्यांना सूचित केले. पूल ताबडतोब वापरण्यासाठी बंद करण्यात आला व मोठी मनुष्यहानी टळली.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न ४. खालील उताऱ्याच्या आधारे पुढील सूचनेनुसार कृती करा:
कृती १: आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 12
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 24

प्रश्न 2.
खालील प्रश्नांची उत्तरे एका वाक्यात लिहा.

(i) निरंजनने धावतच कोणाला गाठले?
उत्तर:
निरंजनने धावतच स्टेशनमास्तरांना गाठलं.

(ii) निरंजनने स्टेशनमास्तरांना काय सांगितले?
उत्तर:
निरंजनने स्टेशनमास्तरांना पुलावरच्या खराब झालेल्या रूळांबद्दल सांगितले.

(iii) निरंजनने कोणती आर्जवं केली?
उत्तर:
निरंजनने आर्जवं केली की, निदान जागा पाहून आल्याशिवाय तरी गाडी सोडू नका.

प्रश्न 3.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.
(i) ………………………… इथून खूप दूर होतं. (गाव, स्टेशन, शहर, वाडी)
(ii) ………………………… किलोमीटर तिथपर्यंत सांगायला जायचं तर परीक्षा बुडणार होती. (पाच-सहा, दोन-तीन, तीन-चार, सहा-सात)
उत्तर:
(i) स्टेशन
(ii) तीन-चार.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

(४) कोष्टक पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 14

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
खालील घटनांचे परिणाम लिहा.
घटना – परिणाम
परीक्षा बुडाली की – नापास

प्रश्न 2.
घटनाक्रम लिहा.

(i) निरंजनने नेमकी जागा दाखवली.
(ii) निरंजनने स्टेशनच्या दिशेने धाव घेतली.
(iii) स्टेशनमास्तरांनी गाडी थांबवण्याचा आदेश दिला.
(iv) निरंजन एकदम सावध झाला.
उत्तर:
(i) निरंजन एकदम सावध झाला.
(ii) निरंजनने स्टेशनच्या दिशेने धाव घेतली.
(iii) निरंजनने नेमकी जागा दाखवली.
(iv) स्टेशनमास्तरांनी गाडी थांबवण्याचा आदेश दिला.

प्रश्न 3.
योग्य पर्याय निवडून वाक्य पूर्ण करा.

(i) निरंजनने क्षणभर विचार केला आणि
(अ) स्टेशनच्या दिशेने धाव घेतली.
(ब) घटनास्थळी पोहचला.
(क) गाववाल्यांना बोलवायला गेला.
(ड) शाळेत निघून गेला.
उत्तर:
निरंजनने क्षणभर विचार केला आणि स्टेशनच्या दिशेने धाव घेतली.

(ii) ………………………… लगेचच गाडी दीर्घकाळ थांबवण्याचा आदेश दिला आणि ते या घटनेचा पंचनामा करायला लागले.
(अ) जिल्हाधिकाऱ्याने
(ब) पोलीसांनी
(क) शिक्षकांनी
(ड) स्टेशनमास्तरांनी
उत्तर:
स्टेशनमास्तरांनी लगेचच गाडी दीर्घकाळ थांबवण्याचा आदेश दिला आणि ते या घटनेचा पंचनामा करायला लागले.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न 4.
चूक की बरोबर ते लिहा.
(i) निरंजन स्टेशनात शिरला तेव्हा नऊ पन्नासची गाडी नुकतीच आली होती.
(ii) निरंजनचे रेल्वेने फिरायचे स्वप्न पूर्ण होणार होते.
उत्तर:
(i) बरोबर
(ii) चूक

प्रश्न 5.
कोण कोणास म्हणाले ते लिहा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 15

कृती ३ : स्वमत

प्रश्न 1.
‘भावनेपेक्षा कृती श्रेष्ठ’ या विचारांवर स्वमत प्रकट करा.
उत्तरः
आपल्याला मनात काय वाटते यापेक्षा जे वाटते ते विधायक काम प्रत्यक्ष केले पाहिजे. गरिबांना मदत करावीशी वाटते. अंधांना सहारा दयावासा वाटतो; ही भावना जपणे ठिक आहे पण प्रत्यक्ष कृती करणे त्यापेक्षा श्रेष्ठ आहे. आईला, आजीला, कामात मदत करणे, आजोबांची पिशवी उचलणे, बागकाम करून झाडांना पाणी घालणे इ. कितीतरी लहानमोठी कामे करण्यासारखी असतात, ती केली की मनाला समाधान मिळते म्हणून नुसतीच भावना मनात बाळगून अर्थ नाही तर कृती करणे महत्वाचे आहे. भावनेपेक्षा कृती केव्हाही श्रेष्ठच!

प्रश्न ५. पुढील उताऱ्याच्या आधारे दिलेल्या सूचनेनुसार कृती करा.
कृती १: आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतीबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 16

प्रश्न 2.
उत्तरे लिहा.
(i) अपघाताची पहिली खबर देणारा – निरंजन
(ii) निरंजनचा फोटो काढणारे – वार्ताहर

प्रश्न 3.
खालील प्रश्नांची उत्तरे एका वाक्यात लिहा.
(i) निरंजनने धावत पुढे जाऊन कोणाचे पाय धरले?
उत्तर:
निरंजनने धावत पुढे जाऊन भडसावळे गुरुजींचे पाय धरले.

(ii) निरंजनला सरकारी वसतिगृहात प्रवेश क्यायचं असे कोणी ठरवलं?
उत्तर:
निरंजनला सरकारी वसतिगृहात प्रवेश दयायचं असे जिल्हाधिकाऱ्यांनी ठरवलं.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न 4.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.
(i) निरंजनचा ………………………… पेपर चुकला होता. (भूगोलाचा, गणिताचा, नागरिकशास्त्राचा, मराठीचा)
(ii) हे बघ, शाळेचे सगळे ………………………… आलेत. (शिक्षक, विदयार्थी, अधिकारी, कर्मचारी)
उत्तर:
(i) नागरिकशास्त्राचा
(ii) अधिकारी

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 17

प्रश्न 2.
कोण कोणास म्हणाले.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 18

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक

प्रश्न 3.
सकारण लिहा.

(i) निरंजनचे कौतुक झाले कारण –
उत्तर:
रेल्वेचा मोठा अपघात त्याच्या चाणाक्षपणामुळे टळला होता.

प्रश्न 4.
चूक की बरोबर लिहा.

(i) निरंजनला वया पुस्तकांच्या खर्चासाठी शिष्यवृत्ती मिळणार नव्हती.
(ii) गुरुजींनी निरंजनला हृदयाशी धरलं, तेव्हां साऱ्यांचेच डोळे पाणावले.
उत्तर:
(i) चूक
(ii) बरोबर

स्वाध्याय कृती

निरंजनचे खालील गुण दर्शवणारी कृती किंवा विचार व्यक्त करणारी वाक्ये शोधा.

(i) ‘निरंजनच खरा नागरिक’ हे विधान तुमच्या शब्दांत स्पष्ट करा.
उत्तरः
निरंजन कष्टाळू व प्रामाणिक मुलगा होता. घरची, गोठ्यातली कामे करून अभ्यासातही हुशार होता. नागरिकशास्त्राच्या पेपरच्या दिवशी सकाळपासून अभ्यास करून तो वाराने जेवायला म्हणून देशमुखांकडे जात होता; पण पुलावर त्याने अघटितच पाहिले. कुणीतरी पुलाचे काँक्रीट फोडून रेल्वेचे रूळ वेडेवाकडे करून ठेवले होते. घातपात करण्याचा कट त्याच्या लक्षात आला. तो सावध झाला. गाडी येण्यापूर्वीच त्याने स्टेशनाकडे धाव घेतली. प्रसंग व धोका समजावून सांगितला. पंचनामा करण्यासाठी अधिकारी हजर झाले. संभाव्य धोका निरंजनामुळे टळला. केवळ पुस्तकी ज्ञान मिळवून गुण मिळवणे एवढेच मर्यादित ध्येय न ठेवता स्वार्थ बाजूस सारून त्याने सर्वांचा जीव वाचविला. खऱ्या नागरिकाचे कर्तव्य त्याने निभावले होते.

खरा नागरिक Summary in Marathi

खरा नागरिक पाठपरिचय

‘खरा नागरिक’ हा पाठ लेखक ‘सुहास बारटक्के’ यांनी लिहिला आहे. या पाठात शालेय विषय केवळ अभ्यासायचे नसून आचरणात आणायचे असतात, हे ‘निरंजन’ या व्यक्तिरेखेतून स्पष्ट केले आहे.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 15 खरा नागरिक 25

खरा नागरिक Summary in English

“Khara Nagrik’ is written by Suhas Bartakke. He has beautifully expressed how school subjects are not simply to be studied, but are also meant for their application to daily activities. He spreads this message through a character named Niranjan.

खरा नागरिक शब्दार्थ

  • सल्ला – उपदेश – (advice)
  • चटकन – लगेच – (quickly)
  • आल्हाददायक – सुखावह, सुखद – (pleasant)
  • रीत – पद्धत – (trick)
  • मोलाचे – उपयुक्त – (valuable)
  • अपार – खूप – (a lot)
  • श्रद्धा – विश्वास – (belief)
  • लाडका – आवडता – (favourite)
  • शेण – गाईचा मल – (cow dung)
  • गोठा – गुरे बांधण्याची जागा – (cow shed)
  • यथातथा – बेताचा – (below average)
  • प्रगती – सुधारणा – (progress)
  • उजळणी – मनन, चिंतन – (revision)
  • बेफिकीर – निष्काळजी – (carelessness)
  • जाणीवपूर्वक – मुद्दाम – (deliberately)
  • प्रवृत्ती – मानसिकता – (attitude)
  • दिमाख – ऐट – (pomp)
  • बोगदा – डोंगराच्या पोटातून आरपार केलेला मार्ग – (a tunnel)
  • भगदाड – जमिनीत, भिंतीत – (a large पडलेला खड्डा : uneven hole)
  • क्षणभर – थोड्या वेळासाठी – (for a moment)
  • घातपात – अपघात – (casualty)
  • कट – कारस्थान – (plan)
  • उपद्व्याप – कारभार – (fright work)
  • किंकाळ्या – कर्कश आवाज – (cheerfulness)
  • अपुरे – अपूर्ण – (incomplete)
  • स्फोट – ब्लास्ट – (blast)
  • आर्जव – विनंती – (request)
  • तथ्य – अर्थ – (reason)
  • नेमकी – योग्य – (appropriate)
  • दीर्घकाळ – खूपवेळा – (a long time)
  • पंचनामा – शहानिशा – (scrutiny)
  • गांभीर्य – महत्त्व – (seriousness)
  • चाणाक्ष – धूर्त, बुद्धिमान – (adroit)
  • कौतुक – वाहवा, प्रशंसा – (appreciation)
  • निराश – उदास – (disappointed)
  • सवलती – सोयी – (facilities)
  • रद्द – बाद – (to cancel)
  • वार्ताहर – बातमीदार – (reporter)
  • स्तुती – प्रशंसा – (appreciation)
  • भीषण – भयंकर – (fierce, dire)
  • जिल्हाधिकारी – (District Collector)
  • खास बाब – विशिष्ट गोष्ट – (special case)
  • वसतिगृह – छात्रालय – (hostel)

खरा नागरिक वाक्प्रचार

  • मोलाचा वाटणे – महत्वाचा वाटणे, उपयुक्त वाटणे
  • वार लावून जेवणे – अगोदर ठरवल्याप्रमाणे दररोज एकेकाच्या घरी जेवायला जाणे.
  • जीवाला मुकणे – मृत्यू पावणे
  • हुरळून जाणे – आनंदी होणे
  • कानठळ्या बसणे – अती मोठ्या आवाजाचा त्रास होणे
  • कानात घूमणे – वारंवार तेच ऐकू येणे
  • ताब्यात देणे – हवाली करणे, सोपविणे
  • हृदयाशी धरणे – प्रेमाने जवळ घेणे
  • डोळे पाणावणे – आनंदाश्रू येणे
  • यथातथा असणे – बेताचा असणे
  • तथ्य वाटणे – अर्थ असणे
  • मनोमन खूश होणे – मनात आनंद वाटणे

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Solutions Aksharbharati Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

Marathi Aksharbharati Std 10 Digest Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले Textbook Questions and Answers

प्रश्न 1.
कारणे लिहा.

(अ) लेखकाच्या आई-वडिलांनी मन घट्ट करून मुलांचा निरोप घेतला, कारण ………………………….
उत्तर:
लेखकाच्या आई-वडिलांनी मन घट्ट करून मुलांचा निरोप घेतला कारण आपल्या मुलांनी चांगले शिकावे, मोठा ऑफिसर व्हावे व घराण्याचे नाव उज्ज्वल करावे, या उद्देशाने मन घट्ट करून लेखकाच्या आई -वडिलांनी मुलांचा निरोप घेतला.

(आ) लेखकाला लहानपणी अनेक खेळाडू पाहण्याची संधी मिळाली. कारण ………………………….
उत्तरः
लेखकाला लहानपणी अनेक खेळाडू पाहण्याची संधी मिळाली कारण लेखकांचे चुलते वाय.एम.सी.ए. च्या कंपाऊंडमध्ये राहत असत. लेखकही शिक्षणासाठी काकांकडे राहत होते. त्या कम्पाऊंडमध्ये अनेक सभासद खेळण्यासाठी येत असत.

(इ) ‘आंधळा मागतो एक डोळा आणि देव देतो दोन’ असे लेखकास वाटले, कारण ………………………….
उत्तरः
‘आंधळा मागतो एक डोळा व देव देतो दोन’ असे लेखकाला वाटले कारण लेखकाला क्रिकेट खेळ आवडू लागला होता. त्यांच्या कम्पाऊंडमध्ये सभासद खेळण्यासाठी येत त्यावेळी लेखकालाही चेंडू फेकण्यासाठी बोलावले जाई आणि लेखकाला हा खेळ आवडत असल्यामुळे तेही या कामासाठी तयार असत.

(ई) दुसऱ्या मुलांच्या हातांत खेळणी पाहून लेखकाला लहानपणी त्यांचा हेवा वाटत असे, कारण ………………………….
उत्तरः
दुसऱ्या मुलांच्या हातात खेळणी पाहून लेखकाला लहानपणी त्यांचा हेवा वाटत असे कारण तुटपुंज्या पगारात लेखकाचे वडील घरखर्च भागवत होते. त्यामुळे लेखकासाठी खेळणी विकत घेऊ शकत नव्हते.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 2.
आकृती पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 1
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 10
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 11

प्रश्न 3.
ओघतक्ता तयार करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 2
उत्तरः
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 12

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 4.
खालील शब्दांसाठी पाठात आलेले समानार्थी शब्द शोधून लिहा.
(i) सही
(ii) निवास
(iii) क्रीडा
(iv) प्रशंसा
उत्तरः
(i) सही – स्वाक्षरी
(ii) निवास – घर
(iii) क्रीडा – खेळ
(iv) प्रशंसा – स्तुती

प्रश्न 5.
खालील वाक्यांत कंसातील वाक्प्रचारांचा योग्य उपयोग करून वाक्ये पन्हा लिहा. (आनंद गगनात न मावणे, हेवा वाटणे, खूणगाठ बांधणे, नाव उज्ज्वल करणे)

(अ) मोठे झाल्यावर रुग्णांची सेवा करण्यासाठी मी नर्स होण्याचे मनाशी निश्चित केले.
उत्तरः
मोठे झाल्यावर रुग्णांची सेवा करण्यासाठी मी नर्स होण्याची मनाशी खूणगाठ बांधली.

(आ) दारात अचानक मामा-मामींना बघून सर्वांना खूप आनंद झाला.
उत्तरः
अचानक दारात मामा-मामींना बघून सगळ्यांचा आनंद गगनात मावेनासा झाला.

(इ) आंतरराष्ट्रीय स्पर्धामध्ये कौस्तुभने बुद्धिबळ खेळात शाळेचे नाव उंचावले.
उत्तरः
आंतरराष्ट्रीय स्पर्धांमध्ये कौस्तुभने बुद्धिबळ खेळांत शाळेचे नाव उज्ज्वल केले.

(ई) मानसीने म्हटलेल्या गाण्याचे सर्वांनी केलेले कौतुक ऐकून मला क्षणभर तिचा मत्सर वाटला.
उत्तर:
मानसीने म्हटलेल्या गाण्याचे सर्वांनी केलेले कौतुक ऐकून मला क्षणभर तिचा हेवा वाटला.

प्रश्न 6.
स्वमत.

(अ) लेखकाच्या वडिलांची शिस्त जाणवणारे प्रसंग पाठाच्या आधारे तुमच्या शब्दांत लिहा.
उत्तरः
वडिलांची बदली वडगावाला झाल्यावर लेखकाने त्यांच्या बरोबर जाण्याचा आग्रह धरला; परंतु त्यांनी मोठे व्हावे, ऑफिसर व्हावे हे वडिलांचे स्वप्न असल्यामुळे त्यांना काकांकडे राहावे लागले.

दुसरा प्रसंग लेखक मित्रांसोबत शाळा बुडवून मॅच बघण्यासाठी गेले. हे वडिलांना कळल्यावर त्यांच्याकडून संतापाने छड्या खात लेखकास शाळेत जाऊन बसावे लागले.

अशाप्रकारे अभ्यास व शाळा याबाबत वडील कडक स्वभावाचे होते हे जाणवते.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

(आ) तुमच्या मते लेखकाच्या मनात क्रिकेटचे बीज कसे रुजले असावे ते लिहा.
उत्तर:
लेखक ज्यावेळी शिक्षणासाठी काकांकडे वाय.एम.सी.ए. कंपाऊंड मध्ये राहण्यास गेले, तेथे अनेक सभासद खेळण्यासाठी येत. त्यांच्या खेळाचे निरीक्षण करून, लेखकांना त्या खेळाची भुरळ पडली. तेव्हापासून ते शाळा सुटली ना सुटली की मैदानात खेळाडूंसोबत खेळायला मिळावे; म्हणून लवकर येत असत. क्रिकेट खेळाडू होणे हे त्यांनी मनाशी पक्के केले. सतत सराव करणे, मॅच बघण्यास जाणे यासाठी ते प्रयत्नात असत. अशाप्रकारे सभोवतालचा परिसर जो खेळासाठी प्रवृत्त करतो. यामध्ये सर्व खेळाडू, स्पर्धा यांचा प्रभाव लेखकाच्या मनात क्रिकेटचे बीज रुजण्यास प्रवृत्त करणारा होता.

(इ) तुमच्या मते लेखकाच्या मनात पेरले गेलेले क्रिकेटचे बीज कसे उगवले ते लिहा.
उत्तर:
लेखक जेव्हा शिक्षणासाठी काकांकडे राहत होते त्यावेळी क्रिकेट खेळ त्यांना आवडू लागला. ते वाय.एम.सी.ए. कंपाऊंड मध्ये सभासदांसोबत खेळत असत. त्यांच्या खेळाचे निरीक्षण करत, आपणही यांच्या सारखे खेळावे. एक क्रिकेट खेळाडू व्हावे असे त्यांनी मनाशी ठरवले. मॅच पाहण्यासाठी ते मित्रांसोबत जात, त्यांच्यांशी क्रिकेटच्या खेळाच्या गप्पा मारत, इतकेच नव्हे तर वडिलांनीही त्यांचे खेळाचे वेड पाहून जुनी बॅट खरेदी करून दिली. तसेच आंतरशालेय स्पर्धेत १०० धावांचा विक्रम त्यांनी केला. अशाप्रकारे क्रिकेटचे बीज लेखकांत उगवले.

(ई) प्रतिकूल परिस्थितीवर मात करण्यासाठी आवश्यक असलेल्या गुणांसंबंधी माहिती लिहा.
उत्तर:
प्रतिकूल परिस्थिती म्हणजे ज्या परिस्थितीत कुठल्याही प्रकारचे सुखी, समाधानी जीवन प्राप्त न होणे. अनेक संकटांना सामोरे जात जीवन जगणे होय.

प्रतिकूल परिस्थितीवर मात करण्यासाठी धैर्य, जिद्द याची गरज असते जी गोष्ट पूर्ण करायची आहे, त्यासाठी सतत प्रयत्न करत राहणे, स्वत:चा आत्मविश्वास विकसित करणे, मेहनतीशिवाय यश नाही. त्यामुळे श्रमाला महत्त्व देणे. ध्येय निश्चित करून ते पूर्ण करण्याचा ध्यास घेणे या गोष्टींची आवश्यकता असते.

Marathi Akshar Bharati Class 10 Textbook Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले Additional Important Questions and Answers

प्रश्न १. पुढील उतारा वाचून दिलेल्या सूचनांनुसार कृती करा.
कृती १ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
कृती पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 3

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 2.
कारणे लिहा.

(i) वडिलांना मुलांसाठी खेळणी विकत घेणे शक्य नव्हते.
उत्तर:
लेखकाचे वडील त्या वेळेस पोलीस खात्यामध्ये तुटपुंज्या पगारावर नोकरी करत होते. त्यामुळे घरखर्च भागवताना फार त्रास होत असे म्हणून पैशाअभावी ते मुलांना खेळणी विकत घेऊ शकत नव्हते.

(ii) लेखक व त्यांच्या थोरल्या भावाला काकांकडे पुण्यातच रहावे लागले.
उत्तर:
लेखकाचे वडील पोलीस खात्यात असल्यामुळे त्यांची बदली वडगावला झाली. चांगले शिकावे, मोठे ऑफिसर व्हावे व घराण्याचे नाव उज्ज्वल करावे यासाठी त्यांना व त्यांच्या भावाला काकांकडे पुण्यातच रहावे लागले.

प्रश्न 3.
उताऱ्यानुसार घटनांचा क्रम लावा.

(i) वडीलांनी मन घट्ट करून निरोप घेतला.
(ii) वडिलांची बदली वडगावला झाली.
(iii) आम्ही शिकावे मोठे व्हावे असे त्यांना वाटे.
(iv) पुण्यातच शिक्षणासाठी मला व भावाला रहावे लागले.
उत्तर:
(i) वडिलांची बदली वडगावला झाली.
(ii) पुण्यातच शिक्षणासाठी मला व भावाला रहावे लागले.
(iii) आम्ही शिकावे मोठे व्हावे असे त्यांना वाटे.
(iv) वडीलांनी मन घट्ट करून निरोप घेतला.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 4.
एका वाक्यात उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) लेखकाचा जन्म कुठे झाला?
उत्तर:
लेखकाचा जन्म पुण्यात झाला.

(ii) लेखकाचे वडील कुठल्या खात्यामध्ये नोकरी करत?
उत्तर:
लेखकाचे वडील पोलीस खात्यामध्ये नोकरी करत.

(iii) वडिलांची बदली कोठे झाली?
उत्तरः
वडिलांची बदली वडगावला झाली.

(iv) लेखक व त्यांच्या भावाला शिक्षणासाठी कोठे रहावे लागले ?
उत्तर:
लेखक व त्यांच्या भावाला शिक्षणासाठी पुण्यातच त्यांच्या काकांकडे रहावे लागले.

प्रश्न 5.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.
(i) दुसऱ्या मुलांच्या हातात ……………………….. पाहून आम्हाला त्यांचा हेवा वाटत असे. (वही, पेन, खेळणी, विटी)
(ii) तिथेच झोप लागायची आणि जाग यायची ती ……………………….. प्रेमळ कुशीत. (आईच्या, ताईच्या, बायकोच्या, बाबांच्या)
(iii) ……………………….. नाव उज्ज्वल करावे या उद्देशाने त्यांनी कसेबसे मन घट्ट करून आमचा निरोप घेतला. (शालेचे, गावाचे, घराण्याचे, देशाचे)
उत्तर:
(i) खेळणी
(ii) आईच्या
(iii) घराण्याचे

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
उत्तरे लिहा.
(i) पोलीस खात्यात नोकरी करणारे – [लेखकाचे वडील]
(ii) लेखक व भाऊ शिक्षणासाठी यांच्याकडे राहिले – [काकांकडे]

प्रश्न 2.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 4

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 3.
खालील शब्दांना मराठी शब्द सुचवा.
(i) बॅट – लाकडी फळी
(ii) स्टंप – यष्टी
(iii) बॉल – चेंडू
(iv) कॅम्प – शिबीर

प्रश्न 4.
चूक की बरोबर ते लिहा.

(i) वडिलांची बदली मडगावला झाली.
(ii) लेखक खेळकर होते.
(iii) भाऊ व लेखक यांना शिक्षणासाठी मामांकडे रहावे लागले.
(iv) मुलांनी ऑफिसर व्हावे अशी मामीची इच्छा होती.
उत्तर:
(i) चूक
(ii) बरोबर
(iii) चूक
(iv) चूक

कृती ३ : स्वमत

प्रश्न 1.
लेखकाच्या आईवडिलांनी मन घट्ट करून का निरोप घेतला असेल? तुमच्या शब्दांत सांगा.
उत्तरः
प्रत्येक आईवडिलांची एकच इच्छा असते की आपले मूल मोठे व्हावे, आपले व आपल्या घराण्याचे नाव त्याने उज्ज्वल करावे. मुलांच्या नावाने आपण ओळखले जावे. प्रत्येक पालकांची ही एकच इच्छा असते की, आपल्या मुलांची उत्तरोत्तर प्रगती व्हावी, त्याची प्रसिद्धी व्हावी. त्याप्रमाणेच लेखकांच्या आईवडिलांचीही लेखक व त्यांचे भाऊ मोठे व्हावे, मोठे ऑफिसर व्हावे, आपले नाव उज्ज्वल करावे ही इच्छा होती. लेखकांच्या वडिलांची बदली वडगावला झाल्यामुळे शिक्षणासाठी त्यांना काकांकडे पुण्यातच ठेवण्यात आले. आपल्या मुलांना सोडून राहणे आईवडिलांना त्रासदायक होते; परंतु त्यांच्या उज्ज्वल भविष्यासाठी मन घट्ट करून लेखकाच्या आईवडिलांनी निरोप घेतला असेल असे मला वाटते.

प्रश्न २. पुढील उतारा वाचून दिलेल्या सूचनांनुसार कृती करा.

कृती १ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
कृती पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 5

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 2.
एका वाक्यात उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) सर्व खेळात लेखकांस कोणता खेळ आवडत असे?
उत्तर :
सर्व खेळात लेखकांना क्रिकेट खेळ आवडत असे.

(ii) लेखकाचे काका कुठे राहत?
उत्तर :
लेखकाचे काका पुण्याच्या वाय.एम.सी.ए. कंपाऊंडमध्ये राहत.

(iii) लेखकांनी काय व्हायचे ठरविले?
उत्तर :
लेखकांनी क्रिकेट खेळाडू व्हायचे ठरविले.

(iv) लेखक कोणाची दांडी उडवण्याचा प्रयत्न करत असे?
उत्तर :
लेखक सभासदांची दांडी उडवण्याचा प्रयत्न करत असे.

प्रश्न 3.
उताऱ्यानुसार घटनांचा क्रम लावा.

(i) शाळा सुटली ना सुटली तोच लेखक ग्राऊंडवर हजर होत.
(ii) अनेक खेळाडू पाहण्याची संधी मिळू लागली.
(iii) सभासद जसे जमेल तसे खेळायला येत.
(iv) लेखक सभासदांचा खेळ लक्ष देऊन पाहत,
उत्तर:
(i) सभासद जसे जमेल तसे खेळायला येत.
(ii) लेखक सभासदांचा खेळ लक्ष देऊन पाहत.
(iii) अनेक खेळाडू पाहण्याची संधी मिळू लागली.
(iv) शाळा सुटली ना सुटली तोच लेखक ग्राऊंडवर हजर होत.

प्रश्न 4.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.

(i) साहजिकच याचा …………………………… माझ्या बालमनावर होई. (संस्कार, परिणाम, आनंद, दुःख)
(ii) कोणी नाही असे पाहून ते मला …………………………… फेकायला (दगड, गोळा, चेंडू, भाला)
(iii) दुसऱ्या दिवसासाठी ग्राउंडवर पाणी मारणे इत्यादी कामात मी …………………………… आनंदाने मदत करत असे. (खेळाडूंना, पोलिसांना, ग्राऊंड्समनला, पंचना)
उत्तर:
(i) परिणाम
(ii) चेंडू
(iii) ग्राऊंड्समनला

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
आकृतिबंध पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 6

प्रश्न 2.
उत्तरे लिहा

(i) खेळासाठी प्रसिद्ध संस्था – वाय. एम. सी. ए.
(ii) लेखकाचा आवडता खेळ – क्रिकेट

प्रश्न 3.
चूक की बरोबर ते लिहा.

(i) काका सभासदांचा खेळ लक्ष देऊन पाहत.
(ii) क्रिकेट खेळाडू बनण्याची लेखकाची इच्छा होती.
(iii) अनेक खेळाडू पाहण्याची संधी लेखकास मिळाली.
(iv) लेखकाचे मामा रात्री प्रार्थना व अभ्यास घेत.
उत्तर:
(i) चूक
(ii) बरोबर
(iii) बरोबर
(iv) चूक

प्रश्न 4.
योग्य पर्याय निवडून विधान पूर्ण करा,

(i) शाळा सुटली ना सुटली तोच धावत येऊन
(अ) मी प्रथम सिनेमागृहात हजर होत असे.
(आ) मी प्रथम मंदिरात हजर होत असे.
(इ) मी प्रथम ग्राऊंडवर हजर होत असे.
(ई) मी प्रथम नाट्यगृहात हजर होत असे.
उत्तर :
शाळा सुटली ना सुटली तोच धावत येऊन मी प्रथम ग्राऊंडवर हजर होत असे.

कृती ३ : स्वमत

प्रश्न 1.
‘आंधळा मागतो एक डोळा व देव देतो दोन!’ असे लेखकाला का वाटले याबाबत तुमचे मत लिहा.
उत्तरः
लेखक शिक्षणासाठी जेव्हा काकांकडे राहण्यास गेले. त्यावेळी त्यांच्या जीवनाला एक वेगळी कलाटणी मिळाली. काका वाय, एम. सी. ए. कंपाऊंड मध्ये राहत होते. तेथे वाय.एम.सी.ए.चे सभासद क्रिकेट खेळण्यासाठी येत असत. त्यामुळे लेखक हा खेळ पाहण्यासाठी जात असत. त्याचवेळी त्यांची क्रिकेट खेळण्याची इच्छा वाढीस लागली. शाळा सुटली रे सुटली की ते ग्राऊंडवर हजर होत असत. त्यावेळी ते सभासद लेखकास खेळण्यासाठी बोलवत. त्यांना चेंडू फेकण्यास सांगत आणि लेखकही त्या कामासाठी सदैव तयार होत असत.

अशाप्रकारे क्रिकेटची आवड आणि प्रत्यक्ष खेळाडूंसोबत खेळण्याचा आनंद व्यक्त करताना लेखक ‘आंधळा मागतो एक डोळा व देव देतो दोन’ असे मत व्यक्त करतात.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न ३. पुढील उतारा वाचून दिलेल्या सूचनांनुसार कृती करा.
कृती १ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
कृती पूर्ण करा.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 7

प्रश्न 2.
कारणे लिहा.

(i) वडिलांनी संतापाने लेखकास छड्या मारल्या.
उत्तरः
लेखक एके दिवशी शाळा चुकवून ग्राऊंडवर क्रिकेटचा एक मित्रत्वाचा सामना पाहण्यास गेले. त्यामुळे वडिलांनी लेखकास छड्या मारल्या.

(ii) लेखकांस त्यांचे वडील खेळासाठी नेहमी प्रोत्साहन देत असत.
उत्तरः
लेखकांचे वडील स्वत: व्हॉलीबॉल चॅम्पियन होते. त्यामुळे ते लेखकांस खेळासाठी नेहमी प्रोत्साहन देत असत.

प्रश्न 3.
घटनांचा क्रम लावा.

(i) लेखकाची धडपड सुरू झाली.
(ii) मैदानावर कनात घालण्यास आली.
(iii) आत जाण्याचे सर्व मार्ग बंद पडले.
(iv) मॅच पाहायला पाहिजे आणि तीही फुकटात.
उत्तर:
(i) मैदानावर कनात घालण्यास आली.
(ii) आत जाण्याचे सर्व मार्ग बंद पडले.
(iii) मॅच पाहायला पाहिजे आणि तीही फुकटात.
(iv) लेखकाची धडपड सुरू झाली,

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 4.
सातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.

(i) माझे ………………………….. स्वत: व्हॉलीबॉल चॅम्पियन होते. (वडील, काका, मामा, तात्या)
(ii) मी तसाच ती बॅट घेऊन ………………………….. दाखवत सुटलो. (आईला, मित्रांना, खेळाडूंना, सभासदाना)
(iii) ………………………….. साली भारतात ऑस्ट्रेलियन सर्व्हिसेसचा एक संघ पुण्यात आला होता. (१९६०, १९४०, १९४५, १९८३)
उत्तर:
(i) वडील
(ii) मित्रांना
(iii) १९४५

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) लेखकाच्या खेळाबाबत स्तुतीपर वाय. एम. सी. ए. चे – उद्गार काढणारे खेळाडू
(ii) वडील या खेळात चॅम्पियन होते – व्हॉलीबॉल

प्रश्न 2.
खालील शब्दांना मराठी शब्द सुचवा.

(i) चॅम्पियन – सर्वोत्कृष्ट खेळाडू
(ii) ग्राऊंड – मैदान

प्रश्न 3.
चूकी की बरोबर ते लिहा.

(i) वडील फूटबॉल चॅम्पियन होते.
(ii) पूना क्लब ग्राऊंडवर एक मॅच झाली.
(iii) आईने लेखकास संतापाने छड्या मारल्या.
(iv) वडिलांनी जुनी बॅट विकत घेतली.
उत्तर:
(i) चूक
(ii) बरोबर
(iii) चूक
(iv) बरोबर

प्रश्न 4.
योग्य पर्याय निवडून विधाने पूर्ण करा.

(i) ………………………….. ग्राऊंडवर त्याची एक मॅच झाली.
(अ) पूना क्लबच्या.
(आ) मुंबई क्लबच्या.
(इ) सातारा क्लबच्या.
(ई) महाराष्ट्र क्लबच्या.
उत्तर:
पूना क्लबच्या ग्राऊंडवर त्याची एक मॅच झाली.

(ii) त्या वेळेस वडिलांचा मासिक पगार अवघा …………………………. .
(अ) तीस रूपये होता.
(आ) शंभर रूपये होता.
(इ) चोवीस रूपये होता.
(ई) दहा रूपये होता.
उत्तरः
त्या वेळेस वडिलांचा मासिक पगार अवघा चोवीस रूपये होता.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 5.
एका वाक्यात उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) लेखकांचे वडील कोणत्या खेळात चॅम्पियन होते?
उत्तर:
लेखकांचे वडील ‘व्हॉलीबॉल’ या खेळात चॅम्पियन होते.

(ii) लेखकांच्या वडीलांनी लेखकांना दिलेली बॅट किती रूपयांची होती?
उत्तर:
लेखकाच्या वडीलांनी लेखकांना दिलेली बॅट सहा रूपयांची होती.

प्रश्न ४. पुढील उतारा वाचून दिलेल्या सूचनांनुसार कृती करा.
कृती १ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
कृती पूर्ण करा.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 8
Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले 9

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 2.
उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) मॅच संपल्यावर यांच्या स्वाक्षऱ्या घेण्यासाठी झिम्मड उडते – खेळाडूंच्या स्वाक्षऱ्या घेण्यासाठी.
(ii) या तासाला लेखकांच्या स्वाक्षरीने वही भरत असे – गणित

प्रश्न 3.
घटनांचा क्रम लावा.

(i) आपल्या भोवतीही स्वाक्षरीसाठी गर्दी होईल.
(ii) काही खेळाडू स्वाक्षरी नाकारत.
(iii) काही खेळाडू आनंदाने स्वाक्षरी देत.
(iv) मॅच संपल्यावर खेळाडूंच्या स्वाक्षऱ्या घेण्यासाठी झिम्मड उडते.
उत्तर:
(i) मॅच संपल्यावर खेळाडूंच्या स्वाक्षऱ्या घेण्यासाठी झिम्मड उडते.
(ii) काही खेळाडू आनंदाने स्वाक्षरी देत.
(iii) काही खेळाडू स्वाक्षरी नाकारत.
(iv) आपल्या भोवतीही स्वाक्षरीसाठी गर्दी होईल.

प्रश्न 4.
कंसातील योग्य शब्द वापरून रिकाम्या जागा भरा.
(i) सर्व सोहळा पाहून मनात आले, की आपणही एक मोठे …………………………….. व्हावे. (कलाकार, पंच, खेळाडू, नट)
(ii) माझ्या मनात क्रिकेटचे …………………………….. पेरले गेले आणि उगवले ते असे. (बीज, रोप, स्थान, रहस्य)
उत्तर:
(i) खेळाडू
(ii) बीज

कृती २ : आकलन कृती

प्रश्न 1.
कारणे लिहा.

विद्यार्थी व शिक्षकांनी लेखकाच्या पाठीवर शाबासकीची थाप दिली.
उत्तरः
लेखकांनी आंतरशालेय सामन्यात १०० धावा केल्या. त्यांचे नाव शाळेच्या बोर्डावर झळकले म्हणून विदयार्थी व शिक्षकांनी कौतुकासाठी लेखकाच्या पाठीवर शाबासकीची थाप दिली. योग्य पर्याय निवडून विधान पूर्ण करा.

(i) विशेषत: मॅच संपल्यावर खेळाडूंच्या स्वाक्षऱ्या घेण्यास जी झिम्मड उडते, तेव्हाचे दृश्य …………………………..

(अ) मनाला लागले.
(आ) काळजात भिडले.
(इ) आनंद मिळाला.
(ई) सुंदर होते
उत्तरः
विशेषत: मॅच संपल्यावर खेळाडूंच्या स्वाक्षऱ्या घेण्यास जी झिम्मड उडते, तेव्हाचे दृश्य काळजात भिडले.

Maharashtra Board Class 10 Marathi Aksharbharati Solutions Chapter 14 बीज पेरले गेले

प्रश्न 3.
एका वाक्यात उत्तरे लिहा.

(i) क्रिकेट खेळत असल्याबद्दल लेखकाला काय वाटले?
उत्तरः
क्रिकेट खेळत असल्याबद्दल लेखकाला धन्य-धन्य वाटले.

(ii) लेखक दिवसभर कोठे बसून मॅच पाहत हाते?
उत्तरः
लेखक दिवसभर झाडावर बसून मॅच पाहत होते.

स्वाध्याय कृती

*(६) स्वमत

(१) लेखकाच्या वडिलांची शिस्त जाणवलेले प्रसंग पाठाच्या आधारे तुमच्या शब्दांत लिहा.
उत्तरः
वडिलांची बदली वडगावाला झाल्यावर लेखकाने त्यांच्या बरोबर जाण्याचा आग्रह धरला; परंतु त्यांनी मोठे व्हावे, ऑफिसर व्हावे हे वडिलांचे स्वप्न असल्यामुळे त्यांना काकांकडे राहावे लागले.

दुसरा प्रसंग लेखक मित्रांसोबत शाळा बुडवून मॅच बघण्यासाठी गेले. हे वडिलांना कळल्यावर त्यांच्याकडून संतापाने छड्या खात लेखकास शाळेत जाऊन बसावे लागले.

अशाप्रकारे अभ्यास व शाळा याबाबत वडील कडक स्वभावाचे होते हे जाणवते.

(२) तुमच्या मते लेखकाच्या मनात क्रिकेटचे बीज कसे रुजले असावे ते लिहा.
उत्तर:
लेखक ज्यावेळी शिक्षणासाठी काकांकडे वाय.एम.सी.ए. कंपाऊंड मध्ये राहण्यास गेले, तेथे अनेक सभासद खेळण्यासाठी येत. त्यांच्या खेळाचे निरीक्षण करून, लेखकांना त्या खेळाची भुरळ पडली. तेव्हापासून ते शाळा सुटली ना सुटली की मैदानात खेळाडूंसोबत खेळायला मिळावे; म्हणून लवकर येत असत. क्रिकेट खेळाडू होणे हे त्यांनी मनाशी पक्के केले. सतत सराव करणे, मॅच बघण्यास जाणे यासाठी ते प्रयत्नात असत. अशाप्रकारे सभोवतालचा परिसर जो खेळासाठी प्रवृत्त करतो. यामध्ये सर्व खेळाडू, स्पर्धा यांचा प्रभाव लेखकाच्या मनात क्रिकेटचे बीज रुजण्यास प्रवृत्त करणारा होता.

बीज पेरले गेले Summary in Marathi

बीज पेरले गेले पाठपरिचय

‘बीज पेरले गेले’ हा पाठ लेखक ‘चंदू बोर्डे’ यांनी लिहिला आहे. या पाठात त्यांनी आपल्या बालपणातील काही आठवणी सांगितल्या असून आपल्या मनात क्रिकेटचे बीज कसे पेरले हे सांगितले आहे.

बीज पेरले गेले Summary in English

‘Bij Perle gele’ is written by Chandu Borde. He speaks of his childhood memories, including how he got inclined towards playing cricket.

बीज पेरले गेले शब्दार्थ

  • कष्ट – मेहनत – (hard work)
  • यथेच्छ – मन भरे पर्यंत, मनसोक्त – (to one’s heart’s content)
  • संध्याकाळ – सांजवेळ – (evening time)
  • आऊट – बाद करणे – (out)
  • इच्छा – मनिषा, मनोकामना – (wish)
  • पॅक्टिस – सराव – (practice)
  • ग्राऊंड – मैदान – (a playground)
  • स्तुती – कौतुक, प्रशंसा – (praise)
  • मित्र – सखा – (friend)
  • संताप – राग – (violent anger)
  • क्लब – मंडळ – (club)
  • मनसोक्त – मनापासून – (from one’s heart)
  • स्वाक्षरी – सही – (signature)
  • बालमित्र – लहानपणीचे सवंगडी – (childhood friends)
  • खेळकर – (asportive)
  • खोडकर – खोड्या करणारा – (naughty)
  • उपद्व्यापी – खोडकर, त्रासदायक – (mischievous)
  • तुटपुंजा – गरजेपेक्षा कमी, अपुरा, पुरेसा नसलेला – (meagre)
  • परिस्थिती – (condition)
  • खेळणी – खेळण्याच्या वस्तू (बाहूली, चेंडू इ.) – (a toy)
  • विटीदांडू – विटी व दांडू घेऊन खेळायचा खेळ – (the game of trapstick)
  • पतंग – (akite)
  • तक्रार – गा–हाणे – (complaint)
  • पाऊल – पाय, पाऊलखूण – (footmark, a foot)
  • चापटपोळी – थप्पड – (slap)
  • परिणाम – प्रभाव – (an effect)
  • हट्ट – हेका – (obstinacy)
  • उद्देश – (intention)
  • सभासद – सदस्य – (a member)
  • प्रयत्न – मोठा यत्न – (an attempt)
  • प्रार्थना – आराधना – (a prayer)
  • उद्गार – बोल, उच्चार – (utterance, word)
  • मासिक पगार – महिन्याला मिळणारा पगार – (salary)

बीज पेरले गेले बाकाचार

  • भुरळ पडणे – आवड निर्माण होणे
  • शाबासकीची थाप देणे – कौतुक करणे
  • आनंद गगनात मावेनासा होणे – खूप आनंद होणे
  • धन्य वाटणे – कृतकृत्य होणे
  • खूणगाठ मनाशी बांधणे – पक्का निश्चय करणे
  • छाती आनंदाने फुगणे – खूप आनंद होणे
  • नाव उज्ज्वल करणे – कीर्ती मिळवणे/प्रसिद्धी मिळणे

Maharashtra Board Class 10 History Solutions Chapter 5 Mass Media and History

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 History Solutions Chapter 5 Mass Media and History Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 10 History Solutions Chapter 5 Mass Media and History

Mass Media And History Class 10 Question 1.
(A) Choose the correct option from the given options and complete the statement.

(1) The first English newspaper in India was started by ………………………….. .
(a) James Augustus Hickey
(b) John Marshall
(c) Allen Hume
Answer:
(a) James Augustus Hickey

Maharashtra Board Solutions

(2) Television is an ………………………….. medium.
(a) visual
(b) audio
(c) audio-visual
Answer:
(c) audio-visual

(B) Identify and write the wrong pair in the following set.
(1) ‘Prabhakar’ – Acharya P.K. Atre
(2) ‘Darpan’ – Balshastri Jambhekar
(3) ‘Deenbandhu’ – Krishnarao Bhalekar
(4) ‘Kesari’ – Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Answer:
(1) Wrong Pair: ‘Prabhakar’ – Acharya P.K. Atre

Mass Media And History Class 10 Question 2.
Write short notes :
(1) The role of newspaper in the Indian struggle for independence
Answer:
Newspapers played an important role in the Indian independence struggle. It is as follows

  • Newspapers served as an important medium to create awareness during those times.
  • They described greatness of Indian culture and history to gather support of masses for the freedom movement.
  • They supported social, political and religious movements and opposed imperialism.
  • They discussed various social and political issues.
  • The ideas of social reformers and various organisations active in independence struggle reached people through newspapers.

(2) Why do we need mass media?
Answer:
Mass media includes print and electronic and various new media.

  • It facilitated free flow of information to all strata of the society and brought the world closer.
  • Editorials, various columns and supplements are essential parts of newspapers.
  • Readers also get a platform to voice their opinions. In fact, newspapers can help to make democracy stronger.
  • Akashrani broadcasted various programmes of the government as well entertainment.
  • Awareness creating programmes. It fulfill the need of the government to connect with people.
  • Television is an Audio-Visual medium which has made it possible to cross the inherent limitations of newspapers.
  • Radio to show the actual visuals of an event to people.
  • Mass Media is very important as it plays an important role to strengthen democracy.

(3) Mass Media and professional opportunities.
Answer:
There are many professional opportunities available in printed, electronic and digital media.

  • Writers, columnists, editors are required to write articles, columns and editorials in news-papers.
  • Newspapers also require reporters to gather news and technicians to work in the press.
  • There is requirement of actors and technicians in electronic media.
  • Artists are required to present programmes on television, in the same way news presenters, anchors are required.
  • If the articles, columns and programmes are based on history, an expert in history is required.

Mass Media And History Class 10 Question Answer Question 3.
Explain the following statements with reasons.
(1) Any information received through mass media needs to be reviewed critically.
Answer:

  • Information provided in the media may not represent the exact truth. We need to scan it carefully.
  • We have to understand idealistic and investigative motives of newspapers, government policies and prevailing social conditions behiid the newspiece.
  • The information received through Mass Media might be prejudiced or give a one-sided idea.
  • ‘Stern’, a German weekly magazine, purchased and published a number of so called handwritten diaries of Hitler.
  • It then sold them to a number of publication companies.
  • However, later it was proved that those diaries were forged. Hence it is essential to verily the information received through Mass Media.

(2) Knowledge of history is essential for newspaper articles.
Answer:

  1. In order to unfold the background of an event in the news, we have to resort to history.
  2. Some columns are based on historical events. These columns provide historical information about economical, social and political events in the past.
  3. Newspapers publish supplements in addition to the regular edition or special issues to mark the completion of 50 or 100 years of an event. On such occasions, one has to review history of that particular event.
  4. Even while writing columns like what happened in history on this day it is necessary to know past event. Hence, the knowledge of history is essential for writings of such type.

(3) Television is the most popular medium.
Answer:

  • Television being an audio-visual medium brings us into contact with events in an exciting and clarifying way.
  • It crossed the inherent limitations of newspapers and radio to show actual visuals.
  • It becomes possible for people to watch all the national and international events sitting at home.
  • Social problems, discussion on education and economics and political events are viewed by people.
  • In 1991, Indian government granted permission to private, national and international channels to telecast in India.
  • Television became a treasure house of entertainment.

Therefore, the television is the most popular medium.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 Questions And Answers Ssc Board Question 4.
Read the following extract and answer the questions.
Radio: ‘Indian Broadcasting Company’ (IBC), a private radio company was the first one to broadcast daily programmes. Later the same company was taken over by the British Government and named as, ‘Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS). On 8th June 1936 it was renamed, as ‘All India Radio (AIR)’.

After Independence, AIR became an integral part of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India). Initially, it broadcasted Governmental programmes and schemes. It was named as ‘Akashvani’ on the suggestion of the famous poet Pandit Narendra Sharma. Akashvani broadcasts various entertainment, awareness creating and literary programmes. It also broadcasts special programmes for farmers, workers, the youth and women. The ‘Vividh Bharati’ programmes are broadcasted in 24 regional languages as well as 146 dialects of Indian languages. Lately, various new channels like ‘Radio Mirchi’ are providing radio services.

(1) Akashavani (AIR) is an integral part of which ministry?
Answer:

  1. Indian Broadcasting Company, a private radio company was taken over by the British Government in 1927 and named ‘Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS)’. On 8th June 1936, it was renamed as ‘All India Radio (AIR)’.
  2. AIR became integral part of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting after independence. It was renamed Akashvani on the suggestion of Pandit Narendra Sharma.
  3. Initially it used to broadcast Government’s programmes and schemes. Later it started broadcasting various entertainment, awareness creating and literary programmes.
  4. Akashvani started ‘Vividh Bharati1 programmes. It broadcasts special programmes for farmers, workers, the youth and women.
  5. Vividh Bharati Programmes are broadcast in 24 regional languages and 146 dialects.

(2) What was the new name of IBC?
Answer:
Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was taken over by the British Government. It was named as the Indian State Broadcasting Services. (ISBS). On 8th June 1936, it was renamed as ‘All India Radio’ (AIR).

(3) In how many regional languages and local dialects are ‘Vividh Bharati’ programmes broadcasted?
Answer:
People get access to news through social media like Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube and from web news portals, web channels. This information is available in English and many other languages.

(4) How AIR was named ‘Akashavani’?
Answer:
AIR was named as Akashvani on the suggestion of the famous poet Pandit Narendra Sharma.

Question 5.
Complete the following concept chart.

Newspapers Radio Television
Beginning/Background
Nature of information/programmes
Functions

Answer:

Newspapers Radio Television
Background/Beginning James Augustus Hickey started Calcutta General Advertiser or Bengal Gazette on 29th January, 1780. It was the first newspaper in English. A private radio station was started known as Indian Broadcasting Company. First Doordarshan centre was started in Delhi.
Information Programmes News, articles, columns, opinions of the people, editorials, advertisements etc. are published. Along with entertainment programmes, have literary, informative programmes on farmers, women and educative values. Events around the world, movies, music, information about environmental and historical places, sports are shown either live or recorded.
Functions (1) Report daily news
(2) Public awareness and mass education.
(3) Provide information and strengthen democracy.
(4) Oppose injustice and give publicity to developmental work.
(1) Provide news from different sectors.
(2) Entertain through music, dramas, songs, etc.
(3) Present social problems and educate the masses about it.
(4) Conduct discussions on various issues ranging from the environment to culture.
(1) Telecast daily events and entertain.
(2) Educate the masses.
(3) Publicise programmes which are for social benefit.
(4) Bring about social awakening opposing evil traditions and practices.

Project
Write a review of a historical serial that you have watched.

Memory Map
Maharashtra Board Class 10 History Solutions Chapter 5 Mass Media and History 1

Question 6.
Complete the sentences by choosing a correct option:
(a) ………………….. is the first newspaper in Marathi.
(a) Deenbandhu
(b) Prabhakar
(c) Darpan
(d) Kesari
Answer:
(c) Darpan

(b) 6th January is celebrated as ………………….. day in Maharashtra.
(a) Periodical Day
(b) Newspaper Day
(c) Printing Day
(d) Journalist Day
Answer:
(d) Journalist Day

(c) The letters ‘Shatpatre1 published in Prabhakar were written by ………………….. .
(a) Lokmanya Tilak
(b) Lokhitvadi
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Justice Ranade
Answer:
(b) Lokhitvadi.

(d) The honour of printing illustrations for the first time in an Indian newspaper goes to ………………….. .
(a) Dnyanoday
(b) Darpan
(c) Prabhakar
(d) Kesari
Answer:
(a) Dnyanoday

(e) Deenbandhu was started by ………………….. who was a close associate of Mahatma Phule.
(a) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar
(b) Lokmanya Tilak %
(c) Narayan Meghaji Lokhande
(d) Krishnarao Bhalekar
Answer:
(d) Krishnarao Bhalekar

(f) ………………….. newspaper was started by Agarkar and Lokmanya Tilak.
(a) Deenbandhu and Induprakash
(b) Darpan and Prabhakar
(c) Dnyanoday and .Digdarshan
(d) Kesari and Maratha
Answer:
(d) Kesari and Maratha

(g) Balshastri Jambhekar started ………………….. the first monthly magazine in Marathi.
(a) Digdarshan
(b) Prabhakar
(c) Darpan
(d) Dnyanoday
Answer:
(a) Digdarshan

(h) ………………….. was acknowledged as the fourth pillar of democracy.
(a) Representatives
(b) Periodicals
(c) Newspaper
(d) Books
Answer:
(c) Newspaper.

(i) The first English news bulletin was broadcast on 23rd July, 1927 from the …………………… radio station.
(a) Kolkata
(b) Madras
(c) Mumbai
(d) Dblhi
Answer:
(c) Mumbai

(j) Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India inaugurated the …………………… Doordarshan centre.
(a) Mumbai
(b) Bangalore
(c) Lucknow
(d) Delhi
Answer:
(d) Delhi

(k) Newspapers published special supplements or a special issue to commemorate occasions like completion of seventy-five years of …………………… in 2017.
(a) Khilafat Movement
(b) Non Co-operation Movement
(c) Civil Disobedience Movement
(d) Quit India Movement
Answer:
(d) Quit India Movement

(l) ……………………, a German weekly magazine, had purchased a number of so called handwritten diaries that were later proved forged.
(a) Time Magazine
(b) Statesman
(c) Stern
(d) Reuters
Answer:
(c) Stern

(m) Akashvani has preserved recordings of all speeches delivered by the …………………… on 15th August.
(a) President
(b) Wee President
(c) Prime Minister
(d) Army General
Answer:
(c) Prime Minister

(n) Akashwani comes under the Ministry of …………………… of the Indian Government.
(a) Social welfare
(b) Human Resource and Development
(c) Information and Broadcasting
(d) Education Technology
Answer:
(c) Information and Broadcasting.

Question 7.
Identify the wrong pair in the following and write it:

Newspaper Editor
(1)  Prabhakar

(2)  Darpan

(3)  Deenbandhu

(4)  Kesari

(a)   Acharya R K. Atre

(b)   Balshastri Jambhekar

(c)  Krishnarao Bhalekar

(d)   Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Answer:
Wrong pair: Prabhakar – Acharya R K. Atre

(2)

Newspaper Issues
(1)  Prabhakar

(2)  Induprakash

(3)  Deenbandhu

(4)  Kesari

(a)   History of French revolution

(b)  Advocated widow re­marriage

(c)  Information on Telegraph

(d)   Voiced social and political problems.

Answer:
Wrong pair Deenbandhu – Information on Telegraph

(3)

Newspaper/Magazine/Book Editor
(1) Pragati (a) Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar
(2) Digdarshan (b) Narendra Sharma
(3) Deenbandhu (c) Krishnarao Bhalekar
(4) Discovery of India (d) Pandit Nehru

Answer:
Wrong pair: Digdarshan – Narendra Sharma

Question 8.
Do as directed:
(a) Complete the graphical description

Answer:

(2)

Answer:

(b) Show the progress of Indian television Time-line:

Answer:

Question 9.
Explain the following concepts:

(a) Electronic or Digital Journalism or Web Journalism.
Answer:

  1. In the modem times, the computer and internet have become indispensable parts of printing and publishing process. Computer technology has led to the widespread practice of digital journalism.
  2. Websites run by newspapers are basically extensions of newspapers themselves. Modern periodicals are part of electronic or digital journalism.
  3. People get access to news through social media like Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube and from web news portals, web channels. This information is available in English and many other languages.
  4. Journalists working in this area today have to have many more skills than in the past when writing was the only requirement. Information available on these mediums should be reviewed critically and used with utmost care.

(b) E-newspapers
Answer:

  1. In recent times, e-newspapers have got prominent place in mass media.
  2. E-newspaper is not exactly like the printed one. In e-newspapers, news comes in sequence and not based on the nature and the importance of the news, like in printed newspaper e.g.. Front page news. Headline or Last page news.
  3. The news which we want to read has to be clicked and then it appears on the screen in detail.
  4. There is space provided for opinion of readers. In 1992, the first edition of the e-newspaper was published by ‘Chicago Tribune1.
  5. At present, almost all newspapers are available as e-newspapers and people can read them anytime, anywhere using the Internet or computer, tab, laptop or mobile.
  6. In recent times many newspapers have introduced e-newspapers. The e-newspapers are being received well by the readers.
  7. Learn to read e-newspapers with the help of your teachers.

Question 10.
Write short notes:
(a) Bengal Gazette:
Answer:

  • Bengal Gazette is the first newspaper which was started in India.
  • It was started by James Augustus Hickey, an Irish national.
  • It was first published on 29th January, .1780. It was also called “Calcutta General Advertiser’.
  • Bengal Gazette laid the foundation of newspaper in India.

(b) News printed in ‘Darpan’:
Answer:
The ‘Darpan newspaper started by Balshastri Jambhekar printed all types of news like political, economic, social and cultural. Some of them are mentioned below:

  • The Accounts of Expenditure from the Three Administrative Divisions of the East India Company.
  • The Danger of Russian Attack on the Nation.
  • Appointment of a Committee for Cleanliness of the City.
  • Remarriage of Hindu Widows.
  • The Inception of Theatre at Calcutta.
  • Achievements of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in England. All these reports published in the paper throw light on various situations/events of those days.

(c) Television:
Answer:

  • The first President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad inaugurated Delhi Doordarshan Centre.
  • Mumbai Doordarshan started to telecast its programmes on 2nd October, 1972.
  • Colour television started on 15th August, 1982. The Indian government granted permission to private, national and international channels in 1991 to telecast in India.

Question 11.
Explain the following sentences with reason:
(a) Newspaper is an important medium of education and information.
Answer:

  • Newspapers report events which are interesting to the public. But the importance of newspaper stretches far beyond a passing humari interest in events.
  • It covers a miscellany of topical issues. News would involve matters of higher importance like war, global warming, education, national elections or trivial issues such as scandals, gossips and debates on minor controversies.
  • Newspapers have contributed significantly to the spread of literacy and the concept of human rights and democratic freedoms.
  • They are integral to the development of democracy. In fact, they can help in making the democracy stronger.
  • Newspapers not only report the events but continue to shape opinions in the global village.

(b) 6th January is observed as ‘Patrakar Din’ or ‘Journalist Day’ in Maharashtra.
Answer:

  • Balshastri Jambhekar started the first newspaper in Marathi on 6th January, 1832 in Mumbai.
  • He is referred to as the ‘First Editor’ as he was the first editor.
  • He laid the foundation of Marathi newspaper by starting Darpan. As 6th January is his birth date, it is observed as ‘Patrkar Din’ or ‘Journalists’ Day’ in Maharashtra.

(c) Television and history are closely related.
Answer:

  1. Television plays a major role in developing interest in history. While producing shows and serials based on history and mythology, it is essential to have an accurate knowledge of history and know the minute details.
  2. ‘Bharat Ek Khoj’, Raja Shivchhatrapati, Ramayana, Mahabharata are among the few popular serials based on history and mythology. While producing these serials.
  3. It was essential to know the prevalent social conditions, outfits, lifestyle, weaponry, lingual expressions of the people. Historians who had knowledge on these subjects are required.
  4. While making programmes, based on sportsmen, literature, war, historical events, forts and animal life, it is important to give history of their development in that particular period.
  5. While conducting discussions on television on topics like social problems, education, economics, health, it is important to give references from the past.

This shows that the knowledge of history is required in the making many of programmes on Television. Hence Television and history are closely related.

Question 12.
Answer the following question in 25-30 words:
(a) Explain the objectives of newspapers.
Answer:
The main objectives of newspapers are as follows:

  • Newspapers provide various local, national and international news to the people and inform them about daily events.
  • They narrate political, economic, cultural and social history of the country.
  • Newspapers fulfill their role as the fourth column of democracy by creating public awareness and becoming a medium of mass education.
  • They even condemn the anti-social elements in the society and support the weaker section.

(b) How is history helpful in the planning of the Akashvani programmes ?
Answer:
Akashvani broadcasts all types of programmes from celebration of independence day to entertainment programmes. In planning these programmes, the knowledge of history is essential.

  1. Akashvani invites historians as experts for discussions while presenting programmes on various occasions such as the anniversaries of births and deaths of national leaders, anniversaries of historical events; speeches of all Prime Ministers/Presidents.
  2. Programmes like ‘On This Day in History’ is a daily programme which highlights importance of that day and date in history.
  3. Information has to be verified by historians before it reaches the people. Lectures on the contributions of various national leaders need to be supported by historical information. In the following ways history is helpful in the planning of Akashvani programmes.

(c) How were the message conveyed to the people in olden days?
Answer:
The following were a few means used to convey messages to the people in olden days:

  • A town crier would run on the streets beating drums and crying out important news according to the orders of the king.
  • So, the news would spread among people by word of mouth.
  • Inscriptions with royal decrees were placed at public places.

Question 13.
Read the following passages and answer the questions:”
(a) Which programmes are broadcasted by Akashvani?
Answer:

  • Initially, Akashvani broadcasted government programmes and schemes.
  • Later it broadcasted various entertainment and literary programmes.
  • Akashvani presents various programmes for creating awareness.
  • Special programmes are also broadcasted for farmers, workers, youth and women.

(a) On which book is the serial ‘Bharat Ek Khoj’ based on?
Answer:
The Serial Bharat Ek Khoj is based on ‘Discovery of India’, a book written by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

(b) Who directed the serial ‘Bharat Ek Khoj’?
Answer:
The serial was directed by Shyam Benegal.

(c) Which factors/aspects of Indian history are depicted in ‘Bharat Ek Khoj’? OR Why was ‘Bharat Ek Khoj’ a serial telecasted by Doordarshan admired in all parts of India?
Answer:
The television serial ‘Bharat Ek Khoj’ presented social, political and economic life from ancient to the modem period in India.

  1. It portrayed various aspects of Indian history like Harappan civilisation, Vedic history and the interpretation of epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana.
  2. It used the technique of dramatisation effectively to recreate the Mauryan period and show the impact of Turk-Afghan invasions.
  3. The Mughal period and their contributions which have long-lasting effect on social and cultural fabric of India is shown. The rise of Bhakti movement, role of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj in getting swarajya is portrayed.
  4. The last episodes (finale) of the serial narrate social movements and India’s freedom struggle in modem period.

Thus, the serial effectively portrayed the journey of India from Harappan civilisation to the modern period and therefore was admired in all parts of India.

Question 14.
Answer the following questions in detail:
(a) What were the different means of communication known around the world before the advent of newspaper?
Answer:
The following means of communication were used to convey news before the advent of newspaper:

  1. Inscriptions with royal decrees placed at public places was a custom in Egypt. Emperor Ashoka followed the sam method to reach out to his subjects.
  2. In the Roman Empire, roytil decrees were written on papers and those were distribute’d in all regions. It also contained information of various events taking place in the nation and its capital.
  3. During, the reign of’ Julius Caesar ‘Acta Diurna’, meaning acts of everyday used to be placed at public places in Rome.
  4. In the 7th century C.E., in China, royal dictates were distributed among people at public places.
  5. In England handouts were distributed occasionally among people at public places giving information about war or any important events.
  6. Travellers arriving from different faraway places would add spice to stories from those places and narrate the same to local people. The ambassadors of a king posted at various places would send back important news to the royal court.

(b) Write information on Periodicals based on its types.
Answer:
Magazines and journals which are published at regular intervals are known as Periodicals.
Types:

  • They are categorised as weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly, quarterly, six monthly and annual.
  • There are some chronicles which are published at no fixed time.

Classification: Periodicals can be classified as popular and scholarly.

  • If a periodical aims at specialists and researchers, it is a ‘journal1. Articles are generally written by experts in the subject.
  • Popular periodicals are magazines published with variety of content. They can be on fashion, sports, entertainment and films.
  • Bharatiya Itihas ani Sanskruti and Marathwada Itihas Parishad Patrika are periodicals of present times. Periodicals are an important source to study history.

(c) Write about the important role of newspaper in the freedom struggle.
Answer:

  1. The press was the chief instrument for carrying out the political tasks and propagation of nationalist ideology.
  2. Both English and Vernacular press started by prominent “leaders like Gopal Ganesh Agarkar and Lokmanya Tilak acted as catalyst to the freedom struggle. They started ‘Kesari’ and ‘Maratha’ in 1881.
  3. Newspapers played a great role in building up an increasingly strong national sentiment and consciousness among people. It was an instrument to arouse, train, mobilise and consolidate nationalist public opinion.
  4. The newspapers were an effective tool in the hands of social reformers. They exposed social evils such as child marriage, ban on remarriage of the widows, inhuman institution as untouchability, caste fetters, etc. It became a weapon in their hands to educate masses.
  5. A comparative study was presented in newspaper on western education, knowledge and national education.
  6. Newspapers also discussed political institutions in India and the west. The main aim of these newspapers was not to gain profit but to serve the people.

(d) Give a short account of the development of Indian television.
Answer:

  1. Television service started in India in 1959. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first Indian President, inaugurated the Delhi Doordarshan centre.
  2. Mumbai centre began to telecast its programmes on 2nd October 1972. Colour television was introduced in India on 15th August 1982.
  3. The national telecast began in 1983. Doordarshan started Channels like DD Sports, DD Metro, news, etc. along with 10 regional channels.
  4. In the year 1991, the Indian government gave permission to private, national and international channels to telecast in India.
  5. Presently there are more than 800 national and regional channels. Some of them are exclusive news, sports, music, movies and religious channels which telecast programmes 24 hours a day.

(e) Distinguish between Newspapers and Magazines.
Answer:
Newspapers and magazines differ in their format, objectives and duration of getting published. The differences are noted below:

Newspapers Magazines
1. Newspapers document the current events. 1. Magazines give no importance to current news.
2. News, articles, columns, editorials have importance in a newspaper. 2. Magazines give preferences to particular subject and publish articles on it.
3. Newspapers are also called ‘Dailies’ as they are published every day. 3. Duration of publication of magazine varies. Some are published weekly, fortnightly, monthly and annually.
4.. The main purpose of newspaper is to report local, national and international news. 4. Instead of providing news, their content is entertaining and knowledge-based.
5. Newspapers make the people aware of the events happening in the society. They do not stick to any one subject. 5. Magazines are about a specific topic. On the basis of their appearance, size, readability, content and audience, magazines differ from newspapers.
6. Newspapers mostly write about current news. Whatever happens in the world appears in the newspaper within a span of 24 hours. It shapes public opinion and keep people updated about the activities of the government. 6, As magazines have lot of detailed information on specific topics they are considered as historical source.

Brain Teaser

Across:

  • Referred to as the ‘First Editor’.
  • A newspaper representing masses of the Indian society (Bahujan Samaj).
  • Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar edited this journal.
  • Letters by Lokhitvadi.

Down:

  • The history of French Revolution was published in this newspaper.
  • Newspaper started by James Augustus Hickey.
  • First monthly magzine in Marathi.
  • Pandit Narendra Sharma suggested this name for AIR.Maharashtra Board Class 10 History Solutions Chapter 5 Mass Media and History 10

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Maths Solutions Chapter 14 Algebraic Formulae – Expansion of Squares Practice Set 52

Maharashtra State Board Class 7 Maths Solutions Chapter 14 Algebraic Formulae – Expansion of Squares Practice Set 52

Algebraic Formulae Expansion Of Squares Class 7 Question 1.
Factorise the following expressions and write them in the product form.
i. 201a³b²
ii. 91xyt²
iii. 24a²b²
iv. tr²s³
i. 201a³b²
= 3 × 67 × a³ × b²
= 3 × 67 × a × a × a × b × b

ii. 91xyt²
= 7 × 13 × x × y × t²
= 7 × 13 × x × y × t × t

iii. 24a²b²
= 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × a² × b²
= 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × a × a × b × b

iv. tr²s³
= t × r² × s³
= t × r × r × s × s × s

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Maths Solutions

Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 4.1 A Thing of Beauty is a Joy For Ever

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 4.1 A Thing of Beauty is a Joy For Ever Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 10 English Kumarbharati Textbook Solutions Unit 4.1 A Thing of Beauty is a Joy For Ever

Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 4.1 Warming Up Questions and Answers

A Thing Of Beauty Is A Joy Forever Question 1.
(A) Fill in the Acrostic with names of things related to Nature.
B …………………..
E …………………..
A …………………..
U …………………..
T …………………..
Y …………………..
Answer:
Birds
Earth
Animals
Uranus
Trees
Yam

(B) Make a list of 10 words related to the word ‘joy’, for example, happiness.
1. …………………..
2. …………………..
3. …………………..
4. …………………..
5. …………………..
6. …………………..
7. …………………..
8. …………………..
9. …………………..
10. ………………….
Answer:
happiness,
pleasure,
ecstasy,
delight,
rapture,
jubilation,
elation,
exultation,
glee,
euphoria.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

A Thing Of Beauty Important Questions Question 2.
Recollect a picnic or a trip to a spot of natural beauty (a hill station/ a beach/forest area etc.) when you were younger.
Write four beautiful unforgettable scenes that left a deep impact on you.
(1) …………………………………………………………
(2) …………………………………………………………
(3) …………………………………………………………
(4) …………………………………………………………
Answer:
(1) The setting sun disappearing behind the hills.
(2) The river shining deep down in the valley.
(3) The early morning mist.
(4) The rain water trickling down from the leaves.

A Thing Of Beauty Is A Joy Forever Poem Question 3.
‘Meter’ in poetry is a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in lines of a poem. It gives rhythm to the poem.

Read the poem below aloud and with any colored pen/ pencil put stress-marks ( ‘ ) on those syllables that are stressed in the words of the poetic lines.

THE steadfast coursing of the stars,
The waves that ripple to the shore,
The vigorous trees which year by year
Spread upwards more and more ;
The jewel forming in the mine,
The snow that falls so soft and light,
The rising and the setting sun,
The growing glooms of night,
All natural things both live and move
In natural peace that is their own ;
Only in our disordered life
Almost is she unknown.

A Thing Of Beauty Extract Questions Question 4.
Consonance and Assonance
Consonance : Repetition of consonant sounds within a word, phrase or a short sentence.
For example : pitter-patter/ chuckle-fickle/ sick-duck/ Betty bought some bitter butter
Answer:
Consonance: (Repetition of consonant sounds within a word, phrase or a short sentences)
(1) The steadfast coursing of the stars
(2) The waves that ripple to the shore
(3) The snow that falls so soft and light
(4) The rising and the setting sun
(5) All natural things both live and move.

Assonance : Repetition of vowel sounds within a word/ phrase/ sentence.
For example : Jack had a bag.
Men sell metal- kettle.
Let the engineer steer without fear.
Answer:
Assonance: (Repetition of vowel sounds within a word/phrase/sentence.)
(1) The vigorous trees which year by year
(2) Spread upwards more and more
(3) Theewel forming in the mine
(4) Only in our disordered life.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Thing of Beauty is a Joy For Ever Class 10 English Workshop Questions and Answers Maharashtra Board

A Thing Of Beauty Question Answer Question 1.
Read the poem and fill in the table.

Sr. No. Expressions of Beauty (joy) Expressions of sorrow
1
2
3
4
5
6

Answer:

Expressions of Beauty (Joy) Expressions of Sorrow
1. A bower quiet for us 1. Spite of despondence
2. Are we wreathing a flowery band 2. Of the inhuman dearth of noble natures
3. Sproutingashadyboon 3. Of the gloomy days
4. Daffodils with the green world they live in 4. Of all the unhealthy and o’er-darkened ways
5. Clear rills that for themselves a cooling covert make 5. Our dark spirits
6. Mid forest brake, rich with a sprinkling ‘ of fair musk-rose blooms

A Thing Of Beauty Is Joy Forever Question 2.
Answer in your own words.
(a) What is the impact of a beautiful thing on us?
(b) What does a thing of beauty keep in store, for us?
(c) Who are the mighty dead? Why are they attributed with ‘grandeur’?
(d) How does the memory of a beautiful visual scene become a joy forever?
Answer:
(a) A beautiful thing gives us happiness, relaxation and peace. It inspires us and makes us love life despite troubles and sufferings.
(b) A thing of beauty provides shelter and comfort in many ways. It is like a shady place under a tree where we can rest. It helps all living creatures to sleep peacefully, have good dreams and also good health.
(c) The memory of a beautiful visual scene leaves a lasting impression on us. It is a permanent source of joy and inspiration to five our lives despite the trials and tribulations. The pleasure and happiness given by it never fades away but keeps on increasing.
(d) The mighty dead are the brave men who have sacrificed their lives for a purpose. They Eire an inspiration to all of us because of their innumerable sacrifices. They are attributed with grandeur because of their noble deeds.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

A Thing Of Beauty Is A Joy Forever Question And Answer Question 3.
Pick out and rewrite 5 lines that contain Imagery.
For example :
(a) we are wreathing a flowery band…
(b) …………………………………………
(c) …………………………………………
(d) …………………………………………
(e) …………………………………………
Answer:
(a) we are wreathing a flowery band
(b) trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon
(c) and such are daffodils with the green world they live in
(d) and clear rills that for themselves a cooling covert make
(e) the mid forest brake, rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms

Thing Of Beauty Question Answers Question 4.
Choose the correct Figure of speech that occurs in the following lines. Justify your choice.
(a) ………………….. but still we keep a bower quiet for us
(i) Simile
(ii) Irony
(iii) Metaphor
Answer:
(iii) Metaphor

(b) Some shape of beauty moves away the pall …………………..
(i) Personification
(ii) Alliteration
(iii) Hyperbole
Answer:
(ii) Alliteration

(c) A thing of beauty is a joy for ever …………………..
(i) Epigram
(ii) Antithesis
(iii) Climax
Answer:
(i) Epigram

(d) Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon.
(i) Exclamation
(ii) Personification
(iii) Antithesis
Answer:
(iii) Antithesis

Maharashtra Board Solutions

The Thing Of Beauty Is A Joy Forever Question 5.
From the poem pick out words that we do not use often in modern times. They should match the meanings given below.
(a) gift …………………..
(b) the next day …………………..
(c) a protective spot ………………….. (for animals)
(d) a cool shady spot ………………….. under tall trees.
(e) ferns …………………..
(f) edge …………………..
(g) depression …………………..
(h) cover for the dead …………………..
(i) streams …………………..
(j) poetry …………………..
Answer:
(a) gift – boon
(b) the next day – morrow
(c) a protective spot for animals – covert
(d) a cool shady spot bower under tall trees
(e) ferns – brake
(f) edge – brink
(g) depression – despondence
(h) cover for the dead – pall
(i) streams-rills
(j) poetry – poesy

A Thing Of Beauty Is A Joy For Ever Question 6.
Copy the first 8 lines and mark the stressed syllables using a coloured pen.

A Thing Of Beauty Is A Joy Question 7.
Read the poem and write-
(a) The rhyme scheme of the following lines.
Lines 1 to 8 …………………..
Last stanza …………………..
Answer:
Rhyme scheme of lines 1 – 8: aabb, ccdd
Rhyme scheme of the last stanza: aabbc.

(b) (i) The number of stressed syllables (Rhythm) in the line.
A thing of beauty is a joy forever. ………………….
Answer:
A thing of beauty is a joy forever. The title of the poem

(ii) Does the poem retain a steady rhythm throughout?
Answer:
Yes.

(c) Give four examples of each. Pick the lines from the poem.
(i) Consonance:
(1) ………………….
(2) ………………….
(3) ………………….
(4) ………………….
Answer:
(1) A flowery band to bind us to the earth
(2) For simple sheep; and such are the daffodils
(3) With the green world they live in; and clear rills.
(4) All lovely tales that we have heard or read

Maharashtra Board Solutions

(ii) Assonance :
(1) ………………….
(2) ………………….
(3) ………………….
(4) ………………….
Answer:
(1) A thing of beauty is joy forever
(2) Pass into nothingness, but still will keep
(3) And such too is the grandeur of the dooms
(4) That whether there be shine or gloom o’ercast

I Think Of Beauty Is A Joy Forever Question 8.
Go through the poem again and write in your notebook an appreciation of the poem in the paragraph format. (Refer to page no. 5 )
Answer:
Point Format
(for understandig)
The title of the poem : ‘A Thing of Beauty Is a Joy Forever’
The poet : John Keats
Rhyme schenie: aabb; rhyming couplets
Figures of speech : EpIgram, Metaphor, Antithesis, etc.
Theme/Central idea: Beautiful things give unending pleasure and can change our lives.

Paragraph Format
The poem ‘A Thing of Beauty is aoy Forever’ byohn Keats is taken from a longer poem ‘Endymion’ based on Greek Mythology.

The rhyme scheme of the poem is aabb; that is, the poem is written in rhyming couplets. There Eire many figures of speech, like Metaphor, Antithesis, etc. but the one that stands out is Epigram. The line A thing of beauty is aoy forever’, is a pithy saying expressing the idea of beauty in a clever way.

The important thing that the poet tells us is that beautiful things last forever and give us immense i happiness. They give unending pleasure and can change our lives.

Question 9.
Project :
Collect from various sources proverbs or maxims related to the ‘beauty of nature.’ Make a chart/ poster with the same. Decorate it with images, drawings, pictures, and put it up by turns in your class.

Question 10.
List the things of beauty mentioned in the extract.
Answer:
The things of beauty include a quiet bower, the heavenly bodies like the sun and the moon, the old and young trees that provide cool shelter to sheep, daffodils with greenery around them, clear streams that make cool thickets for themselves and ferns with musk-roses scattered in between.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 11.
List the things that cause suffering and pain.
Answer:
The things that cause suffering and pain are despondence and despair, shortage of noble people, hot season, gloomy days and the unhealthy and darkened ways of life (trials and difficulties of life).

Question 12.
Choose the correct figures of speech that occur in the following lines.ustify your choice.
(1) ….but still we keep a bower quiet for us….
(a) Simile (b) Irony (c) Metaphor
Answer:
Metaphor – bower stands for rest and peace

Question 13.
Some shape of beauty moves away the pall
(a) Personification (b) Alliteration (c) Hyperbole
Answer:
Alliteration – Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘s’.
Personification – beauty is given the human quality of moving away the pall. *

Question 14.
A thing of beauty is aoy forever….
(a) Epigram (b) Antithesis (c) Climax
Answer:
Epigram – the sentence is a short, pithy statement.

Question 15.
Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon.
(a) Exclamation (b) Personification (c) Antithesis
Answer:
Antithesis – the use of opposite words, old and young, in the same line.

Question 16.
The number of stressed syllables in the line: A thing of beauty is joy forever;

Answer:
5

Question 17.
List the things of beauty mentioned in the extract.
Answer:
The things of beauty mentioned in the extract are: lovely tales of valour, endless fountains, immortal drink, trees that whisper, passionate poetry and cheering light.

Question 18.
Fill in the web with what passion poesy can do to you:
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 4.1 A Thing of Beauty is a Joy For Ever 1

Question 19.
List the things which express sorrow from the extract:
Answer:
(i) dooms
(ii) glooms o’ercast/clouds of gloom
(iii) die (iv) dead.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 20.
Pick out and write the lines that contain imagery.
Answer:
(i) grandeur of the dooms ;
(ii) An endless fountain of immortal drink ;
(iii) Pouring onto us from the heaven’s brink
(iv) trees that whisper around a temple

Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 3.5 Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 3.5 Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 10 English Kumarbharati Textbook Solutions Unit 3.5 Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom

Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 3.5 Warming Up Questions and Answers

Unbeatable Super Mom Mary Kom English Workshop Question 1.
Discuss and find out the jobs which were done only by men in the past but nowadays women too have started doing them.
……………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………….
Answer:
HR Manager, Finance Manager, Accountant, Auditor. Budget Analyst, Underwriter, Tax Examiner, Real Estate Agent, Media person, Psychotherapists, Advertising Manager, Event Manager, Social and Community Service Manager, Officer in the Civil Services, Officer in the Armed Forces, Commercial Airline, Pilot, Veterinarian, an Autorickshaw driver.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Unbeatable Super Mom Mary Kom Question 2.
Complete the following web of India’s winning medals in Olympics.
Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 3.5 Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom 1
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 3.5 Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom 2

Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom Question Answer Question 3.
The text is about a famous female boxer, Mary Kom, who has brought laurels to our country by winning many national and international boxing championships. Make a list of famous men and women boxers across the world. You can take help of internet or your school library to get this information to complete the table.

Name of boxer Gender Country
1.  Mary Kom
2. Maharashtra Board Solutions
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Female India

Answer:

Name of boxer Gander Country
1. Mary Kom Female India
2. Muhammad Ali Male US
3. Vijender Singh Male India
5. Dolph Lundgren Male Sweden
6. Holly Holm Female US
7. Natascha Ragosina Female Russia
8. Lucia Rijker Female The Netherlands
9. Dingko. Singh Male ; India

Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom Class 10 English Workshop Questions and Answers Maharashtra Board

4.4 Unbeatable Super Mom – Mary Kom Question 1.
Choose the correct alternative and underline it.
(a) What is included in the text?
(i) story
(ii) speech
(iii) interview
(iv) poem
Answer:
(iii) interview

Maharashtra Board Solutions

(b) Which State does Mary Kom belong to?
(i) Maharashtra
(ii) Tamil Nadu
(iii) Kerala
(iv) Manipur
Answer:
(iv) Manipur

(c) Who inspired Mary Kom and other youngsters in Manipur to choose boxing as a career?
(i) Dingko Singh
(ii) Charles Atkinson
(iii) Mangte Tonpa Kom
(iv) Adams
Answer:
(i) Dingko Singh

(d) What does Mary Kom prefer being called?
(i) Super mom
(ii) Super boxer
(iii) Super woman
(iv) Super being
Answer:
(i) Super Mom

Question 2.
Go through the text again and find out the name of cities and their importance in Mary Kom’s life. One is given for you.
(a) Kangthei – Mary Kom’s birth place
(b) …………………….. – ……………………..
(c) …………………….. – ……………………..
(d) …………………….. – ……………………..
Answer:
Kangthei – Mary Kom’s birthplace.
Manipur – home state of Dingko Singh and Mary Korn
Bangkok – city that hosted the Asian games of 1998’
United States – Country that hosted the first AlBA Women’s World Boxing. Championship

Maharashtra Board Solutions

10th English Workshop 4.4 Question 3.
Go through the text again and complete the following sentences.
1. Mary Kom helped her parents with …………………………. .
2. The success of Dingko Singh inspired …………………………. .
3. Mary Kom made her debut at …………………………. .
4. We can get more gold medals if …………………………. .
5. Mary Kom was able to increase her weight by …………………………. .
6. Mary Kom is good at …………………………. .
7. Mary Kom loves to be …………………………. .
8. Mary Kom apologised the nation for …………………………. .
9. Kom’s parents were Her father was …………………………. .
10. Kom was the first woman boxer to …………………………. .
Answer:
(1) farm-related chores.
(2) many, youngsters in Manipur to try boxing.
(3) the first AIBA Women’s World Boxing Championship in the United States.
(4) more and more people take up sports as a full-time career.
(5) eating the right kind of healthy food rather than bad saturated fats.
(7) Mary Kom loves to be a mom, acknowledging that it is the best thing that has ever happened to her. cooking and other household work too.
(10) qualify and win a bronze medal in the 51 kg flyweight category of Boxing.

Unbeatable Super Mom Mary Kom 10th Std Question 4.
You will find some Acronyms (short forms) in the text. Go to the library or search the internet to find their full forms. Discuss with your partner. One is given for you.
(a) OGQ – Olympic Gold Quest
(b) IBN –
(c) MTV –
(d) YPA –
(e) AIBA –
(f) CNN
Answer:
(a) OGQ – Olympic Gold Quest
(b) IBN – Indian Broadcasting Network
(c) MTV – Music Television
(d) YPA – Yellow Pages Advertising
(e) AIBA – Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur (International Boxing Association)
(f) CNN – Cable News Network

Unbeatable Super Mom Mary Kom English Workshop Pdf Question 5.
Fill in the fact file of Mary Kom.
(a) Full name :
(b) Native of :
(c) Early life and interests :
(d) Special sports taken up :
(e) Inspired by :
(f) Coach :
(g) Early achievements :
(h) International achievements :
(i) Her passion :
(j) Future plans :
Answer:
(1) Gerund: cooking Sentence: Though I do not like cooking, I have to do it.
(2) I ate the right kind of food and gained weight.
(3) (a) fly + weight (b) sports + men
(4) “What do you prefer being called – Super Mom or Super Boxer?”
(5) (a) focussing (b) sparring
(б) I receive letters and picture souvenirs from my penpals all the year round.
(7) Imperative Sentence
(8) whenever, where, which, who
(g) Early achievements:

  • Manipur State Women’s Boxing Championship
  • Regional championship in West Bengal

(h) International achievements:

  • 2001: International debut at the first AIBA Women’s World Boxing Championship in United States – won the silver medal in the 48 kg category.
  • 2012: Bronze medal at the Olympics, flyweight (51 kg category)
  • five times World Amateur Boxing Champion

(i) Her passion: cooking
(j) Future plans: coaching Indian women

Maharashtra Board Solutions

10th Class English Workshop 4.4 Question 6.
Glance through the text and find the special qualities of Mary Kom. Complete the web by putting different qualities of Mary Kom in the boxes.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 3.5 Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom 3

Unbeatable Super Mom Mary Kom Question Answer Question 7.
‘Super Mom’ refers to an excellent mother. Give three reasons why ‘super’ has been added to the word ‘mom’ as in the title.
1. ……………………………….
2. ……………………………….
3. ……………………………….
Answer:
(1) The word ‘Super’ is used to describe a person who aims for the highest standards of excellence. As a boxer Mary Kom aimed for the highest standards. As a result, she achieved success at the Olympics.

(2) When asked if she preferred the title ‘Super Mom’ to ‘Super Boxer’, she opted for the former. It was heroy to be a mother. In her words, it was the best thing that ever happened to her.

(3) This title gives us an idea of the priorities in Mary Korn’s life. Motherhood is her first preference. Hence the writer uses this word in the title.

Unbeatable Super Mum Mary Kom Question 8.
Answer the following questions in your own words.
(a) What makes the writer call Mary Kom ‘a legend’?
Answer:
The writer calls Mary Kom a legend not only because of her exceptional achievements as a woman boxer but also because of her truthful admission and apology to the nation about not being able to win the Gold at the Olympics.

(b) What prime quality did Mary Kom display during her first attempt in Olympic games? What was her bad luck?
Answer:
During her first attempt in the Olympic games, Mary Kom displayed the prime quality of underplaying the faults of others and taking on the blame for her losses upon herself. It was her bad luck that theudges did not press the buttons in her favour during her semi-final against Adams.

(c) What does Mary Kom suggest, for India to win more Olympic Gold Medals?
Answer:
Mary Kom suggests that more and more people should take up sports as a full-time career, so that India might win more Olympic Gold Medals

Maharashtra Board Solutions

4.4 Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom Question 9.
Rearrange the facts below in their proper order, as per the text.
(a) Mary Kom made her first appearance at international level.
(b) She sparred with male boxers in Pune.
(c) Mary Kom won the Manipur State’s Women’s Boxing Championship.
(d) She won a bronze medal in the 2012 Olympics.
(e) Mary Kom decided to take up boxing.
Answer:
(e) Mary Kom decided to take up boxing.
(c) Mary Kom won the Manipur State Women’s Boxing Championship.
(b) She sparred with male boxers in Pune.
(a) Mary Kom made her first appearance at the international level.
(d) She won a bronze medal in the 2012 Olympics.

Unbeatable Super Mom Mary Kom English Question 10.
Mary Kom prepared rigorously to win many championships. Read the text again and make a list of various things done by Kom regarding her preparations.

  • Variety of preparations
  • Diet
  • Focus

Answer:

(i) Variety of preparations : coaching under Charles Atkinson
sparring with male boxers at Pune
(ii) Diet eating healthy foods, not saturated fats
(iii) Focus on what to eat

Unbeatable Super Mom Mary Kom Question Answer Question 11.
Make sentences of your own using the following words.
(a) debut : ……………………………….
(b) elation : ……………………………….
(c) sponsor : ……………………………….
(d) reinforced : ……………………………….
(e) humble surroundings : ……………………………….
Answer:
(a) debut – He wanted his daughter to make a debut as a dancer at the prestigious Manipuri Folk Festival.
(b) We received the news of our victory with great elation.
(c) sponsor: The college students wanted a sponsor for their fashion show.
(d) reinforced – His reputation as a brave soldier was reinforced by the many stories told about him by his comrades who fought alongside him.
(e) humble surroundings: Abraham Lincoln grew up in humble surroundings.

4.4 Unbeatable Super Mom – Mary Kom Question 12.
Find antonyms of the following words from the text.
(a) Arrogant x …………………
(b) Finally x …………………
(c) Depressed x …………………
(d) Disqualify x …………………
(e) Diffident x …………………
(f) Float x …………………
Answer:
(a) arrogant X humble
(b) finally X initially
(c) depressed x exhilarated
(d) disqualify X qualify
(e) diffident X confident
(f) float x sink

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 13.
Underline the subordinate clauses and state their kind.
(a) Enough has been said about this great warrior, who conqured the world. (Subordinate ………………… clause)
(b) The male boxers kindly practised with me whenever I required them. …………………
(c) I think that more people should take up sports as a full – time career …………………
(d) Do you think nutrition is a neglected area in Indian sports? …………………
(e) That’s the best thing, that has happened to me. …………………
(f) India managed just 6 medals in 2012 Olympics even though we are a nation of 1.3 billion people. …………………
Answer:
(a) Enough has been said about this great warrior who conquered the world. – Subordinate Adjective Clause
(b) The male boxers kindly practised with me whenever I required them – Adverb Clause of Time
(c) More and more people should take up sports as a career – Obligation
(b) nutrition is a neglected area in Indian sports? – Noun Clause.
(e) That’s the best thing that has happened to me. Subordinate Adjective Clause
(f) even though we are a nation of 1.3 billion people. – Adverb Clause of Concession.

Question 14.
(A) Pick out from the lesson the Verb forms of :
(a) qualification …………………
(b) negligence …………………
(c) company …………………
(d) decisions …………………
(e) practice …………………
(f) birth …………………
Answer:
(a) qualify
(b) neglect
(c) accompany.
(d) decisively
(e) practise
(f) born

(B) Pick out the Noun forms of :
(a) represent …………………
(b) change …………………
(c) prepare …………………
(d) achieve …………………
(e) aware …………………
(f) succeed …………………
Answer:
(a) representative
(b) change
(c) preparation
(d) achievement
(e) awareness
(f) success

(C) Pick out the Adjective forms of :
(a) favour …………………
(b) proportion …………………
(c) finance …………………
(d) nutrition …………………
(e) female …………………
(f) addition …………………
Answer:
(a) favourite
(b) proportionate
(c) financial
(d) nutritional
(e)  female, feminine
(f) additional

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 15.
Imagine that you are the Captain of your team. A famous cricketer is going to visit your school. You are assigned the task to conduct an interview of that famous cricketer. Frame a set of 10 questions that you will ask the cricketer. Take help of the points given below.
(a) Early life
(b) Interest in this field
(c) Inspiration
(d) Coaching and guidance
(e) Achievements/ Records
(f) Future plans
(g) Advice to youngsters
Answer:
Questions of the Interviewer:
Sir, welcome to our school. May I ask you a few questions? Thank you.
(1) Could you tell us something about your early life?
(2) Which field of sports were you interested in your early life?
(3) Who was your inspiration?
(4) Who was your coach and your guide during your early years of training?
(5) Which aspect of cricket. do you prefer batting, bowling or fielding?
(6)ust for the record, could you list your achievements and records?
(7) Surely you must have some future plans, What are they?
(8) What difficulties did .you face when you started your career?
(9) Who do you think is a model cricketer today?
(10) What is your advice to youngsters?

Question 16.
Write a short paragraph describing the life and work of Mary Kom. Take help of the points given below. You can take help of the fact file that you have prepared earlier (Activity 5).
(a) Early life
(b) Training
(c) Achievements
(d) Future Plans
Answer:
Mary Korn’s full name is Chungneijang Mary Kom Mangte. She hails from a village in Manipur. Her father was an ex-wrestler. Right from an early age, Mary Kom was interested in athletics and boxing. Finally she took up boxing, despite objections from her father. He was worried that boxing would mar her face and that would make it difficult for him to arrange a suitable marriage for her. She trained under Charles Atkinson and sparred with some of the finest male boxers in Pune.

Mary Kom has a list of National and International achievements. She won the Manipur State Women’s Boxing Championship. Then she won the Regional championship for boxing in West Bengal. She made her International debut in 2001 at the first AIBA Women’s World Boxing Championship in the United States. There she won the silver medal in the 48 kg category.

In 2012, she won the bronze medal at the Olympics in the flyweight (51kg category). She has been five times World Amateur Boxing Champion. She plans to take up coaching for women boxers with potential.

Question 17.
‘What men can do, women can do better.’
Divide your class in 2 groups. Let one group offer points ‘For the topic’ and the other, ‘Against the topic.’ Note down the points in your note books and expand the points in two separate write- ups, as views and counterviews. Suggest suitable titles for each.
Answer:
View: Men cannot compare to women Women have inherent qualities, not possessed by men, that enable them to do things better than men do. There was a time when certain professions or careers were considered the sole domain of men. In recent years, women have pooh-poohed the very idea.

Women have more patience and endurance than men. Hence when entrusted with any task, they stick it out and see it through. They are painstaking and focus on every detail. They are able to see the overall picture, unlike men who work for short-term benefits and instant solutions.

Women tend to communicate more effectively them men, focussing on how to create a solution that works for the group, talking through issues, and utilize non-verbal cues such as tone, emotion, and empathy whereas men tend to be more task-oriented, less communicative, and more isolated. Men have a more difficult time understanding emotions that are not explicitly verbalized, while women tend to intuit emotions and emotional cues.

Men tend to have a ‘fight or flight’ response to stress situations while women seem to approach these situations with a ‘tend or befriend’ strategy.

Hence women do very well as PR Managers, HR Managers, Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Counsellors, etc., – which were previously considered exclusive male-dominated fields of work.

Counterview: Men are the superior species With no disrespect or offence intended, when it comes to theob-front, men are superior to women. They have the discipline, the psychological assurance and presence and most important, the time to sit overtime and meet targets.

Women tend to be straightforward, outspoken and curt in their dealings with clients. Men are more polite, patient and considerate, especially with irate customers. This is because they are more hormonally stable and balanced than women. They tend to view things from a long-term viewpoint and are focused on the goals of the establishment they work for.

Men tend to process better in the left hemisphere of the brain while women tend to process equally well between the two hemispheres. This difference explains why men are generally stronger with left- brain activities and approach problem-solving from a task-oriented perspective.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 18.
Two famous proverbs – ‘Actions speak louder than words’ and ‘Fortune favours the brave’ are best suited to the personality of Mary Kom. Form two groups in the class. Each group should write a paragraph on one proverb with reference to the life and achievements of Mary Kom.
Answer:
(1) Actions Speak Louder Than Words

Mary Korn’s life and personality exemplify the proverb ‘Actions speak louder than words’.

Right from an early age she was interested in athletics and boxing. Her father, a former wrestler, was against her entering the field of boxing for fear of disfigurement, but Mary Kom went ahead, trained rigorously, left her home-state and pursued her goal.

There are many who express desires and ambitions, but limit themselves to highfalutin talks. Mary Kom made her dreams a reality and went on to win a medal at the Olympics for India. Her wo^ds always echoed humility. She avoided blaming others for her losses, but took the responsibility upon herself.

Mary Korn’s life has been aourney of high-voltage action, despite the fact that she is by nature a shy, soft-spoken girl.

(2) Fortune Favours The Brave
It is not easy for a girl to enter and participate in a male-dominated field such as boxing. Mary Kom hailed from Manipur, which is a conservative state to say the least.

Mary Kom, however, was brave enough to challenge gender-bias, opposition from her father and the tough rigours of sparring with professional male boxers at Pune.

Her daring and courage were rewarded with awards and national recognition. But the icing on the cake was when she went on to win international events, finally culminating in winning the bronze medal at the 2012 Olympic event.

Lady luck had smiled on her for her persistence, her continual efforts and her unswerving focus on her goals. Indeed, Mary Kom has proyed by her life and her achievements that if one has the spirit of challenging odds, one will surely reap rich dividends.

Question 19.
Name the following:
(1) According to the writer, the great warrior who conquered the world: ……………………
(2) The State in which Mary Kom was born: ……………………
(3) The kind of farms in which Mary Korn’s parents were working as tenant farmers: ……………………
(4) The sportsman who inspired many youngsters in Manipur: ……………………
Answer:
(1) Mary Mangte Kom
(2) Manipur
(3) hum fields
(4) Dingko Singh

Question 20.
Complete the following sentences.
(a) Korn’s parents were …………………… who worked in …………………
(b) Mary Kom apologized to the nation …………………..
Answer:
(a) tenant farmers, hum fields.
(b) for not being able to win gold.

Question 21.
Complete the following:
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 10 English Solutions Unit 3.5 Unbeatable Super Mom-Mary Kom 4

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 22.
What was Mary Kom’s exceptional achievement?
Answer:
Mary Kom’s exceptional achievement was that In the 2012 Olympics, she became the first Indian woman boxer to qualify and win a bronze medal in the 51 kg flyweight category of Boxing.

Question 23.
What has added to Mary’s greatness as a boxing champion?
Answer:
As a boxing champion Mary’s greatness is reinforced by the way she’ apologised to the whole nation for not being able to win the gold.

Question 24.
Find antonyms of the following words from the passage:
(a) urban
(b) failure
(c) defeat
(d) weakened
(e) wealthy
Answer:
(a) urban X rural
(b) failure X success
(c) defeat X victory
(d) weakened X reinforced
(e) wealthy X poor

Question 25.
Pick out from the passage the verb forms of the following words: (The answers are given directly.)
(a) survival – ……………….
(b) recollection – ……………….
Answer:
(a) survive
(b) recollect
Question 26.
Pick out the noun forms from the passage:
(a) great ……………….
Answer:
(a) greatness.

Question 27.
She is a legend for sure and an idol for all sportswomen to look up to. (use ‘not only…. but also’)
Answer:
She is not only a legend for sure but also an idol for all sportswomen to look up to.

Question 28.
In the 2012 Olympics, Mary become the first Indian woman boxer to qualify and win a bronze medal. (Rewrite using ‘as well as’)
Answer:
In the 2012 Olympics, Mary became the first Indian woman boxer to qualify as well as win a bronze medal.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 29.
What qualities do you think are required to become a good sports person?
Answer:
A good sportsperson should be hard working and persevering. He/She should be humble enough to accept defeat and amibtious enough to pursue success. He/She must have pride in his/her country and team. Above all, he/she must have the all-important sportsman spirit.

Question 30.
Choose the correct alternative for each question and underline it: (The answers are given directly and underlined.)
(a) What is the name of the interviewer?
(i) Sportskeeda
(ii) Taruka Srivastava
(iii) Charles Atkinson
(iv) Adams
Answer:
(ii) Taruka Srivastava

(b) Where did Mary Kom train?
(1) Manipur
(ii) the US
(iii) at home
(iv) Pune
Answer:
(iv) Pune

Question 31.
Say whether the following are True or False: (The answers are givemdirectly and underlined.)
Answer:
(a) Adams was Mary Kom’s friend.
(b) Charles Atkinson was Mary Kom’s coach.
(c) Theudges for Mary Kom’s semi-finals at the Olympics were fair.
(d) Charles Atkinson went along with Mary Kom for the Olympic finals.
Answer:
(a) False
(b) True
(c) False
(d) False

Question 32.
What failed to pressurize Mary Kom during the Olympics?
Answer:
During the Olympics, the fact that she was the only female representative from India in boxing failed to pressurize Mary Kom.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 33.
How could Mary Kom manage without her coach at the Olympics?
Answer:
Mary Kom could manage because they had already done their homework and she was well- prepared.

Question 34.
Find antonyms of the following words from the passage:
(a) gain
Answer:
(a) gain x loss

Question 35.
Write one word for each of the following: (The answers are given directly.)
Answer:
(a) a person employed to report for a newspaper ……………………
(b) a person who wins a medal at an event ……………………
(c) a person who takes an interview of a celebrity ……………………
(d) a person whose interview is taken ……………………
Answer:
(a) correspondent
(b) medallist
(c) interviewer
(d) interviewee

Question 36.
Find the noun forms of the following words:
(a) decide
Answer:
(a) decide – decision

Question 37.
Find the adjective forms of the following words:
(a) confidence
(b) tactics
Answer:
(a) confidence – confident
(b) tactics – tactical

Question 38.
Rewrite as an exclamatory sentence:
I am really happy.
Answer:
How happy I am!

Question 39.
Rewrite using ‘but’: Although she carried power, she wasn’t very tactical.
Answer:
She carried power but she wasn’t very tactical.

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 40.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) Mary Kom had to gain ………… in order to fight in the 51 kg event
(b) In 2012, India won ………. medals in the Olympics.
(c) Mary Kom usually participated in the ………….. event.
(d) Mary Kom had decided to participate in the ………… event at the Olympics.
Answer:
(a) 3kg
(b) 6
(c) 48kg
(d) 51kg

Question 41.
What can help Indian sportsmen win more Olympic Medals?
Answer:
Mary Kom feels that if more corporates sponsored players, the players would not have any financial pressure and could focus on their games. This would help Indian sportsmen win more Olympic Medals.

Question 42.
Make sentences of your own using the following words:
(a) sponsor: The college students wanted a ………….. for their fashion show.
(b) a key factor: Heavy rain was …………… to our canceling the family picnic.
Answer:
(a) sponsor
(b) a key factor

Question 43.
Find the verb forms of:
(a) focus
(b) requirement
(c) weight
(d) health
Answer:
(a) focus – focus
(b) requirement – requIre
(c) weight – weigh
(d) health – healthy

Question 44.
What, according to you, are essential requirements for sportspersons in general?
Answer:
I think that sportspersons in general should spend all their time and energy practising and mastering the sport they are engaged in. They should also exercise daily in order to keep fit. The most important, however, is regulating the diet so as to ingest the best nutrition required by the body.

Question 45.
(1) Choose the correct alternative for each question and underline it:

(a) What is the full form of OGQ?
(i) Olympic Group Queries
(ii) Olympic Gold Quest
(iii) Overseas Guest Qualifications
(iv) Olympic Golf Qualifications
Answer:
(ii) Olympic Gold Quest

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 46.
Is Mary Kom more proud of being a boxer or a mother?
Answer:
Mary Kom is more proud of being a mother.

Question 47.
What did OGQ do for Mary Kom?
Answer:
OGQ helped Mary Kom out whenever she needed something.. By taking care of everything, it helped her focus on her boxing and kept her stress- free.

Question 48.
(1) Find antonyms from the passage for the following words:
(a) few
(b) modern
(c) worst
(d) indifferent
Answer:
(a) few x several
(b) modern x traditional
(c) worst x best
(d) indifferent x interested

Question 49.
Write the adjective forms of the following words:
(a) care
(b) tradition
(c) importance
(d) difficulty.
Answer:
(a) care – careful, careless
(b) tradition – traditional
(c) importance – important
(d) difficulty – difficult

Question 50.
The future is very bright. (Rewrite as an exclamatory sentence.)
Answer:
How bright the future is!

Question 51.
Underline the determiners: You have broken several stereotypes about the women in India.
Answer:
You have broken several stereotypes about the women in India.

Question 52.
(1) Pick out the gerund and make a sentence : I am good at cooking.
(2) Spot the errors and rewrite the correct sentence : I eaten the right kind of food and gains weight.
(3) Write the root words that form the following compound words : (а) flyweight (b) sportsmen
(4) Punctuate the sentence : what do you prefer being called super mom or super boxer
(5) Form present participles using the given words : (a) focus (b) spar
(6) Make a meaningful sentence using the phrase : ‘all the year round’.
(7) Identify the kind of sentence :ust let their mother box.
(8) Arrange the following words in alphabetical order : where, who, whenever, which
Answer:
(1) Gerund : cooking Sentence : Though I do not like cooking, I have to do it.
(2) I ate the right kind of food and gained weight.
(3) (a) fly + weight (b) sports + men
(4) “What do you prefer being called – Super Mom or Super Boxer?”
(5) (a) focussing (b) sparring
(б) I receive letters and picture souvenirs from my penpals all the year round.
(7) Imperative Sentence
(8) whenever, where, which, who

Maharashtra Board Solutions

Question 53.
(a) Rewrite using the simple future tense : I had to focus on what to eat.
(b) Rewrite beginning with the underlined part: OGQ played an important role in my success.
(c) Write a word register for the word ‘nutrition’.
(d) Write sentences to show the different meanings of the word ‘pretty’.
Answer:
(a) I will have to focus on what to eat.
(b) An important role was played by OGQ in my success.
(c) nutrition: diet, nourishment, wholesome, balanced, food, edibles, foodstuff, menu, sustenance.
(d) (1) The little child had a pretty face, (pleasing or attractive to the eye)
(2) It has been pretty hot this summer, (quite, but not extremely)

Question 54.
Change to the comparative degree: That’s the best thing that has happened to me.
Answer:
That’s better than any other thing that has happened to me.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms

Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Match the pairs and explain.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(1) Growth of pollen tube towards ovules
(2) Growth of shoot system
(3) Growth of root system
(4) Growth towards the water
(a) Gravitropic movement
(b) Chemotropic movement
(c) Phototropic movement
(d) Growth-irrelevant movement
(e) Hydrotropic movement

Answer:
(1 – b),
(2 – c),
(3 – a),
(4 – e).

Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms

2. Complete the paragraph.

The milk was on the stove. Rasika was engrossed in watching television. She smelled something burning. She ran towards the kitchen. The milk was boiling over. She held the vessel with her bare hands but, screaming, she let it go at once. This activity was controlled by ……………….. cells. Special ends of ……………….. in these cells collected the information, from where it was transferred to the ……………….. and then towards the terminal end of the ……………….. The chemicals produced at the terminal end passed through the minute space i.e. ………………. . In this way, ……………….. were conducted in the body and the process of ……………….. was completed by conducting the impulses from ……………….. to ………………

(Nerve, muscle cell, impulse, dendrite, synapse, axon, reflex action, cell body)
Answer:
nerve, dendrite, cell body, axon, synapse, impulses, reflex action, nerve, muscle cell.

3. Write notes on Root pressure, Transpiration, Nerve cell, Human brain, Reflex action

4. Name the hormones of the following endocrine glands and the function of each.
Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal, Thymus, Testis, Ovary.

Life Processes In Living Organisms Class 9 Question 1.
Pituitary:
Answer:

Hormone Function
(i) Growth hormone Stimulates growth of bones.
(ii) Adrenocorticotropic hormone Stimulates adrenal gland.
(iii) Thyroid-stimulating hormone Stimulates thyroid gland.
(iv) Prolactin Stimulates milk production.
(v) Follicle-stimulating hormone Controls growth of gonads.
(vi) Luteinizing hormone Controls menstrual cycle and ovulation.
(vii) Oxytocin Contracts uterus during parturition.
(viii) Antidiuretic hormone Regulates water-level in the body.

Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Life Processes In Living Organisms Question 2.
Thyroid
Answer:

Hormone Function
(i) Thyroxine Controls growth of body and metabolic activities.
(ii) Calcitonin Controls calcium metabolism and calcium level in blood.

Life Processes In Living Organisms Class 9 Exercise Question 3.
Adrenal
Answer:

Hormone Function
(i) Adrenalin and nor-adrenalin Controls behaviour during crisis and emotional situation.
(ii) Corticosteroid Maintains balance of Na+ and K+ and stimulates metabolism.

9th Class Science Chapter 15 Life Processes In Living Organisms Exercise Question 4.
Thymus
Answer:

Hormone Function
Thymosin Control the cells which give rise to immunity.

Question 5.
Testis
Answer:

Hormone Function
Testosterone Stimulates growth of secondary sexual characteristics like beard, mustache, hoarse voice etc. in men.

Std 9 Science Chapter 15 Life Processes In Living Organisms Question 6.
Ovary
Answer:

Hormone Function
(i) Oestrogen Stimulates growth of the endometrium. Stimulates growth of secondary sexual characteristics in women.
(ii) Progesterone Prepares the endometrium for conception and maintains pregnancy.

5. Draw and label the diagrams.
Human endocrine glands, Human brain, Nephron, Nerve cell, Human excretory system.

15. Life Processes In Living Organisms Question 1.
Human endocrine glands
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 1

15 Life Processes In Living Organisms Question 2.
Human brain
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 2

Life Processes In Living Organisms 9th Class Notes Question 3.
Nephron
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 3

Life Processes In Living Organisms Class 9 Questions And Answers Question 4.
Nerve cell
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 4

Life Processes In Living Organisms Class 9 Solutions Question 5.
Human excretory system
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 5

6. Answer the following.

a. Explain chemical co-ordination in humans and give the names and functions of some hormones.
Answer:
Chemical co-ordination in humans :

  • In humans chemical co-ordination is brought about with the help of certain chemical substances called hormones.
  • Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands. These glands are also called ductless glands.
  • These glands do not have any arrangement of their own to either store or carry their secretions. So, the hormones are directly released into the blood circulation.
  • Though the endocrine glands are present at specific locations in our body, their secretions reach all parts of the body via the blood.
  • Endocrine glands along with the nervous systems are responsible for control and co-ordination in our body.
    These two systems help each other to control and integrate the various activities of the body.
  • A marked difference between these two systems is that nerve impulses are fast but short-lived whereas the actions of hormones are very slow but long-lasting.
  • It is very important that hormones are secreted only in the required quantity and there is a special mechanism which controls the quantity and timing of hormone secretion.
  • For example, whenever there is an increase in blood glucose level, certain cells in the pancreas get stimulated and as a response, they release a greater quantity of insulin, thus bringing down the sugar level to normal.
Hormone Function
(1) Growth hormone Stimulates growth of bones.
(2) Luteinizing hormone Controls menstrual cycle and ovulation.
(3) Thyroxine Controls growth of body and metabolic activities.
(4) Insulin Stimulates liver to convert excess blood glucose to glycogen.
(5) Testosterone Stimulates growth of secondary sexual characters like beard, mustache, hoarse voice, etc. in men.

Names and functions of some hormones:

b. Explain the difference between the excretory system of humans and plants.
Answer:

Excretory system of humans Excretory system of plants
(i) In humans, the excretory system carries out the function of the removal of waste from the body. (i) In plants, there is no special system or organ for excretion.
(ii) Waste substances are generally eliminated out of the body (ii) Most of the waste substances are stored in the leaves, flowers, fruits and bark of the stem.
(iii) The excretory products are urea, uric acid, ammonia, etc. (iii) The excretory products are gum, resin, latex of rubber, etc.

c. Explain co-ordination in plants with the help of suitable examples.
Answer:

  • Plants do not have systems like the nervous system or muscular system.
  • In plants, movements are mainly in the form of responses given to the stimuli.
  • Plants show two types of movements – growth relevant movements and growth irrelevant movements.
  • Movement or growth of any part of the plant in response to an external stimulus is called tropism or tropic movement.
  • Examples of growth-relevant movements are :
  • The shoot system of any plant responds to the light stimulus i.e., it grows towards the source of light. This is called phototropic movement.
  • The root system of plants responds to stimuli like gravitation and water. These responses are called gravitropic movement and hydrotropic movement respectively.
  • Movement shown by plants in response to specific chemicals is called chemotropic movement.
  • For example, the growth of the pollen tube towards the ovule.
  • Some specific movements of the plants do not lead to the plant growth.
  • Such movements are called growth-irrelevant movements.
  • As a response to changes in the surroundings, plant hormones bring about various movements in plants.
  • Examples of growth irrelevant movements are closing of leaflets of Touch-me-not (Mimosa) plant on touch.
  • In the plant called Venus fly trap, when an insect visits the flower like trap, the trap closes up and the trapped insect is digested by the plant.
  • The lotus flower opens during day-time while that of the tuberose opens at night.
  • In plants like Touch-me-not (Mimosa), movement also occurs at places other than where it has been touched.
  • Hence, we can infer that the information about the touch must have been released within the plant from one place to another.
  • Plants use electrochemical impulses for transfer of information from one place to another.
  • Plant cells change their shape by increasing or decreasing the water content and thereby, bring about the movements of plants.

7. Explain in your own words with suitable examples.

a. What is meant by co-ordination?
Answer:

  • Several different organ systems function in multicellular organisms.
  • Their life goes on smoothly if there is co-ordination between different organ systems or organs and the stimuli in the surrounding.
  • Depending upon this, we can say that systematic regulation of different processes can be called control and bringing about the different processes in the proper sequence is called co-ordination.
  • If any activity in the body is to be completed successfully, proper co-ordination between different systems, and organs participating at different steps of that activity is necessary.
  • If due to lack of co-ordination, there is confusion at any step, the activity may not get completed. There should be no randomness at any step.
  • There should be proper co-ordination between internal activities of the body resulting from various factors like body temperature, water- level, enzyme-level, etc. or stimuli arising in the surrounding environment.
  • Proper co-ordination between various systems of an organism helps to maintain a state of equilibrium called homeostasis which is necessary for the optimal efficiency of the body.

b. How does excretion occur in human beings?
Answer:

  • Removal of wastes from the body is very important and it is the excretory system that carries out this function.
  • The human excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra. Urine is formed by the kidneys by separating the waste and unwanted excess substances from the blood.
  • The functional unit of the kidney that performs the basic function of filtration is called a nephron. The urea produced in the liver comes into the blood.
  • When the urea-containing blood comes into the glomerulus, it is filtered through capillaries and urea and other similar substances are separated from it.
  • Water molecules and small molecules of some other substances can cross the semipermeable membrane of Bowman’s capsule.
  • The solution accumulated in the cavity of Bowman’s capsule passes into the tubular part of the nephron. Here, molecules of water and some other useful substances are reabsorbed into the blood.
  • Urine is formed from the remaining solution which is full of waste materials. The urine is carried by the ureters and stored in the urinary bladder. Afterwards, urine is given out through the urethra.

c. How is excretion in plants useful to human beings?
Answer:

  • Plants give out oxygen during photosynthesis by diffusion which is useful to human beings for respiration.
  • Some waste materials of plants for example, gum, resin, latex of rubber, etc. are useful to humans.

d. Describe the transportation system in plants.
Answer:

  • Plants have two types of conducting tissues i.e., xylem which conducts water and phloem which conducts food.
  • During transpiration, water is released into the atmosphere.
  • As a result, water level is the epidermal layer of the leaf decreases.
  • Water is brought up to the leaves through the xylem so as to compensate for the lost water.
  • Transpiration helps in absorption of water and minerals and distribution to all parts of the plant whereas root pressure preforms the important role of pushing the water up at night time.
  • The food produced by leaves is transported to each cell of the plant through phloem.
  • When the food material like sucrose is transported towards a part of the plant through phloem, using ATP, the water concentration in that part decreases.
  • As a result, water enters the cell by diffusion. The pressure on the cell wall increases due to increase in the cellular contents.
  • Due to the increased pressure, food is pushed into the neighboring cells where the pressure is low.
  • This process helps the phloem to transport the materials as per the need of the plant.

Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms Intext Questions and Answers

Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Life Processes In Living Organisms Exercise  Question 1.
How do the digestive system and respiratory system work?
Answer:
(a) Digestive system:

  • The digestive system is responsible for digestion of food. i.e. breaking down complex insoluble food into simpler soluble form.
  • The digestive system is made up of alimentary canal and digestive glands.
  • The alimentary canal is a long and muscular tube of varying diameter which extends from the mouth to the anus.
  • The digestive glands associated with alimentary canal are salivary glands, gastric glands, liver and pancreas.
  • The process of digestion includes various stages wherein the food passes through the different organs of the alimentary canal and there it is digested part by part with the help of various enzymes secreted from the digestive glands.
  • After the food is digested, the important nutrients are absorbed into the blood and the undigested food and residue of digested food is removed out of the body through the anus.

(b) Respiratory system:

  • Respiration is the process of release of energy from the assimilated food.
  • The respiratory system consists of nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs (alveoli).
  • Oxygen enters our body through breathing.
  • This oxygen is taken to the cells and with the help of oxygen, food is oxidized into the cells to release energy in the form of ATR
  • During this process, carbon dioxide and water vapour are given out as by-products which are given out during breathing.

Thus, the digestive and respiratory systems work in co-ordination with each other to produce energy from food.

Life Processes In Living Organisms Exercise Question 2.
Previously you have performed the activity of observing a branch covered in a plastic bag. What did you observe in that activity?
Answer:

  • When a branch is covered in a plastic bag, we observe that small droplets of water accumulate on the inner side of the plastic bag.
  • This shows that leaves release water in the form of vapour through the stomata during transpiration. These vapours get condensed to form water droplets and accumulate inside the bag.

Life Process In Living Organism Exercise Question 3.
Which are the sensory organs of an organism? What is their function?
Answer:

  • Sensory organs of an organism are eyes, ears, tongue, skin and nose.
  • The eyes help the organism to perceive the sensation of light to see the objects around it.
  • The ears help the organism to perceive the sensation of sound and also perceive the sensation of pressure.
  • The tongue helps to perceive different tastes and also in chewing the food.
  • The skin helps to perceive the sensation of touch, pain, pressure etc.
  • Some insects also possess antennae for sensing the changes in the environment.

15 Life Processes In Living Organisms Class 9 Question 4.
Where are the gustatory and olfactory nerves to be found?
Answer:

  • Gustatory nerves are concerned with sense of taste whereas olfactory nerves are concerned with the sense of smell.
  • Gustatory nerves are found in the tongue from where they carry impulses to the gustatory cortex in the brain.
  • Whereas the olfactory nerves are found in the nasal passage from where they carry impulses to the olfactory lobes in the brain.

Answer the following questions:

15.Life Processes In Living Organisms Question 1.
Why do we eat fruits and vegetables? Do the plants also need minerals like we do?
Answer:

  • We eat fruits and vegetables to get nutrients like carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibers. These nutrients are important for the proper functioning of the body .
  • Plants too need minerals for their growth and development.

Life Processes In Living Organisms Class 9 Notes Question 2.
From where do plants get inorganic substances other than carbon dioxide and oxygen?
Answer:
Plants get inorganic substances like nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, sodium etc. from the soil. Soil is the nearest and richest source of these elements.

9th Std Science Chapter 15 Life Processes In Living Organisms Question 3.
At least a small quantity of garbage or waste is produced every day in each house. What will happen if you keep this garbage for many days in your house?
Answer:

  • If we keep garbage for many days in our house, it will start decaying due to the growth of decomposers like fungi and bacteria.
  • This will result in foul odour and will also lead to spread of diseases.

Life Processes In Living Organisms Exercise Class 9 Question 4.
Sometimes, while eating we bite our own finger or tongue by mistake.
Answer:

  • Sometimes, while eating we over-fill our mouth causing the bite to misalign, thus we bite our own finger or tongue by mistake.
  • If we are dehydrated, the muscles of the mouth and tongue do not function properly causing us to bite our own tongue.
  • If we are distracted with other activities while eating, it can cause us to bite our tongue or finger.
  • Thus, due to lack of co-ordination sometimes while eating, we bite our own finger or tongue by mistake.

9th Class Science 15 Chapter Life Processes In Living Organisms Question 5.
Sometimes, we choke while eating in a hurry.
Answer:

  • There is an elastic flap at the starting of the wind-pipe called epiglottis which opens whenever we breathe in air and closes to prevent the entry of food into the respiratory system.
  • While eating in hurry, due to lack of co-ordination, the epiglottis opens to take in air but food too enters in causing us to choke.

Life Processes In Living Organisms Class 9 Extra Questions Question 6.
An injury to the medulla oblongata can lead to death. Why?
Answer:

  • The medulla oblongata controls involuntary activities like the beating of the heart, blood circulation, breathing etc.
  • An injury to the medulla oblongata will stop these activities, leading to death.

Life Processes In Living Organisms Class 9 Maharashtra Board  Question 7.
You may have seen how a drunken person struggles to maintain his body balance. An excess of alcohol in the body causes one to lose control over it. Why does this happen? Find out the reason with help of the internet.
Answer:

  • The cerebellum co-ordinates voluntary movements and maintains balance of the body.
  • An excess of alcohol causes dysfunctioning of the cerebellum.
  • It results in primary loss of co-ordinated movements and loss of balance.

9th Life Processes In Living Organisms 5 Question 8.
Why does this happen?

(a) Leaves of plants fall off in a particular season.
Answer:

  • Plants lose water through their leaves by transpiration. So some plants shed their leaves in dry season to reduce transpiration and conserve water.
  • In plants, the waste substances are stored in the vacuoles of leaf-cells which are then shed along with the leaves in a specific season.

(b) Fruits, flowers fall off after a certain period of time.
Answer:

  • In plants, waste substances are stored in the vacuoles of fruits and flowers. So, they fall off after some time to excrete these wastes.
  • Also, when fruits and flowers mature, the supply of nutrients to mature fruits and flowers is blocked. This causes abscission in that part of the plant leading to their detachment from the plant body and falling off.

(c) Substances like resin, gum, etc. are given out of the plant body.
Answer:

  • Resin, gum etc. are the waste products of plants. They are given out after some time as a process of excretion in plants.
  • Many plants, particularly, woody plants produce resin and gum in response to injury. These resin and gum act as bandage protecting the plants from invading insects and pathogens.

15 Life Processes In Living Organisms Exercise Question 9.
Which waste products are produced in our body through metabolic activities?
Answer:
The waste products formed in our body through metabolic activities are urea, uric acid, ammonia, carbon dioxide etc.

Life Processes In Living Organisms 9th Class Exercise Question 10.
As compared to the monsoons and winter a very small quantity of urine is produced in the summer season. Why is it so?
Answer:
In summer, we sweat more due to excess heat. So, the body tries to conserve water by reducing urine formation. This is to prevent dehydration.

Question 11.
In adults, the process of urination is under their control but not in infants. Why is it so?
Answer:

  • In adults, the muscles of the bladder are under the voluntary control. So the process of urination is under control.
  • In infants, the bladder muscles are not mature until about two years of age. So, the process of urination is not under control.

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Observe the following figures carefully.
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 9
Answer:
Observations:

  • Figure ‘A’ shows chemotropic movement. Pollen tube grows towards the ovule in response to specific chemicals released by the ovule.
  • Figure ‘B’ shows phototropic movement. Shoot grows towards the Sun in response to stimulus of light.
  • Figure ‘C’ shows thigmotropic movement. Tendrils of climbers are sensitive to touth. When they come in contact with an object, they entwine around the object and cling to it.
  • All the above movements are related to growth. Hence, they are called growth relevant movements.

Question 2.
Observe the pictures carefully and think about them.
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 10
Answer:

  • Figure ‘A’ shows touch-me-not (Mimosa) plant. In this plant, the leaflets close in response to stimulus of touch.
  • Figure ‘B’ shows Venus fly trap. In this plant, there is a trap that appears and smells like a flower and deceives the insect. When an insect visits that flower-like trap, the trap closes up and the trapped insect is digested by the plant,
  • Figure ‘C’ shows lotus plant. The lotus flower opens during day-time.?
  • Figure ‘D’ shows Balsam plant. In this plant, the ripened fruit dehisces (bursts open) at the right time to disperse the seeds.

Question 3.
As you watch the match being played on your school ground, you will see the control and co-ordination among the movements of the players. Make a list of all such different actions.
Answer:
In an inter-house basketball match, control and co-ordination is seen in dodging the ball, jumping, running, passing it to the team mates and dribbling the ball.

Question 4.
Observe the figure carefully and as per the numbers in that figure, answer the following questions.
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 11

(a) What is happening at 1 and 2?
Answer:
At 1 stimulus of heat is received by thermo-receptors in the skin. At 2, the hand is withdrawn instantly.

(b) Which nerve carried the impulse to the point marked 3? In which direction is it conducting the impulse?
Answer:
Sensory nerve carried the impulse to the point marked 3. The impulse is conducted from the skin towards the spinal cord.

(c) Which is the nerve shown by 4?
Answer:
The nerve shown by 4 is association neuron. It is present in the gray matter of the spinal cord. It receives the sensory impulse, interprets it and generates impulse.

(d) Which is the organ marked as 5?
Answer:
Spinal cord.

(e) At 6, which nerve is conducting the response impulse?
Answer:
Motor nerve.

(f) At 7, where has the impulse reached? What is its effect?
Answer:
At 7, the impulse has reached the muscles of the hand. As a result, the muscles contract and the hand is withdrawn instantly in response to the stimulus of heat.

Question 5.
Sketch and label:
Answer:

  • Stimulus
  • Hand is withdrawn
  • Sensory neuron
  • Association neuron
  • Spinal cord
  • Motor neuron
  • Muscles

(6) Observe the figure and list down functions for ‘A’ and ‘B’
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 8
Answer:

Functions of Left Brain Functions of right brain
(i) Analytical thinking Holistic thinking
(ii) Logical thinking Intuition
(iii) Language Creativity
(iv) Science and Mathematics Art and music

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Take a small plant like balsam or tuberose with its roots intact. Wash and clean its roots. As shown in the fig, keep it in the water containing a stain like safranin or eosin. Observe the stem and the veins of the leaves after 2-3 hours.
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 12
Answer:

  • The stem and veins of the leaves appear pinkish in colour.
  • Due to the root pressure generated, eosin solution is continuously pushed upward.
  • As a result water reaches xylem and the water column is pushed forward.

Question 2.
Take a transverse section of the stem of a plant and observe the stained xylem under a compound microscope.
Answer:
The xylem elements appear pinkish as the eosin solution is conducted upwards through the xylem. From this we infer that the xylem is responsible for the conduction of water and minerals in the plant.

Question 3.
Observe your mother while she cuts the elephant’s foot (Amorphophallus) or arum leaves. Your hands may also begin to itch if you try to cut these leaves. Why does this happen? Try to find out. Ask your mother what she does to prevent the itching.
Answer:

  • In some plants like elephant foot (Amorphophallus) or arum, waste materials are in the form of crystals of calcium oxalate. They are called raphides.
  • As they are needle-shaped, they prickle and cause irritation of the skin leading to itching.
  • This can be prevented by applying tartaric acid (tamarind) or citric acid (lemon) on the hands while cutting these vegetables as the acids dissolve the crystals of calcium oxalate.

Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose and write the correct options.

Question 1.
The transport of food produced in leaves to each cell in the plant body is called …………………………… .
(a) Transpiration
(b) Root pressure
(c) Translocation
(d) Ascent of sap
Answer:
(c) translocation

Question 2.
Kidneys filter blood about ……………………………. times every day.
(a) 100
(b) 200
(c) 300
(d) 400
Answer:
(d) 400

Question 3.
About ……………………………. of blood is sent through the dialysis machine at one time.
(a) 500 ml
(b) 5 l
(c) 200 ml
(d) 400 ml
Answer:
(a) 500 ml

Question 4.
The movement of plant towards the source of light is called ……………………………. movement.
(a) chemotropic
(b) hydrotropic
(c) phototropic
(d) gravitropic
Answer:
(c) phototropic

Question 5.
The movement of root system towards stimulus of gravity is called ……………………………. movement.
(a) phototropic
(b) gravitropic
(c) hydrotropic
(d) chemotropic
Answer:
(b) gravitropic

Question 6.
The movement of root system towards stimulus of water is called ……………………………. movement.
(a) Phototropic
(b) Gravitropic
(c) Hydrotropic
(d) Chemiotropic
Answer:
(c) hydrotropic

Question 7.
Hormone ……………………………. helps in stem elongation.
(a) Auxin
(b) Gibberellin
(c) Cytokinin
(d) Abscisic acid
Answer:
(b) Gibberellin

Question 8.
Hormone ……………………………. helps in cell division.
(a) Auxin
(b) Gibberellin
(c) Cytokinin
(d) Abscisic acid
Answer:
(c) Cytokinin

Question 9.
The hormone ……………………………. is effective in prevention and retardation of growth, leaf wilting, etc.
(a) Auxin
(b) Cytokinin
(c) Gibberellin
(d) Abscisic acid
Answer:
(d) Abscisic acid

Question 10.
……………………………. neurons conduct impulses from the sensory organs to the brain and the spinal cord,
(a) Sensory
(b) Motor
(c) Association
(d) All of these
Answer:
(a) Sensory

Question 11.
The brain of an adult human weighs about …………………………… .
(a) 500 – 600 grams
(b) 2 – 3 kilograms
(c) 1300 -1400 grams
(d) 1500 -1600 grams
Answer:
(c) 1300 – 1400 grams

Question 12.
……………………………. is the largest part of the brain.
(a) Cerebrum
(b) Cerebellum
(c) Medulla oblongata
(d) Spinal cord
Answer:
(a) Cerebrum

Question 13.
There are two triangular swollen structure called ……………………………. on the upper side of the medulla oblongata.
(a) Ventricles
(b) Meninges
(c) Pyramids
(d) Pons
Answer:
(c) Pyramids

Question 14.
Control of voluntary movements is done by …………………………… .
(a) Cerebrum
(b) Cerebellum
(c) Medulla oblongala
(d) Spinal cord
Answer:
(a) Cerebrum

Question 15.
Co-ordination of voluntary movements is done by …………………………… .
(a) cerebrum
(b) cerebellum
(c) medulla oblongata
(d) spinal cord
Answer:
(b) cerebellum

Question 16.
Control of involuntary activities like the beating of the heart, blood circulation, breathing etc. are controlled by …………………………… .
(a) Spinal cord
(b) Cerebrum
(c) Cerebellum
(d) Medulla oblongata
Answer:
(d) Medulla oblongata

Question 17.
The function of cerebrum is to …………………………… .
(a) control of voluntary movements
(b) co-ordination of voluntary movements
(c) control of involuntary activities
(d) maintaining the body balance
Answer:
(a) control of voluntary movements

Question 18.
The function of cerebellum is …………………………… .
(a) to control of voluntary movements
(b) to maintain the body balance
(c) to control of involuntary activities
(d) to co-ordinate of voluntary movements
Answer:
(b) to maintain the body balance

Question 19.
Hormone ……………………………. stimulates the liver to convert excess blood glucose into glycogen.
(a) Glucagon
(b) insulin
(c) Somatostatin
(d) Pancreatic polypeptide
Answer:
(a) Glucagon

Question 20.
Hormone ……………………………. controls behaviour during crisis and emotional situation.
(a) Thyroxine
(b) Parathormone
(c) Adrenalin and Nor adrenalin
(d) Somatostatin
Answer:
(c) Adrenalin and Nor adrenalin

Question 21.
……………………………. controls menstrual cycle and ovulation.
(a) Prolactin
(b) Oxytocin
(c) Luteinizing hormone
(d) Progesterone
Answer:
(c) Luteinizing hormone

Question 22.
……………………………. stimulates growth of secondary sexual characteristics in men.
(a) Thymosin
(b) Testosterone
(c) Oestrogen
(d) Thyroxine
Answer:
(b) Testosterone

Question 23.
……………………………. occurs through stomata.
(a) Translocation
(b) Perspiration
(c) Transpiration
(d) Conduction
Answer:
(c) Transpiration

Question 24.
……………………………. performs the important role of pushing the water up during the night time.
(a) Translocation
(b) Root pressure
(c) Transpiration pull
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Root pressure

Question 25.
In plants, gaseous substances are given out by …………………………….
(a) Root pressure
(b) Osmosis
(c) Diffusion
(d) Translocation
Answer:
(c) diffusion

Question 26.
Each kidney has approximately ……………………………. nephrons.
(a) 1 lakh
(b) 10,000
(c) 10 lakh
(d) 50 lakh
Answer:
(c) 10 lakh

Question 27.
Insulin is secreted by the ……………………………. of the pancreas.
(a) Alpha cells
(b) Beta cells
(c) Delta cells
(d) F cells
Answer:
(b) Beta cells

Select the odd man out:

Question 1.
Skin, Brain, Kidneys, Lungs.
Answer:
Brain – It is a controlling organ whereas the others are excretory orgAnswer:

Question 2.
Gum, Resin, Urea, Latex
Answer:
Urea – It is an excretory product of animals whereas the others are excretory products of plants.

Question 3.
Gibberellin, Auxin, Thyroxine, Cytokinin.
Answer:
Thyroxine – It is a hormone in animals whereas the others are hormones in plants.

Question 4.
Dendrite, Cell body, Axon, Synapse.
Answer:
Synapse – It is a minute space between two adjacent neurons whereas the others are parts of the neuron.

Question 5.
Thyroxine, Calcitonin, Insulin, Auxin.
Answer:
Auxin – It is a plant hormone whereas the others are hormones in human beings.

Complete the Analogy:

(1) Water : Xylem :: Food : …………………………….
(2) Movement of root system : Gravitropic :: Movement of shoot system : …………………………….
(3) Brain: Cranial Cavity :: Spinal Cord : …………………………….
(4) Cavities of the brain : Ventricles :: Cavities of the spinal cord : …………………………….
(5) Involuntary activities : Medulla oblongata : : Balance of the body : …………………………….
(6) Stem elongation: Gibberellin :: Cell division : …………………………….
(7) Control of voluntary movements : Cerebrum :: Co-ordination of voluntary movements : …………………………….
(8) Converts glucose to glycogen : Insulin :: Converts glycogen to glucose : …………………………….
(9) Secondary sexual characters in males : Testosterone :: Secondary sexual characters in females : …………………………….
Answer:
(1) Phloem
(2) Phototropic
(3) Vertebral column
(4) Central canal
(5) Cerebellum
(6) Cytokinin
(7) Cerebellum
(8) Glucagon
(9) Oestrogen

Match the columns:

Question 1.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(1) Gibberellins
(2) Cytokinins
(3) Abscisic acid
(4) Auxin
(a) Enlargement of cells
(b) Helps in stem elogation
(c) Cell division
(d) Wilting of leaf

Answer:
(1 – b),
(2 – c),
(3 – d),
(4 – a).

Question 1.

Column ‘A’ Column B’
(1) Cerebrum
(2) Cerebelleum
(3) Medulla oblongata
(4) Spinal cord
(a) Control of involuntary activities
(b) Decision – making, memory and intellectual activities.
(c) Centre for co­ordination of reflex actions
(d) Maintaining body’s balance

Answer:
(1 – b),
(2 – d),
(3 – a),
(4 – c).

State whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false statements.

Question 1.
Plants need less energy as compared to animals.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Xylem conducts food whereas phloem conducts water.
Answer:
False. Xylem conducts water whereas phloem conducts food.

Question 3.
The loss of water from the plants is known as translocation.
Answer:
False. The loss of water from the plants is known as transpiration.

Question 4.
Calcium oxalate crystals present in some plants are called resins.
Answer:
False. Calcium oxalate crystals present in some plants are called raphides.

Question 5.
Root pressure helps to push the water up in plants during night time.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Translocation is carried out by phloem in downward direction.
Answer:
False. Translocation is carried out by phloem in both upward and downward direction.

Question 7.
In unicellular organisms, waste materials are directly eliminated across the cell surface.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
Urea is produced in the liver.
Answer:
True

Question 9.
Systematic regulation of different processes is called co-ordination.
Answer:
False. Systematic regulation of different processes is called control.

Question 10.
A hormone auxin produced in the apical part of the shoot helps in enlargement of cells.
Answer:
True

Question 11.
Gibberellin helps in prevention and retardation of growth, leaf wilting etc.
Answer:
False. Abscisic acid helps in prevention and retardation of growth, leaf wilting etc.

Question 12.
The movement shown by venus fly trap while trapping an insect is a growth relevant movement.
Answer:
False. The movement shown by venus fly trap while trapping an insect is a growth irrelevant movement.

Question 13.
The lotus flower opens during night time while that of tuberose (polyanthus) opens during day time.
Answer:
False. The lotus flower opens during day time while that of tuberose (polyanthus) opens during night time.

Question 14.
Sensory neurons conduct impulses from the brain and the spinal cord to effector organs like muscles or glands.
Answer:
False. Sensory neurons conduct impulses from the sensory organs to the brain and the spinal cord.

Question 15.
There are 31 pairs of cranial nerves.
Answer:
False. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.

Question 16.
Activities like heart beat, blood circulation, breathing, sneezing, etc. are controlled by cerebellum.
Answer:
False. Activities like heart beat, blood circulation, breathing, sneezing, etc. are controlled by cerebellum.

Question 17.
Spinal nerves are associated with head, thorax and abdomen.
Answer:
False. Spinal nerves are associated with arms, legs, skin and some other parts of the body.

Question 18.
Nerve impulses are slow and long lasting whereas action of hormones is fast and short lived.
Answer:
False. Nerve impulses are fast and short lived whereas action of hormones is slow and long lasting.

Question 19.
Reflex actions are controlled by cerebellum.
Answer:
False. Reflex actions are controlled by spinal cord.

Question 20.
Thyroid stimulating hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland.
Answer:
True

Question 21.
The hormone thymosin is secreted by the thyroid gland.
Answer:
False. The hormone thymosin is secreted by the thymus gland.

Question 22.
Parathormone controls metabolism of calcium and phosphorns.
Answer:
True

Question 23.
The right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney.
Answer:
True

Name the following:

Question 1.
The structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
Answer:
Newtron.

Question 2.
The network of capillaries in the Bowman’s capsule.
Answer:
Glomerulus.

Question 3.
The minute space between two adjacent nervous.
Answer:
Synapse.

Question 4.
The special cells which bring about control and co-ordination.
Answer:
Neurons.

Question 5.
The cavities present in various parts of the brain.
Answer:
Ventricles.

Question 6.
The long tubular cavity of the spinal cord.
Answer:
Central Canal.

Question 7.
The thread like fibrous structure at the end of the spinal cord.
Answer:
Filum terminale.

Give scientific reasons:

Question 1.
It is necessary to remove harmful and waste substances from the body.
Answer:

  • Many harmful and waste substances like urea, uric acid, ammonia, etc. are produced in living organisms.
  • If these substances accumulate in the body or are retained in the body for long, it can lead to serious harm or even death.
  • Hence, it is necessary to remove such harmful and waste substances from the body.

Question 2.
In plants like Touch-me-not (Mimosa), movement also occurs at the places other than where it has been touched.
Answer:

  • In plants like Touch-me-not (Mimosa), the information about the touch is relayed within the plant from one place to another.
  • Plants use electro-chemical impulses for transfer of information from one place to another.
  • Plant cells change their shape by increasing or decreasing their water content and thereby, bring about the movements of plants.
  • Hence, in plants like Touch-me-not (Mimosa) movement also occurs at the places other than where it has been touched.

Question 3.
Endocrine glands are also called ductless glands.
Answer:

  • Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands.
  • These glands do not have any arrangement of their own to store or carry their secretions.
  • Hence, as soon as hormones are produced, they are directly released into the blood circulation.
  • Thus, though these endocrine glands are present at specific locations in our body, their secretions reach all parts of the body via blood.
  • Therefore, endocrine glands are also called ductless glands.

Define the following:

Question 1.
Transportation
Answer:
The process by which a substance either synthesized or absorbed in one part of the body reaches another is called as transportation.

Question 2.
Control
Answer:
Systematic regulation of different processes is called as control.

Question 3.
Coordination
Answer:
Bringing about the different processes in the proper sequence is called as co-ordination.

Question 4.
Tropism or Tropic movement
Answer:
Movement or growth of any part of the plant in response to an external stimulus is called as tropism or tropic movement.

Question 5.
Excretion
Answer:
Removal of waste or harmful substances from the body is called excretion.

Question 6.
Dialysis
Answer:
The process of separating the nitrogenous waste from the blood with the help of a man?made machine is called dialysis.

Question 7.
Reflex action
Answer:
An immediate and involuntary response given to a stimulus from the environment is called a reflex action.

Question 8.
Homeostasis
Answer:
Proper co-ordination between various systems of an organism helps to maintain a state of equilibrium called homeostasis.

Question 9.
Tropism
Answer:
Movement or growth of any part of the plant in response to an external stimulus is called tropism.

Distinguish between:

Question 1.
Nervous control and Chemical control
Answer:

Nervous Control Chemical Control
(i) Nervous control is brought about by special types of cells called neurons. (i) Chemical control is brought about by chemical substances called hormones.
(ii) It involves the nervous system i.e., brain, spinal cord and nerves. (ii) It involves the endocrine glands.
(iii) Nerve impulses are fast and short-lived. (iii) Actions of hormones are very slow and long-lasting.

Question 2.
Growth relevant movements and growth irrelevant movements
Answer:

Growth relevant movements Growth irrelevant movements
(i) Growth relevant movements result in growth of the plants. (i) Growth irrelevant movements do not result in growth of the plants.
(ii) They are also called as tropic movements. (ii) They are also called as nastic movements.
(iii) They are in response to stimulus of light, water, gravity, chemicals, etc. (iii) They are generally in response to stimulus of touch.
(iv) Examples : Bending of stem towards light, movement of roots towards gravity and water, etc. (iv) Example : Closing of leaflets of Mimosa plant, closing of Venus fly trap, etc.

Question 3.
Cerebrum and Cerebellum
Answer:

Cerebrum Cerebellum
(i) It is the largest part of the brain. (i) It is the smaller part of the brain.
(ii) It occupies two thirds of the brain. (ii) It is situated below the cerebrum at the back of the cranial cavity.
(iii) Its surface has deep, irregular ridges and grooves which are called convolutions. (iii) Its surface shows shallow grooves instead of convolutions.
(iv) It controls voluntary movements, concentration, planning, decision-making, memory, intelligence and intellectual activities. (iv) It co-ordinates voluntary movements and maintains the body’s balance.

Write short notes:

Question 1.
Root Pressure
Answer:

  • Root cells are in contact with water and minerals in the soil.
  • Water and minerals enter the cells of the root surface due to difference in concentration. As a result, these cells become turgid.
  • This is called root pressure.
  • Under the effect of this pressure, water and minerals reach the xylem of the roots and to reduce this difference in concentration, they are continuously pushed forward.
  • As a result of this continuous movement, a water column is formed, which is continuously pushed ahead.
  • This pressure, is sufficient to lift the water up in shrubs, small plants and small trees.

Question 2.
Transpiration
Answer:

  • Plants give out water in the form of water vapour through the stomata on their leaves. This is known as transpiration.
  • Two cells called guard cells are present around the stomata. They control the opening and closing of stomata.
  • Water is released into the atmosphere by leaves through the process of evaporation.
  • As a result, water in the epidermal layer of the leaf decreases.
  • Water is brought up to the leaves through the xylem to compensate for the lost water.
  • Transpiration helps in absorption of water and minerals and distribution to all parts of the plant.

Question 3.
Nerve cell
Answer:

  • Nerve cells also called as neurons are special types of cells which conduct impulses from one place to another in the body.
  • Neurons are the structural and functional units of the nervous system.
  • Nerve cells, the largest cell in the human body, may measure upto a few metres in length.
  • Nerve cells have the ability to generate and conduct electrochemical impulse.
  • The cells that support the nerve cells and help in their functioning are called neuroglia. Nerve cells and neuroglial cells together form nerves.

Question 4.
Reflex action
Answer:

  • An immediate and involuntary response given to a stimulus from the environment is called a reflex action.
  • Sometimes we react to an incident without any thinking on our part or control over the reaction.
  • This is a response given to a certain stimulus from the surroundings.
  • In such situations, proper control and co-ordination is achieved even without the intervention of the brain.
  • For example, when our hand touches a hot object, the receptor in the skin detects the stimulus.
  • The sensory neuron sends the impulse to the relay neuron in the spinal cord.
  • The impulses are then sent to motor neurons which cause the muscles of the hand to contract and move away from the hot object.
  • The spinal cord is the center of co-ordination for reflex actions.

Question 5.
Spinal cord
Answer:

  • The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system and it is held within the vertebral column.
  • It is slightly thick but gradually tapers towards the end.
  • There is a thread like fibrous structure at its end. It is called the filum terminale.
  • The long tubular cavity of the spinal cord is called the central canal. It is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  • The spinal cord conducts impulses from the skin towards the brain and from the brain to the muscles and glands.
  • It functions as a centre of co-ordination of reflex actions.

Question 6.
Dialysis
Answer:

  • The efficiency of kidneys can be adversely affected by injury, infection or decreased blood supply.
  • If this happens, excess of toxic substances accumulates in the body and it can lead to death.
  • If kidneys fail, nitrogenous wastes are separated from the blood with the help of a man-made machine.
  • The process of separating the nitrogenous waste from the blood with the help of this machine is called dialysis.
  • About 500 ml of blood is sent at one time through this machine. Purified blood is reinfused into the body of the patient.

Draw neat and labelled diagrams:

Question 1.
Vertical Section of Kidney
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 6

Question 2.
Reflex action
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 Science Solutions Chapter 15 Life Processes in Living Organisms 7

Name the hormones of the following endocrine glands and the function of each:

Question 1.
Parathyroid
Answer:

Hormone Function
Parathormone Controls metabolism of calcium and phosphorus

Question 2.
Pancreas
Answer:

Hormone Function
(i) Glucagon Stimulates liver to convert glycogen into glucose.
(ii) Insulin Stimulates liver to convert excess blood glucose into glycogen.
(iii) Somatostatin Controls levels of insulin and glucagon.
(iv) Pancreatic Polypeptide Controls movement of intestine and thereby glucose absorption. Controls secretion of pancreatic juice.

Complete the following table of plant hormones with their functions:
Answer:

Plant hormone Functions
(i) Auxin Produced in the apical part of the shoot
Helps in enlargement of cells
(ii) Gibberellins Help in stem elongation
(iii) Cytokinins Help in cell division
(iv) Abscisic acid Effective in prevention and retardation of growth, leaf wilting, etc.

State the functions of different parts of the brain.
Answer:

Parts of the Brain Functions
Cerebrum Control of voluntary movements, concentration, planning, decision­making, memory, intelligence, and intellectual activities.
Cerebellum (i) Co-ordination of voluntary movements.
(ii)  Maintaining the body’s balance.
Medulla oblongata Control of involuntary activities like the beating of the heart, blood circulation, breathing, sneezing, coughing, salivation, etc.
Spinal cord (i) Conduction of impulses from the skin towards the brain.
(ii) Conduction of impulses from brain to muscles and glands.
(iii) Functions as centre of co­ordination of reflex actions.

Answer the following:

Question 1.
How do plants bring about movements in them?
Answer:

  • Plants use electro-chemical impulses for transfer of information from one place to another.
  • Plant cells change their shape by increasing or decreasing their water content and thereby bring about the movement of plants.

Answer the following:

Question 1.
What are growth-irrelevant movements? Give examples.
Answer:

  • Some specific movements of the plants do not lead to the plant growth. Such movements are called growth-irrelevant movements.
  • In the plant called venus fly trap, there is a trap that appears and smells like flowers and deceives insects. When an insect visits the flower-like trap, the trap closes up and the trapped insect is digested by the plant.
  • Fibrils present on the leaves of the insectivorous plant Drosera, bend inward as soon as an insect lands on the leaves and surround the insects from all sides.
  • In Balsam, the ripened fruit dehisces (bursts-open) at the right time to disperse the seeds.

Question 2.
Which are the different types of nerve cells or neurons?
OR
How are nerve cells classified according to their functions?
Answer:
According to their functions, nerve cells are classified into three types:

  • Sensory neurons: They conduct impulses from the sensory organs to the brain and the spinal cord.
  • Motor neurons : They conduct impulses from the brain or spinal cord to effector organs like muscles or glands.
  • Association neurons : Association neurons perform the function of integration in the nervous system.

Question 3.
What are the different parts of the human nervous system?
Answer:
The human nervous system can be divided into the following three parts.

  1. Central nervous system (CNS) : It consists of the brain and the spinal cord. It controls and regulates all activities of the body.
  2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) : The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves originating from the central nervous system which connect the central nervous system with all parts of the body. They are of two types cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
  3. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) : The autonomous nervous system consists of the nerves of involuntary organs like the heart, lungs, stomach etc. It is not under the control of our will.

Question 4.
Describe the structure of the central nervous system.
Answer:

  • The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal card.
  • The organization of the brain is extremely delicate and highly evolved.
  • The brain is the main controlling part of the nervous system and is safely located in the cranial cavity. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral column.
  • In the space between the delicate central nervous system and its bony covering are the protective layers called the meninges.
  • Cavities present in various parts of the brain are called ventricles whereas the long tubular cavity of the spinal cord is called the central canal.
  • The ventricles, central canal and spaces between the meninges are filled with cerebro?spinal fluid.
  • This fluid supplies nutrients to the central nervous system and protects it from shock.

Question 5.
Which are the two types of peripheral nerves?
Answer:
Peripheral nerves are of two types:
(a) Cranial nerves:

  • Nerves originating from the brain are called cranial nerves.
  • They are associated with various parts in the head.
  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.

(b) Spinal nerves:

  • Nerves originating from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves.
  • They are associated with arms, legs, skin and some other parts of the body.
  • There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

Question 6.
How do plants get rid of their excretory products?
Answer:

  • Excretion is a simpler process in plants. There is no special organ or system for excretion in plants.
  • Gases are given out by diffusion.
  • Most of the waste substances of plants are stored in vacuoles of leaf-cells and in flowers, fruits and the bark of the stem. After some time these parts fall off.
  • Some other waste materials are stored in old and worn out xylem in the form of resin and gum.
  • Some waste materials are also given out through roots in the surrounding soil.

Answer in detail:

Question 1.
Explain how food and other substances are transported in plants?
OR
Explain translocation in plants.
Answer:

  • The food produced in leaves is transported to each cell in the plant body.
  • Excess food, except amino acids, is stored in roots, fruits and seeds. This process is called translocation of materials.
  • It is carried out in both the upward and downward directions by the phloem.
  • Translocation is not a simple process, it requires energy. This energy is obtained from ATP.
  • Whenever food material like sucrose is transported towards a part of a plant via the phloem with the help of ATP, the water concentration decreases in the part. As a result, water enters the cell by the process of diffusion.
  • The pressure on the cell wall increases due to increase in cellular contents.
  • Due to the increase pressure, food is pushed into the neighbouring cells where the pressure is low.
  • This process helps the phloem to transport the materials as per the need of the plant. During flowering season, the sugar stored in roots or stem is transported towards the floral buds to make them open and blossom.

Question 2.
What is tropic movement? Describe the different types of tropic movements.
OR
What are growth relevant movements? Describe the different types of growth relevant movements.
Answer:
Movement or growth of any part of the plant in response to an external stimulus is called tropic movement or tropism.

The different types of tropic movements are:

  • Phototropic movement : The shoot system of any plant responds to the light stimulus, i.e., it grows towards the source of light. The movement shown by plants towards the source of light is called phototropic movement.
  • Gravitropic movement : The root system of plants responds to stimulus of gravity. This is called gravitropic movement.
  • Hydrotropic movement : The root system of plants responds to the stimulus of water. This is called hydrotropic movement.
  • Chemotropic movement : Movement shown by plants in response to specific chemicals is called chemotropic movement. For example, the growth of the pollen tube towards the ovule.

All the above-mentioned movements of plants are related with growth, hence are called growth relevant movement.

Question 3.
Write short note on : Human Brain
Answer:

  • The brain is the main controlling part of the nervous system and is safely located in the cranial cavity.
  • The brain is covered by protective layers called the Meninges.
  • Cavities present in various parts of the brain are called ventricles.
  • The ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid supplies nutrients to the brain and also protects it from shock.
  • The brain of an adult human weighs about 1300 -1400 grams and consists of approximately 100 million neurons.
  • The left side of our brain controls the right side of our body and right side of our brain controls left side of the body.
  • In addition, the left side of the brain controls our speech and conversation, writing, logical thinking etc., whereas the right side controls artistic abilities.

Human brain is made up of following parts:

(a) Cerebrum:

  • This is the largest part of the brain and consists of two cerebral hemispheres. These hemispheres are joined with each other with the help of tough fibres and nerve tracts.
  • The cerebrum occupies two-thirds of the brain. Hence, it is also called as large brain.
  • Its surface has deep, irregular ridges and grooves which are called convolutions, convolution increases the surface area of the cerebrum and therefore a large number of nerve cells can be accommodated.

(b) Cerebellum:

  • This is the smaller part of the brain situated below the cerebrum at the back of the cranial cavity.
  • Its surface shows shallow grooves instead of deep convolutions.

(c) Medulla Oblongata:

  • This is the hind-most part of the brain.
  • There are two triangular swollen structures called pyramids on the upper side of medulla oblongata.
  • The medulla oblongata continues downwards the spinal cord.

(6) How are nerve impulses conducted in the body?
Answer:

  • Special types of cells which conduct impulses from one place to another in the body are called neurons. Nerve cells have the ability to generate and conduct electro-chemical impulses.
  • The cells that support the nerve cells and help in their functioning are called neuroglia.
  • All the information about our surroundings is collected by the ends or dendrites of the neuron.
  • The chemical process begins at those ends and electric impulses are generated which are conducted from the dendrites to the cell body, from the cell body to the axon and from the axon to its terminal.
  • These impulses are then to be transferred from this nerve cell to the next.
  • Now the impulse that reaches the terminal of an axon, stimulates the nerve cell to secrete certain chemicals.
  • These chemicals pass through a minute space, called the synapse, between two adjacent neurons and generate the impulses in the dendrites of the next neuron.
  • In this way, impulses are conducted in the body and these impulses are finally conveyed by nerve cells to muscles cells or glands.
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