Sources of History Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Sources of History Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra State Board

We studied ancient Indian history last year. This year, we are going to study the medieval period of Indian history. Broadly, the period from the ninth century till the end of the eighteenth century is considered to be the medieval period of Indian history. In this lesson, we are going to study the sources of medieval history. History gives us a chronological, scientific, and systematic account of past events.

Four factors are very important from the viewpoint of history. They are Individuals, Society, Place, and Time. History must be based on authentic evidence or proof. These proofs are known as the sources of history. Let us classify these sources into material sources, written sources, and oral sources to learn more about them. Let us also evaluate the sources of history.

Sources of History Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

We have to consider many factors related to the historical event that we want to study. It is necessary to support our study with historical sources. These sources have to be verified. We have to see whether they are authentic. It is necessary to use these sources judiciously and only after a critical analysis.

Material Sources
Forts have an important place among material sources. Some major types of forts are hill forts, forest forts, sea forts, and forts on the plains. Monuments include samadhis, graves, and veergala, and buildings include palaces, ministerial mansions, Queen’s quarters (raniwasa), and also houses of common people. They all provide insights about that period. Looking at them, we come to know about the development of architecture, the economic conditions, the quality of art, the style of the building construction, and people’s standard of living in that particular period.
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The coins made by different rulers using metals like gold, silver, and copper are important sources of history. From these coins, we learn about the rulers, their period, governance, religious ideas, personal details, etc. Similarly, we also learn about the financial transactions and economic conditions prevailing at that time. We also see how far metallurgy had advanced in that period. From the images of Ram-Sita on the coins of Emperor Akbar or Shiva Parvati on the coins of Hyder Ali we see the religious co-ordination of those days. The Peshwas used the Arabic or Persian language on their coins. This throws light on the use of language in that period.
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An inscription is a carving on a stone, or a wall, etc. For example, the inscriptions found in the Brihadishwara temple premises in Tanjavur. Many inscriptions of the period of Chalukya, Rashtrakuta, Chola, and Yadav kings have been found. An inscription is considered to be a very important and reliable source of history. It helps us to understand features like the language, script, and social life of a period. Inscriptions carved on sheets of copper are known as ‘copper plates’. Royal edicts, verdicts, etc. are inscribed on copper plates.
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Chaityas, Viharas, temples, churches, mosques, agiaries, dargahs, mukbaras, gurudwaras, monuments, sculptures, walls, minarets, village boundaries and gates, weapons, utensils, ornaments, clothes, decorative articles, toys, implements, musical instruments are all material sources of history.

Sources of History Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Written Sources:
We learn about significant historical events in the medieval period from sources like the writing styles of scripts like, Devanagari, Arabic, Persian, Modi, etc. as also from the varieties of different languages, bhurjapatras, religious manuscripts, treatises, edicts, decrees, biographies, paintings, etc. We can gather information about the food items, attire, conventions, and rules of conduct of the people, festivals, and people’s lives, etc. from these sources. Sources of this type are called ‘written sources’ of history.
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During this period, travelers from other countries came to India. They have written travelogues or accounts of their travels. Some of them are Al Biruni, Ibn Batuta, Niccolao Manucci. Babur’s biography, ‘Shrishivbharat’ or the Sanskrit biography of Shivaji Maharaj composed by the poet Paramanand as well as various other biographies of different rulers and their correspondence help us to understand the policies and administrative systems of the rulers and their diplomatic relations with others. Tavarikh or Tarikh means the sequence of events. Tavarikhs written by Al Biruni, Ziauddin Barani, Maulana Ahmed, Yahya Bin Ahmed, Mirza Hyder, Bhimsen Saxena, etc. are available.

Bakhar is a type of chronicle that originated in Maharashtra. Chronicles help in understanding aspects like contemporary political happenings, linguistic transactions, cultural life, social conditions, etc. Many of the chronicles in Marathi were written many years after the events had occurred. As a result, they are seen to rely on hearsay. Some of these chronicles are Mahikavatichi Bakhar, Sabhasad Bakhar, Chitnisachi Bakhar, Bhausahebachi Bakhar, etc. The works of contemporary Western historians like Robert Arm, M.C.Sprengel, and Grant Duff are also important.

Oral Sources:
We understand various aspects of folk life through folk literature traditionally passed on from generation to generation. Some examples are owis, folk songs, posadas, folk tales, legends, and myths. Such types of sources are called ‘oral sources’ of history. History is written with the help of the three types of sources mentioned above. Even after it has been written down, research on it goes on continuously. New sources and information come to light through this research. Then history has to be rewritten accordingly. We can see that our history books and those of our parents and grandparents differ to a certain extent.
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The Powada of Tanaji:
Given below is an extract from a powada composed by Tulashidas Shahir. He portrays the Kondhana campaign in it. The powada contains beautiful character sketches of Tanaji, Shelarmama, Shivaji Maharaj, Veermata Jijabai, etc.

मामा बोलाया तो लागला । ऐंी वर्ीा म्ातारा ।।
‘‘लगगन राग्ले रायबाचे तो मजला सांगावी ।।
माझया तानाजी सुभेदारा । जे गेले गसं्गडाला ।।
तयाचे पागिरे पाग्ले । ना्ी पुढारे पाग्ले ।।
जयाने आंबारे खाईला । बािा बुजरा लागवला ।।
तयाचे झाड ्ोउगन आंबे बांधले ।
गिल् ्ाती ना्ी आला ।।
गसं्गड गिललयाची वातात ।
िाढू निो तानाजी सुभेदारा ।।
जे गेले गसं्गडाला । ते मरूशानी गेले ।।
तुमचा सपाटा ्ोईल । असे बोलू निो रे मामा ।।
आम्ी सूरमदत क्ष । ना्ी गभणार मरणाला ।।’’

Sources of History Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Evaluating the Sources of History:
It is necessary to take certain precautions before using these sources of history. We have to examine their authenticity and see which are genuine and which are fake. Their quality can be determined with the help of internal standards. We also have to study the integrity of the writers, their interests, the period in which they live, and the political pressures on them. It is also important to see whether they rely on hearsay or give an eyewitness account. We need to consider the exaggerations, metaphors, and other literary devices they use. Their information has to be verified with the help of other contemporary sources. The information may be one-sided, contradictory, or exaggerated. It has to be seen from a proper perspective. The sources have to be subjected to a critical analysis. The author’s impartiality and neutrality are very important in writing history.

Students often rely on comprehensive Maharashtra State Board Class 7 History Notes Sources of History to excel in their classes.

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