India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra State Board

We shall learn about the various ruling powers in India before the times of Shivaji Maharaj in this lesson. Various ruling powers existed in India during that period. ‘Pal’ in the eighth century was a famous dynasty in Bengal. In Central India, the Gurjar-Pratihar power spread up to Andhra, Kalinga, Vidarbha, West Kathewad, Kanauj, and Gujarat.

Among the Rajput dynasties in North India, the Gahadwal and the Parmar dynasties were the important ones. Among Rajputs, Prithviraj Chauhan belonging to the Chauhan dynasty was a valiant King. In the first war at Tarai, Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghuri. But Muhammad Ghuri defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in the second war at Tarai.

Rajaraj I and Rajendra I belonging to the Chola dynasty in Tamil Nadu were eminent rulers. The Cholas conquered the Maldives Islands and Sri Lanka using their naval strength. King Vishnuvardhan belonging to the Hoysal dynasty in Karnataka had conquered the whole of Karnataka. During the reign of Govind III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty in Maharashtra, the Rashtrakut power spread from Kanauj up to Rameshwar. Later, Krishna III conquered the region up to Allahabad.

India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Three dynasties of the Shilahars emerged in Western Maharashtra. One dynasty ruled over Thane and Raigad in North Konkan, the second in South Konkan, while the third dynasty ruled over some parts of the present-day Kolhapur, Satara, Sangli, and Belgaum districts. The last prosperous power before the period of Shivaji Maharaj was that of the Yadavas. The capital of Bhillam V of the Yadava dynasty was at Deogiri near Aurangabad. He extended his rule beyond the river Krishna. The Yadava period is considered the golden period of Marathi language and literature. It was in this period that the Mahanubhav Panth and the Varkari movement emerged.

Invasions from the North-West
Local dynasties like the Yadava and Rashtrakuta ruled in Maharashtra. However, invaders from the northwest conquered the local dynasties there and established their own rule. In the meanwhile, the Arab power had emerged in the Middle East. Arab rulers turned towards India to expand their empire. The Arab General Muhammad-bin-Qasim attacked the Sindh province in the eighth century. Notwithstanding the resistance of King Dahir, he conquered the province of Sindh. Due to this campaign, the Arabs came into political contact with India for the first time. In the period that followed, Turks, Afghans and Mughals from Central Asia came to India and established their power here. In the eleventh century CE the Turks began to invade India. Expanding their territories they reached the northwestern frontier of India. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India many times. He plundered the rich temples at Mathura, Vrindavan, Kanauj, and Somnath and carried away enormous wealth with him.

Sultanate in the North
In 1175 CE and 1178 CE, Sultan Muhammad Ghuri of Ghur from Afghanistan invaded India. He appointed Qutubuddin Aibak to look after the governance of the conquered territories in India. Later, after the death of Muhammad Ghuri in 1206 CE, Aibak began to rule the Indian territories under his rule, independently. Aibak, who was initially a slave, became the ruler of Delhi. He died in 1210 CE. After Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia, Bulban, Alauddin Khalji, Muhammad-bin-Tughluque, Firuz Tughluque, Ibrahim Lodi and other Sultans ruled over India. Ibrahim Lodi was the last Sultan. He made many enemies because of his peculiar temperament. Daulatkhan Lodi, Governor of Punjab, invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul to fight against Ibrahim Lodi. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle and thus the Sultanate came to an end.

The Kingdom of Vijaynagar
During the reign of Sultan Muhammadbin-Tughluque of Delhi, there were many revolts in the South against the central power of Delhi. From these revolts arose the formidable Vijaynagar and Bahamani kingdoms. The brothers Harihar and Bukka, from South India, were Sardars in the service of the Delhi Sultanate. Taking advantage of the instability in the South during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluque, they founded the kingdom of Vijaynagar in the South in 1336 CE. Hampi in today’s Karnataka was the capital of this kingdom. Harihar was the first king of Vijaynagar. Harihar was succeeded by his brother Bukka. Bukka brought the region up to Rameshwar under his control.

India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Krishnadevaraya ascended the throne of Vijaynagar in 1509 CE. He conquered Vijaywada and Rajmahendri and annexed the regions to his kingdom. He defeated the combined forces of the armies of the Sultans who had united under the leadership of the Bahamani Sultan Mahmud Shah. During Krishnadevaraya’s reign, the kingdom of Vijaynagar extended from Cuttak in the east up to Goa in the west and from the Raichur Doab in the north up to the Indian Ocean in the south. He died in 1530 CE.
India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board 1
Krishnadevraya was a scholar. He wrote ‘Amuktamalyada’, a Telugu compendium on the polity. The Hazar Ram temple and Vitthal temple were built in Vijayanagar during his reign. The decline of the Vijaynagar kingdom began with the death of Krishnadevaraya. In 1565 CE, at Talikot in the present State of Karnataka, there was a battle between Adilshahi, Nizamshahi, Qutubshahi, and Baridshahi on one side and Vijaynagar on the other side. Vijaynagar was defeated. Thereafter, the dominance of Vijaynagar came to an end.

The Bahamani Kingdom
While Muhammad-bin-Tughluque was still reigning, some of his Sardars in the Deccan rose in rebellion against him. The leader of these Sardars, Hasan Gangu, defeated the army of the Sultan of Delhi. A new kingdom, known as the Bahamani kingdom, came into existence in 1347 CE. Hasan Gangu became the first Sultan of the Bahamani kingdom. He made the city of Gulbarga in Karnataka his capital.

Mahmud Gawan:
Mahmud Gawan was the Chief Wazir of the Bahamani kingdom. He was a good administrator. He strengthened the Bahamani kingdom. He started paying the soldiers their salaries in cash instead of through land grants. He brought discipline in the army. He introduced many reforms in the land revenue system. He opened a madrasa at Bidar for Arabic and Persian studies.

After the death of Mahmud Gawan, factionalism increased among the Bahamani Sardars. The conflict with the Vijaynagar kingdom hurt the Bahamani kingdom. The provincial Governors began to act more independently. This led to the disintegration of the Bahamani kingdom into five small powersImadshahi of Varhad, Baridshahi of Bidar, Adilshahi of Bijapur, Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar and Qutubshahi of Golconda.

India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Mughal Power
In 1526 CE, the Sultanate of Delhi came to an end. Mughal power was established there.

Babur was the founder of Mughal power. He was the king of Farghana in Central Asia in today’s Uzbekistan. He had heard of the wealth in India. So he planned an invasion of India. The reigning Sultan of Delhi at that time was Ibrahim Lodi. Daulatkhan Lodi was the Governor of Punjab under the Sultanate. The relationship between Ibrahim Lodi and Daulatkhan Lodi was strained. Daulatkhan Lodi invited Babur to march on India. Taking this opportunity, Babur invaded India. To repel Babur’s invasion, Ibrahim Lodi started with his army. There was a battle between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur on 21 April 1526 at Panipat. In this battle, Babur made use of artillery effectively for the first time in India. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi’s army. This is known as the First Battle of Panipat.

After the battle of Panipat, Rana Sanga of Mewad brought all Rajput kings together. There was a battle between Babur and Rana Sanga at Khanua. Babur’s artillery and reserved force played a key role in this battle and Rana Sanga’s army was defeated. Babur died in 1530 CE. Akbar was the most powerful King of the Mughal dynasty. When he tried to bring India under his central authority, he had to face opposition. Maharana Pratap, Chandbibi, and Rani Durgavati struggled against him. Their struggle is noteworthy.

After Babur, Humayun (1530 CE to 1539 CE and from 1555 CE to 1556 CE) ascended the throne. He was defeated by Shershah. Shershah established the Sur dynasty on the throne of Delhi. After Humayun, Akbar (1556 CE to 1605 CE) ascended the throne. There was a battle between Akbar and Hemu at Panipat in 1556 CE. This is the Second Battle of Panipat. Akbar’s ambition was to bring the whole of India under his one central authority. After Akbar, Jahangir (1605 CE to 1628 CE) became the Emperor. During his reign, his wife Nurjahan played an active role in the administration. Jahangir was followed by Shahajahan (1628 CE to 1658 CE) as the Emperor. The next Emperor after Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb (1658 CE to 1707 CE) reigned for a very long time. After his death, the Mughal Empire became weak.

Maharana Pratap:
After the death of Udaysingh, Maharana Pratap ascended the throne of Mewad. He continued the struggle for Mewad’s existence. Till the very end, he struggled with Akbar to maintain his independence. He has become immortal in history due to his qualities of valor, courage, self-respect, sacrifice, etc.
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The Mughals attacked Ahmadnagar, the capital of Nizamshah’s kingdom, in 1595 CE. The Mughal army put the fort of Ahmadnagar under siege. Chandbibi, the capable daughter of Husain Nizamshah of Ahmadnagar, bravely defended the fort. At this time, there was internal strife among the factions of the Sardars in Nizamshahi’s kingdom. This resulted in the murder of Chandbibi. Later, the Mughals captured the fort of Ahmadnagar. But, the Mughals could not bring the entire kingdom of Nizamshahi under their control.
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Rani Durgavati:
Gondvana can broadly be said to comprise the eastern part of Vidarbha, part of Madhya Pradesh to its north, the western part of today’s Chhattisgarh, the northern part of Andhra Pradesh, and the western part of Odisha. Durgavati, born in the dynasty Chandel Rajput became the queen of Gondwana when she was married. She was an excellent administrator. The struggle of Gondwana queen Durgavati against the Mughals is important in medieval history. After her husband’s death, Durgavati laid down her life while fighting against Akbar, but she did not surrender.
India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board 4

Aurangzeb became the Emperor in 1658 CE. At this time, the Mughal empire extended from Kashmir in the north up to Ahmadnagar in the south and from Kabul in the west up to Bengal in the east. To this Aurangzeb added Assam in the east, and the regions of Adilshahi of Bijapur in the south and Qutubshahi of Golconda after he ended these kingdoms.
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Conflict with the Ahoms:
In the thirteenth century CE, the people of the Shaan community settled down in the valley of river Brahmaputra. They established their Kingdom there. They were locally known as the Ahom people. While Aurangzeb ruled, the Ahomshad a prolonged struggle with the Mughals. The Mughals attacked the Ahoms’ region. The Ahoms united under the leadership of Gadadharsinha. Commander Lachit Borphukan gave an intense battle against the Mughals. The Ahoms used the guerilla technique in the conflict against the Mughals. It became impossible for the Mughals to create a strong base in Assam.

India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Conflict with the Sikhs:
The ninth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Teghbahaddar, protested strongly against Aurangzeb’s policy of religious intolerance. Aurangzeb imprisoned him and beheaded him in 1675 CE. After him, Guru Gobind Singh became the Guru of the Sikhs.
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Guru Gobind Singh organized his followers and encouraged their martial spirit. He organized the Sikh youths into a fighting force called the ‘Khalsa Dal’. Their headquarters were at Anandpur. Aurangzeb sent his army to fight the Sikhs. His army attacked Anandpur. Although the Sikhs fought fiercely, they did not succeed. After that, Guru Gobind Singh came to the Deccan in 1708 CE. There was an attempt on his life when he was at Nanded. Soon after, the Guru succumbed to his wounds.

Conflict with the Rajputs:
Akbar had secured the cooperation of the Rajputs with his policy of amicable relations. Aurangzeb could not obtain the cooperation of the Rajputs. After the death of Rana Jaswantsingh of Marwad, Aurangzeb annexed his kingdom to the Mughal Empire. Durgadas Rathod crowned Jaswant Singh’s minor son Ajit Singh as the king of Marwad. Durgadas Rathod fought hard against the Mughals. Aurangzeb sent Prince Akbar to Marwad to crush the resistance of Durgadas. Prince Akbar joined hands with Rajputs and rose in revolt against Aurangzeb. An effort was made to seek help from the Marathas in Maharashtra. In this revolt. Durgadas Rathod continued this struggle against the Mughals for the existence of Marwad.

India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Conflict with the Marathas:
In Maharashtra, Swaraj was established under the leadership of Shivaji Maharaj. In his efforts to establish Swaraj, Shivaji Maharaj had to fight the Mughals too along with the other enemies. Aurangzeb came down to the Deccan after the death of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj to conquer the whole of South India. However, the Marathas offered stiff resistance to Aurangzeb and defended their independence. We shall study this struggle later on.

Good Maharashtra State Board Class 7 History Notes India Before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj can simplify complex concepts and make studying more efficient.

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