Entertainment and History Class 10 History Notes Maharashtra State Board
Things that help refresh our minds and give us a feeling of happiness are the sources of entertainment. Various hobbies, games, drama-film, writing-reading, etc. are the sources of entertainment.
Why do we need Entertainment?
Healthy entertainment of excellent quality is essential for the healthy growth of one’s personality. Entertainment keeps our minds lively and fresh. It may also make us feel physically more energetic. So eventually our efficiency at work improves. Pursuing hobbies and games helps in personality development. In India, many festivals, sports, dance music, etc. have been developed as forms of entertainment since ancient times. There are varied forms of entertainment available in the modern period as well.
Entertainment can be classified into two categories, active and passive. Active entertainment anticipates an individual’s mental-physical participation. Practicing handicrafts and participating in sports activities are examples of active entertainment. Watching a sports match listening to music or watching a movie are examples of passive entertainment. In this type of entertainment, we are not actual participants but only viewers.
Puppetry – Wooden Puppets (Kathputali):
Remains of clay dolls have been found in the excavations of archaeological sites of the Harappan civilization as well as sites in Egypt and Greece. It is possible that they were used as puppets. In ancient India materials like wood, wool, leather, horns, and ivory were used to make puppets. The Kathputali, a traditional art of puppetry in India has two styles; one that developed in Rajasthan and the other in southern regions of India. The artists who stage Kathputali shows are found in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Assam, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Kerala. The role of the narrator known as sutradhara is crucial in the success of the Kathaputali stage show. The stage for this puppetry show is quite small but the puppeteers ingeniously use light and sound effects. Shadow puppets, hand puppets, wooden puppets, and string puppets are used in Kathputali shows.
Dashavatara is part of the folk theatre in Maharashtra. Dashavatara shows are presented in the regions of Konkan and Goa after the harvesting season is over. The stories presented in these shows are based on the 10 incarnations of Vishnu, namely Matsya, Koorma, Varaha, Narasimha, Wamana, Parashurama, Ram, Krishna, Buddha, and Kalki. At the beginning of the show sutradhara, the narrator invokes Lord Ganesha, the destroyer of obstacles.
The method of acting, make-up, and costumes in Dashavatara shows is set by tradition. The show is mostly musical but sometimes there may be a few spontaneous dialogues. The characters representing gods use wooden masks. The show ends by breaking dahi handi, an earthen pot of curds, followed by aarti, singing praises of God. In the 18th century, Shyamji Naik Kale started a phad, of Dashavatara artists who used to perform all over Maharashtra. Vishnudas Bhave, the pioneer of Marathi theatre staged mythological plays by introducing some modifications in the Dashavatara style. Thus, the origins of the Marathi theatre can be traced to the Dashavatara tradition. The meaning of phad is ‘a troupe’.
Bhajan (Singing Devotional Songs):
To sing songs in praise of God and chant god’s name accompanied by instruments like taal (cymbals), mridangam, and pakhavaj is known as Bhajan. There are two types of Bhajan, Chakri Bhajan and Songi Bhajan.
- Chakri Bhajan: Devotees keep moving circularly and sing without break.
- Songi Bhajan: The singer-actors act as devotees and deliver dialogues in the form of devotional songs.
Tukadoji Maharaj introduced a new form of Bhajan known as Khanjiri Bhajan.
In north India, the bhajans composed by Saint Tulsidas, the great poet Surdas, Saint Meerabai, and Saint Kabir are very popular. Compositions of Purandardas, Kanakdas, Vijaydas, Bodhendraguruswami, Thyagaraj, etc. are sung in Karnataka. In Gujarat, Saint Narasi Mehta gave momentum to the Bhakti movement. In Maharashtra, Saint Namadeva supported the tradition of bhajan-keertan through the tradition of the Varakari sect. The Varakari sect developed a glorious tradition of bhajan-keertan.
There are two main traditions of keertan, Naraadiya or Haridasi Varakri. Haridasi keertan is a solo performance. It has two parts, Poorvarang and Uttarrang. Naman (praising god), Nirupanacha Abhang (singing a composition that leads to the main theme), and Nirupan (explanation of the main theme) comprise the Poorvarang. The narration of a story to illustrate the main theme comprises Uttarrang. In the Varkari Keertan collective participation is more important. The players of cymbals also play an important part along with the keertankar. During the independence movement, a new type of Keertan was developed, known as Rashtriya Keertan. It places more importance on creating awareness by narrating the life stories of great leaders of the Indian independence movement, scientists, social reformers, etc. The tradition of Rashtriya Keertan was started by Dattopant Patwardhan of Wai in Maharashtra.
Members of the Satyashodhak Samaj founded by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule also used Keertan as a medium of creating social awareness. The style of Keertan by Saint Gadge Maharaj resembled to Satyashodhak style of Keertan. He used to throw light on issues like the abolition of caste, cleanliness, deaddiction, etc.
Traditionally, Naradmuni is supposed to be the founder of the Keertana tradition. Saint Namadev is known as the first keertankar of Maharashtra. Other saints helped the tradition to flourish. The keertankar is also known as Haridas or Kathekaribuva. He has to dress traditionally. He needs to train himself in oratory, singing, musical instruments, dance, and humour. He needs to be very well-informed. Keertan is performed in a temple or the precincts of a temple.
Lalit is an old form of entertainment in Maharashtra. It belongs to the tradition of Naradiya Keertan. It is quite popular in Goa and Konkan. During the performance of Lalit on the occasion of religious festivals, it is presumed that the presiding deity of that festival is present on the throne and then she is invoked for fulfillment of a desire. The invocation continues as follows: “Let everybody be granted their desire. Let the entire village live in happiness till we perform the next Lalit. Let the internal clashes vanish with this performance of Lalit. Let nobody’s mind be spoilt with prejudice. Let all transactions happen with clear minds. Let the community’s behaviour be pious.” The Lalit is performed in a theatrical style. Stories of Krishna, Rama, and great devotees are presented during the performance. A few texts of Lalit are available in Hindi as well. Lalit forms a part of the backdrop of modern Marathi theatre.
Bharud can be described as a metaphorical song that has spiritual and ethical lessons. Bharud is comparable to the style of a road show. Bharuds composed by Saint Eknath are popular in Maharashtra because of their wide range of subjects, dramatic quality, easy rhythm, and humour. Saint Eknath composed Bharuds to educate people on various aspects of life.
Tamasha is a Persian word. It means a ‘pleasing sight’. Tamasha developed as an independent art form in the 18th century, by absorbing various traits of folk theatre and classical arts. There are two types of traditional Tamasha, Sangeet Bari and Dholakicha Phad. Dance and music are more important than drama in a Sangeet Bari. Tamasha with drama as the main part, was developed later. It included Vag, the dramatic part, a little later. The Vag becomes very lively and entertaining because of its spontaneous humor. The show begins by singing the praise of Lord Ganesha, known as Gana. It is followed by the presentation of Gavalan. The second part of Tamasha presents the Vag. Popular plays like Vichchha Mazi Puri Kara or Gadhavache Lagna are examples of the modern form of Tamasha.
Powada is a dramatic narration by alternatingly reciting poetry and prosaic extracts. Powada narrates the great deeds of heroic men and women in a very forceful and inspiring style. The Powada composed by Adnyandas, a contemporary poet of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, narrating the incidence of the killing of Afzal Khan, and another one on the battle of Simhagarh, composed by Tulasidas, are two well-known examples of Powada. In the British period, Powadas narrating the stories of Umaji Naik, the Chapekar brothers, and Mahatma Gandhi were composed. During the ‘Samyukt Maharashtra’ movement the powadas were used as a medium of creating public awareness.
A theatre is a place devoted to performances, either solo or collective, of performing arts. Participation of the artist as well as the audience is essential for a successful performance. The theatre comprises several factors such as script, director, artists, make-up, costumes, stage, art design (backdrop of the stage), lighting arrangement, audience, and critics. Dance and music can also be part of a drama. A drama is usually enacted with the help of dialogues. However, mime can also be used as the medium of expression. Gather information about dramas on the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj, Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, Lokamanya Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi and Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar.
The rulers of the Bhosale family of Tanjore were great patrons of drama. Some of them had written a few plays and also translated Sanskrit plays. The 19th century saw a great development of the Marathi theatre. Vishnudas Bhave is known as the father of the Marathi theatre. Seetaswayamvar was the first play presented by him. The movement started by Vishnudas Bhave was followed in Maharashtra by historical, mythological, and light farcical stage plays. The farcical plays humorously dealt with social issues. Initially, no written scripts were used. Often, only the lyrics were written down but the dialogues used to be spontaneous. V.J. Kirtane was the first author who wrote the script of Thorale Madhavrao Peshwe in 1861 and its printed copy was made available. This was the beginning of the tradition of having a complete written script ready before staging a play.
In the latter half of the 19th century, Balkrishnbuva Ichalkaranjikar made special efforts to introduce classical khyal music in Maharashtra. After him, Ustad Alladiya Khan, Ustad Abdul Karim Khan, and Ustad Rahimatkhan contributed in a great way. Their efforts helped in developing a taste for classical music among the audience in Maharashtra. The growing popularity of classical music resulted in the origin of musical Marathi theatre. The musical plays of Kirloskar Mandali became very popular. Sangeet Shakuntal written by Annasaheb Kirloskar earned great popularity. Another musical play, Sharada, written by Govind Ballal Deval is quite important, as it comments in a humorous style on the evil custom of marrying young girls to aged men. Also plays such as Mooknayak, written by Shripad Krishna Kolahtkar, Sangeet Manapaman, written by Krishnaji Prabhakar Khadilkar, and Ekach Pyala written by Ram Ganesh Gadkari are important in the history of Marathi theatre.
Khadilkar wrote Keechakvadh, a metaphorical drama to denounce the British government. It was based on certain events in the Mahabharata. Draupadi represented helpless Mother India, while Yudhishthira represented the moderates and Bheem, the extremists. Keechaka represented the insolent Viceroy Lord Curzon. The audience used to perceive the characters in this fashion and feel enraged about the imperialistic attitude of the British government. The popular plays written by Acharya Atre like Sashtang Namaskar, Udyacha Sansar, Gharabaher etc. helped the Marathi theatre to sustain through a temporary decline. The recent plays based on historical themes like Raygadala Jevha Jag Yete and Ithe Oshalala Mrutyu by Vasant Kanetkar, Ghashiram Kotwal by Vijay Tendulkar, Tilak Ani Agarkar by Vishram Bedekar became very popular.
The Marathi stage continued to get enriched because of its varied subjects and types of plays. Marathi stage artists of the bygone era like Ganpatrao Joshi, Narayanrao Rajahamsa, more popularly known as Balgandharva, Keshavrao Bhosale, Chintamanrao Kolhatkar, and Ganpatrao Bodas are still remembered as great actors. The early Marathi plays were staged on open grounds. The British first built closed theatres like Play House, Rippon, and Victoria in Mumbai. Thereafter, the shows of Marathi plays gradually took to closed theatres. The renowned author-poet Vishnu Waman Shirwadkar, also known as Kusumagraj wrote Natasamrat, a play styled after Shakespeare’s well-known play, ‘King Lear’. It became very popular. Ganpatrao Belvalkar, the tragic protagonist of Natasamrat represents a blend of two well-known personalities of the early Marathi stage, Ganpatrao Joshi and Nanasaheb Phatak.
Indian Film Industry
Cinema is a medium that brings together art and technology. With the technology of motion pictures, the film industry came into being. It gave rise to the era of silent movies. Later, the technology of sound recording was introduced and the age of sound movies began.
Types of Movies:
Satirical movies, Documentaries, Advertising films, Children’s films, Movies about the army, Educational movies, Movies narrating a story, etc. The honor of making and releasing the first full-length movie goes to Maharashtra. Maharashtra is known as the land that nurtured the Indian film industry. The contribution of Madanrao Madhavrao Pitale, the Patwardhan family of Kalyan, Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatvadekar, also known as Savedada is very important in the development of Indian movies.
Later, Gopal Ramchandra Torane also known as Dadasaheb Torane and A.P.Karandikar, S. N. Patankar, V. P. Divekar sought help from Foreign technicians and made a movie entitled Pundalik. It was released in Mumbai in 1912. Raja Harischandra, a movie directed by Dadasaheb Phalke was the first to be processed completely in India. It was released in Mumbai, in 1913. He also created silent movies named Mohini Bhasmasur, and Savitri Satyavana, as well as documentaries on the rock-cut caves of Verul and pilgrim centres of Nashik and Tryambakeshwar. Later, a tradition of making movies on historical and mythological subjects came into being. Anandrao Painter, the first one to make a cine camera in Indian, also got interested in the making of movies. His cousin Baburao Painter, also known as ‘Mistri’, made Sairandhri in 1918. He made the first historical movie, Simhgarh, which was a silent one. He also created historical movies like Kalyancha Khajina, Bajiprabhu Deshpande, and Netaji Palkar. He also made a movie on a realistic social issue, entitled Savakari Pash. In 1925 Bhalaji Pendharkar made a movie entitled Bajirao-Mastani. However, the British government suspected it to be a medium of spreading nationalistic sentiments and it was banned.
Kamalabai Mangarulkar was the first woman producer. She produced Savalya Tandel and Panaa Dai (Hindi). Ramshastri, a movie made by Prabhat Company in 1944 became very popular. In the post-independence period, a few movies were made on historical themes. Aacharya Atre made a movie on the life of Mahatma Phule and Vishram Bedekar made a movie on the life of Vasudev Balwant Phadke. Dinakar D. Patil made a movie entitled, Dhanya te Santaji Dhanaji. Bal Shivaji, the movie made by Prabhakar Pendhakar also needs a special mention.
The government of India created a special division for making documentaries. It was named as ‘Films division’. The documentaries released by this division used to be shown in the cinema theatres before the beginning of the main movie. They were aimed at creating public awareness about various issues. Gather more information about it. Sant Tukaram is a movie to has received international acclaim. It was shown at the International Film Festival in Paris. Vishnupant Pagnis acted as Saint Tukaram in this film.
Historical movies were also made in Hindi. The Hindi movies made in the preIndependence period, Sikandar, Tansen, Samrat Chandragupta, Prithvivallabha, and Mughal-e-Azam were made with a historical backdrop. Dr Kotanis ki Amar Kahani was based on a true story. The movies based on the Indian struggle for independence such as Andolan, and Zansi ki Rani, also deserve a mention. Production studios such as ‘Bombay Talkies’, ‘Rajkamal Productions’, ‘R.K. Studios’, ‘Navketan’, etc. played a significant role in the development of the Indian film industry.
Entertainment and Professional Opportunities
The students of history can avail themselves of many professional opportunities in the fields of drama and movies.
- To achieve accuracy of stage backdrops on the stage deep knowledge of the history of arts and architecture of the concerned period is essential. Experts in these fields can work as art directors or consultants.
- The scriptwriters, as well as dialogue writers, need the assistance of experts in languages and the history of languages, as well as experts in the cultural history of a given period.
- The art directors of movies create the backdrop designs of atmosphere, costumes and jewelry, makeup, hairstyles, etc., suitable to the times of the theme of the movie. Scholars of history can work in this field as art directors or as consultants to the art director.
- To write movie dialogues, knowledge of the culture and language spoken in the concerned period is necessary. Experts in these fields can find many professional opportunities.
Maharashtra State Board Class 10 History Notes Entertainment and History can be used for revisiting and reinforcing previously learned content.