Sports and History Class 10 History Notes Maharashtra State Board
Sports combine entertainment and physical exercise. To play is a natural human instinct. Hence, the history of sports begins with the origin of mankind. Various games have been played since the beginning of civilization. Hunting was indeed a way of obtaining food for the ancient people but it was also looked upon as a game and entertainment. The ancient Indian literature and epics mention various games such as games of dice (dyut), wrestling, Horse and Chariot races, and chess.
There are several training centers for wrestling and other sports.
- Vyayamshala of famous wrestlers Jummadada and Manikrao, Vadodara.
- Kreeda Vidyapeeth, Patiyala.
- Svarnim Gujarat Sports, Gandhinagar.
- Khasbag Talim and Motibag Talim, Kolhapur.
- Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravati.
- Shri Shiv Chhatrapati Kreeda Sankul, Balewadi, Pune.
Sports and Greek is a very ancient equation. The Greeks were the first to Standardise the rules of sports and organize them systematically. They started sports competitions of Discus throw, Horse and Chariot Races, Wrestling and Boxing, etc. The ancient event of Olympic competitions used to be held at Olympia, the ancient Greek city. To be able to participate in the Olympics and be a winner is supposed to be a great honor for sportspersons.
Importance of Sports
To play games is very important for us. It enables us to overcome suffering and worries. Games help us to relax and refresh our minds. Games, which involve a lot of physical activities, provide good exercise as well. Games help in building a tenacious and strong body. Playing games also helps us develop courage, determination, and sportsmanship. Games needing collective participation help us to develop a sense of cooperation and team spirit. It also helps in developing leadership.
Types of Sports
Sports are of two types, ‘Indoor Games’ and ‘Outdoor Games’.
Indoor Games are played within a closed environment and a number of them are played by sitting at one place. They include chess, card games, games played with gamesmen and dice, carom, etc. The game known by various names as Kachkavadya Chaukabara, or Indian Ludo is very popular among Indians. The game known as Sagargote played with a bunch of seeds or stones, is usually played by girls. There is another game known as Bhatukali (playing house) which is usually played by girls. However, all the members of the family can also participate in it, especially in the mock wedding of a girl doll and a boy doll. It is an occasion of family celebration.
The outdoor games can be categorized into two types, ‘Indian sports’ and ‘International Sports’. Indian games include Langadi, Kabaddi, Atyapatya, Kho-kho, etc. Indian games like marbles, Lagori, Vitti-Dandu or Gilli-Danda, Bhingari (whorls), Bhovare (tops), Phugadi, and Zimma are quite popular. The international games include Badmington (alternatively spelled as Badminton), Table Tennis, Hockey, Cricket, Football, Golf, Polo, etc.
Among outdoor sports, running races are popular all over the world. Sprints or short-distance running races are usually arranged for 100 and 200 meters. There are also middle-distance and long-distance races. Marathon is a long-distance running race. Other types of running races are hurdles and relay races.
The daily schedule of Lakshmibai, the Queen of Jhansi:
‘Her Highness was very fond of physical exercise. She used to wake up in the early hours, spend an hour (2 ghatikas) exercising on the Mallakhamb, and then she had rounds of horse rides and a long elephant ride. Two hours (4 ghatikas) after sunrise, she would eat khurak (a diet meant for enhancing physical strength) and drink milk. Thereafter, she had a bath.’
According to Manisha Bathe Mallakhamb, various tactics were devised by Balambhat Deodhar, the physical trainer of Peshwa Bajirao II. She also notes that Balambhat was inspired by watching monkeys while they leaped and played on trees. Shot put, discus throw, long jump, high jump, water sports like swimming competitions, water polo, and rowing, and sports that combine physical exercise and acrobatics like mallakhamb, rope mallakhamb, gymnastics, etc. are all included in the outdoor sports based on physical skills.
Ice skating, skiing, ice hockey, etc. are popular games that require balancing skills. There are many other adventurous games which include rock-climbing, gliding, auto racing – cars and motorbikes, etc.
Sports competitions of various types are a worldwide phenomenon. Sports competitions like the Olympics, Asian Games also known as Asiad, Paralympic or Special Olympics for disabled people, Cricket World Cup, etc. are organized regularly. Also, international competitions for many other sports like hockey, wrestling, chess, etc. are organized on a grand scale. In India hockey and cricket are very popular. Hockey is our national game. Competitions of all these games are organized at local, city, taluka, district, state, national, and international levels. Sportspersons who perform well in national and international competitions have good career prospects.
Major Dhyan Chand, an expert player of hockey was also the captain of the Indian hockey team. Indian Hockey team won a Gold Medal in 1936 at the Berlin Olympics under his captaincy. He was also part of the previous Indian hockey teams in 1928 and 1932, which played at the Olympics and won Gold medals. 29th August, the birth date of Dhyan Chand is celebrated as the National Sports Day in India. He was known as the ‘Wizard of Hockey’. He was honored with a ‘Padmabhushan’ in 1956.
Globalisation of Sports
The field of sports in the 20th and 21st centuries was naturally influenced by the process of globalization. The international matches of various sports like cricket, football, and lawn tennis can be watched on television in any corner of the world. Thus, citizens of the non-participant countries can also enjoy these matches. For instance, the World Cup winning match played by Indian cricketers was watched by cricket fans all over the world. Sports fans scattered all over the world have significantly affected the entire structure of the sports economy. Fans watch the matches for entertainment, industrial and commercial companies look at it as a good opportunity to advertise their ware. Retired sportsmen also have an opportunity to participate as commentators.
Game Materials and Toys
The means and equipment for the entertainment and education of children are called toys. Clay toys have been found in archaeological excavations. These toys were fashioned either by hand or by using moulds. Dolls are mentioned in the ancient Indian literature. A Sanskrit play by Shudraka is named Mrichchhakatika. It means a clay cart. Kathasaritsagara has very interesting descriptions of games and toys. There are descriptions of flying dolls. It mentions that on pressing a key some dolls used to fly, some used to dance and some used to make sounds.
Toys and History
Toys can throw light on history and technological development. We can also get a glimpse of religious and cultural traditions through them. As a part of traditional Diwali celebrations in Maharashtra model forts are made. Clay images of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and his soldiers and also people and animals are placed on these model forts. This tradition keeps the memory alive of the important role of forts in the history of Maharashtra. An ivory doll made by Indian craftsmen was found in the excavation of Pompeii, an ancient in Italy. It is dated to the 1st century C.E. This artifact throws light on Indo-Roman trade relations. Thus, toys found in archaeological excavations can tell us about cultural contacts between nations in ancient times.
Sports, Literature, and Movies on Sport
Publishing books and encyclopedias of sports is a newly developing enterprise. The history of Mallakhamb has been recently published. There is an encyclopedia on the subject of exercise. Some years ago there was a sports magazine named ‘Shatkar’. There is ample literature available in English on sports. Some television channels are exclusively devoted to sports. Recently, some movies on sports and biographies of players have been released in various languages. For instance, the films Mary Kom and Dangal. Mary Kom is the first Indian female boxer to participate in the Olympics and to win a bronze medal. Dangal is based on the life story of the Foghat sisters who were the first Indian female wrestlers to win gold medals at various international competitions. The process of making a movie requires a deep study of the particular period of the movie’s story, language, dressing style, social life, etc. of that period. Students of history are well-trained to do research of this kind. Knowledge of the history of sports is also essential for writing articles in various publications like encyclopedias, newspapers, sports magazines, etc.
Sports and Professional Opportunities
Although sports and history appear to be distant subjects, there is a close tie between them. Students of history can find many opportunities in the field of sports journalism. One needs to resort to history to write articles and reviews about sports events like the Olympics or Asiad or national and international matches. Expert commentators are in demand during sports matches. An expert commentator needs to have good knowledge of the history, statistics, previous records, eminent players, historical anecdotes, etc. related to the concerned game. Knowledge of history is useful for them.
Matches of various sports like cricket, football, kabaddi, chess, etc. are shown live on television on various channels. The role of professionals who track and keep the record of these telecasts from various channels has become very important now. The sports channels continue telecasting around the clock. There are many professional opportunities available in this field. Referees are an essential factor in sports matches. Trained referees are required to pass qualifying examinations. Qualified referees can work at district, state, national, and international levels. The government and private sectors are trying to promote sports. There are scholarships offered to sportspersons. There are reserved seats for them in government and private establishments.
Bal J. Pandit was the first Indian cricketer to pioneer cricket commentary. People used to listen very eagerly to his broadcasts from Akashvani. His well-studied commentaries were full of information about the history of the playground, the career history of the players, anecdotes about the game, and established records of the game. His commentaries used to be entertaining because of these historical details.
Comprehensive Maharashtra State Board Class 10 History Notes Sports and History can help students make connections between concepts.