Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

1. (A) Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1.
………………… is the present system for the classification of mental disorders.
(a) DSM-5
(b) WHO
(c) APA
Answer:
(a) DSM-5

Question 2.
Term Schizophrenia was first used by ………………
(a) Albert Ellis
(b) Eugene Bleuler
(c) John Travis
Answer:
(b) Eugene Bleuler

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 3.
World Health Organization has developed …………….. for classification of all types of disorders.
(a) ICD
(b) DSM
(c) MCA
Answer:
(a) ICD

Question 4.
We find alternate phases of depression and mania in …………………. disorders.
(a) depressive
(b) bipolar
(c) anxiety
Answer:
(b) bipolar

(B). Match the pairs.

Question 1.

Group A Group B
(1) Phobia (a) 2013
(2) DSM-5 (b) Wellness
(3) ICD – 11 (c) Schizophrenia
(4) Eugen Bleuler (d) 2019
(5) John Travis (e) Illogical fear
(6) Depressive disorders (f) Sad feelings for a long period of time

Answer:

Group A Group B
(1) Phobia (e) Illogical fear
(2) DSM-5 (a) 2013
(3) ICD – 11 (d) 2019
(4) Eugen Bleuler (c) Schizophrenia
(5) John Travis (b) Wellness
(6) Depressive disorders (f) Sad feelings for a long period of time

(C) State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1.
Socially or culturally deviant behaviours are signs of psychological disorders.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
Schizophrenia is a serious psychological disorder.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Feeling of hopelessness is one of the symptoms seen in depressive disorders.
Answer:
True

(D) Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1.
From which Latin word is the term anxiety derived?
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’.

Question 2.
In which disorder does the person experience sadness and guilt for a long period of time?
Answer:
In a depressive disorder the person experiences sadness and guilt for a long period of time.

Question 3.
What do you call the fear that you experience unnecessarily in a non threatening situation?
Answer:
The fear that is experienced unnecessarily in a non threatening situation is called a phobia.

2. Answer the following questions Briefly.

Question 1.
Explain the nature of psychological disorder.
Answer:
The major criteria of abnormality or psychological disorders are deviance, personal distress and impaired functioning. Illness and absence of illness are not distinct categories but are on opposite poles of the continuum sequence as explained below.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 1
Stage 1 – The person is physically and psychologically healthy. They are motivated and emotionally stable.
Stage 2 – The person may get affected by life stressors, feel anxious, lack energy, etc. For e.g., before an examination. It is possible to push oneself back towards positive health by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Stage 3 – The person shows signs of psychological damage and experience negative feelings like sadness, lack of motivation, fear and may even indulge in addictive behaviour. However, even this stage is not irreversible.
Stage 4 – The person exhibits extreme distress, impairment in mental, emotional and social functioning. He/She needs professional treatment.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
What is meant by Anxiety disorders?
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons. Anxiety disorders include disorders in which anxiety is the main symptom or is experienced when an attempt is made to modify some maladjustment. The main anxiety disorder are Generalised Anxiety disorder, Phobic disorder. Panic disorder, O. C. D, etc.

Question 3.
Narrate indicators of psychological disorders.
Answer:
According to DSM-5, there are five criteria (indicators) for psychological disorders.

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction
    does not become a sign of mental disorder.

Question 4.
What is meant by bipolar disorder?
Answer:
Bipolar Disorder is also known as Manic Depressive disorder. The person experiences alternate phases of two states viz. mania and depression. Mania includes symptoms such as high energy, excitement, reduced need for sleep and loss of touch with reality, impulsivity, delusion, etc. Depressive state symptoms include low energy and motivation, loss of interest in daily activities, extreme sadness, apathy, feeling of hopelessness, fatigue, guilt, etc. Main causative factors are genetic factors, imbalance in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine; environmental factors such as traumatic event.

Question 5.
Describe Post Traumatic Stress Disorders?
Answer:
If the symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) continue for more than one month with the same intensity, the person is diagnosed with PTSD. A person who has suffered trauma goes through three stages viz-

  1. Shock stage – the individual is in shock, i.e., extremely disturbed.
  2. Suggestible stage – he/she may seek guidance from others and may either accept these suggestions unquestioningly or may get extra sensitive.
  3. Recovery stage – the person shows signs of recovery.

However, some persons still show signs of mental illness i.e., PTSD.
The symptoms of PTSD include

  1. nightmares, flashbacks, severe anxiety
  2. hyper vigilance and avoidance of situations that bring back the trauma
  3. irritability, social isolation
  4. survivour’s guilt

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

3. Explain the Following concepts.

Question 1.
DSM-5
Answer:
Presently, the two major systems of classifying psychological disorders are DSM and ICD. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) was published in its first version by the APA in 1952, i.e., DSM-I. In 2013, the DSM-5 was introduced which contains 22 broad categories of mental disorders with subcategories. It is the classification of officially recognized psychiatric disorders, for e.g., categories in DSM-5 include anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and personality disorders.

Question 2.
ICD 11
Answer:
Presently, the two major systems of classifying psychological disorders are DSM and ICD. The International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) was created by the WHO for documenting all types of diagnoses, diseases, signs and symptoms and social circumstances. It contains a section on psychological disorders. The latest, 11th version of ICD was presented in 2019. According to the ICD-11, there are 19 broad categories of mental disorders, most of which overlap with DSM-5.

Question 3.
Phobia
Answer:
The main anxiety disorders include phobic disorders and generalized anxiety disorders. The word ‘phobia’ is derived from the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public. The phobic object e.g., animals or situations e.g., elevators, almost always provide immediate anxiety.

Question 4.
Syndrome
Answer:
A syndrome refers to a cluster or collection of symptoms and signs that are characteristic of a diseases or disorder, e.g., Down’s syndrome. It is a group of symptoms which consistently occur together and indicate a particular condition. A syndrome refers to a set of symptoms that tend to occur together and can be associated with a particular physical or mental disorder. In psychological disorders, one of the criteria as suggested by DSM-5 is clinically significant syndrome.

Question 5.
Hallucination
Answer:
Hallucinations are false perceptions in the absence of appropriate stimuli. Hallucinations are a symptom of schizophrenia and other mental disorders. Commonly occurring hallucinations are visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory and olfactory in nature. For e.g., the person may hear voices telling him to do something. Hallucinations are also noticed due to substance abuse, medications, epilepsy, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

4. Write short notes on the following.

Question 1.
Nature of mental wellness
Answer:
According to the WHO, mental wellness refers to “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope up with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”
The important aspects of mental wellness are –

  1. Emotional aspect – There is a sense of well-being and contentment
  2. Psychological aspect – There is high self esteem and tendency of self actualization.
  3. Life philosophy – There are clear goals and objectives in life.

The Illness Wellness Continuum Model by John Travis
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 2
Quadrant 1 – The person is in an ideal state of functioning.
Quadrant 2 – Thepersonhasnomentalillnessbutexperiencessubjectivefeelingofunhappiness.
Quadrant 3 – The person suffers from mental illness yet he/she experiences a high sense of subjective well-being.
Quadrant 4 – This is the lowest level of functioning. The person has mental illness and also experiences distress.

Question 2.
Drug addiction
Answer:
Addictive disorders refer to the physical and psychological inability to stop consuming some substance or indulging in some activity although it is harmful. This includes dependence on drugs, nicotine, alcohol, etc., or activities like gambling, eating, gaming etc. Drug addiction refers to an inability to control the use of alcohol, nicotine, narcotics, marijuana, medications, etc.
Symptoms of addiction are-

  1. Excessive consumption of drugs or alcohol and inability to reduce the dosage.
  2. In case the person tries to stop the drug use, then withdrawal symptoms occur which include sweating, tremors, muscle pain, goosebumps, etc.
  3. Physical and psychological dependence may lead to drug abuse or overdose of the addictive substance and even death of the person.
  4. The person’s physical, emotional, social and financial well-being break down.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are organizations that help addicts to overcome dependence.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 3.
Depressive disorders
Answer:
Depression is an emotional state typically marked by sadness and guilt, feelings of anxiety and hopelessness. Other symptoms include loss of appetite, interest and sleep, fatigue, sexual dysfunction and suicidal thoughts. Depression is associated with distractability, memory loss, neglect of personal hygiene, panic attacks and even substance abuse. Children may experience symptoms such as irritability, feelings of incompetence, difficulty in concentration, difficulty in sleeping, digestive problems etc.

Question 4.
Anxiety disorders
Answer:
The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons. The main anxiety disorders are.
(i) Generalized Anxiety Disorder – The person frequently experiences anxiety more intensely so that it starts interfering with the ability to perform daily tasks. Symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, breathlessness, etc.

(ii) Phobic disorders – The word ‘phobia’ is derived form the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public.

5. Answer the following questions in 150 – 200 words.

Question 1.
Describe the criteria of psychological disorders.
Answer:
The major criteria of abnormality are deviance, personal distress and impaired functioning. Illness and absence of illness are not distinct categories but are on opposite poles of the continuum sequence as explained below.
Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders 3
Stage – 1: The person is physically and psychologically healthy. He/She are motivated and emotionally stable.
Stage – 2: The person may get affected by life stressors, feel anxious, lack energy, etc., for e.g., most students are tense before the exams. It is possible to push oneself back towards positive health by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Stage – 3: The person shows signs of psychological damage and may experience negative feelings like sadness, lack of motivation, fear and may even indulge in addictive behaviour. However, even this stage is not irreversible.
Stage – 4: The person exhibits extreme distress, impairment in mental, emotional and social functioning. He/She needs professional treatment.

Psychological disorders are also called mental disorders. These are patterns of behavioural or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life and create distress for the person.

According to DSM-5, there are five criteria for psychological disorders.

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction does not become a sign of mental disorder.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Question 2.
Narrate any two psychological disorders in detail.
Answer:
Psychological disorders are also called mental disorders. These are patterns of behavioural or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life and create distress for the person.
According to DSM-5, there are five criteria for psychological disorders are:

  1. Clinically significant syndrome – In psychological disorders, there should be a cluster of symptoms together i.e., a syndrome.
  2. Distress and Impairment – There should be distress, i.e., psychological pain due to negative feelings and stress, as well as impairment, i.e., inability to perform appropriate roles in personal and social situations.
  3. Dysfunction – If the symptoms lead to developmental or psychological dysfunctions, it signifies mental disorders.
  4. Responses to stressors that are normally accepted responses e.g., sadness experienced at the loss of a loved one or culturally sanctioned responses are not considered as signs of mental disorders.
  5. Behaviour which is only deviant but does not produce any disability/ distress/ dysfunction does not become a sign of mental disorder.

(A) Anxiety Disorders – The word ‘anxiety’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Anxietas’ which means ‘uneasy or troubled mind’. Anxiety refers to a condition in which the person feels worried and uneasy for a long time for no obvious reasons.
The main anxiety disorders are-
(i) Generalized Anxiety Disorder – The person frequently experiences anxiety more intensely so that it starts interfering with the ability to perform daily tasks. Symptoms include irritability, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, breathlessness, etc.

(ii) Phobic disorders – The word ‘photjia’ is derived form the Greek word ‘phobos’ which was used to refer to the God of Fear. A phobia is an intense, persistent but irrational and disproportionate fear of a specific object or situation. DSM classifies phobias as simple phobias, e.g., Acrophobia, Claustrophobia etc., and social phobias, e.g., fear of speaking or eating in public.

(B) Trauma Trauma and Stress-Related Disorders
Stress is inevitable in life. Daily hassles, relationship issue, frustration, chronic illness, etc., lead to stress. If stress is in moderate intensity, it acts as a motivation. However, intense prolonged stress impairs normal functioning of the individual and may lead to stress disorders.
The two types of stress disorders are-
1. Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)
If a person (aged 6 years and above) has experienced extremely stressful situations like death of a loved one, serious disease or injury, sexual abuse, natural disasters, etc., then he/she may experience ASD. The symptoms of ASD include-

  • emotional numbness and instability
  • nightmares and sleep disturbances
  • insomnia, lack of concentration, irritability and guilt feelings
  • depression

2. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
If symptoms of ASD continue for more than one month with the same intensity, the person is diagnosed with PTSD. A person who has suffered trauma goes through three stages viz.

  • Shock stage – the individual is in shock, i.e., extremely disturbed.
  • Suggestible stage – he/she may seek guidance from others and may either accept these suggestions unquestioningly or may get extra sensitive.
  • Recovery stage – the person shows signs of recovery.

However, some persons still show signs of mental illness i.e., PTSD.

Question 3.
What is Schizophrenia? Describe the major symptoms of it.
Answer:
The term ‘Schizophrenia’ is derived from Greek words Schizein (to split) and phren (mind). Thus, the literal meaning of the word ‘schizophrenia’ is split mind. The term ‘schizophrenia’ was coined in 1911 by a Swiss psychologist, Paul Eugene Bleuler. Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder.
According to DSM-5 the two types of symptoms for schizophrenia are-
(a) Positive symptoms are an excess addition to normal thoughts or behaviour of the period. Such symptoms are-

  1. hallucinations – mainly auditory and visual hallucination
  2. delusions – mainly of grandeur, reference and persecution
  3. disorganized thought and speech
  4. bizarre body movements and disorganized behaviour
  5. incongruent affect.

(b) Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of thought processes. They lead to low level of functioning and may not improve much even with treatment. This includes-

  1. emotional blunting – diminished emotional expression
  2. anhedonia – inability to experience deep positive emotions
  3. alogia – diminished speed
  4. asociality – lack of desire to form relationships
  5. avolition – lack of motivation
  6. apathy.

Sometimes, a schizophrenic exhibits positive as well as negative symptoms.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 62)

Activity 1

On the basis of your understanding of various criteria for abnormality, which of these would you consider as normal or abnormal behavior?

  1. Hemant wears the same lucky blue shirt for all his major competitive exams.
  2. Seema is not able to fall asleep easily.
  3. Rakesh throws pillows and pounding fists on the wall during arguments if he finds himself losing ground.
  4. Reena always experiences fear but is not able to specify what is so scary.

Answer:
All the stated examples show at least one of the five criteria for abnormality.

  1. Hemant seems superstitious and lacks confidence. He appears moderately healthy.
  2. Seema exhibits personal distress and signs of sleep disorders.
  3. Rakesh exhibits clear symptoms of abnormal behaviour and seems extremely unhealthy mentally.
  4. Reena seems to have anxiety disorder and may need professional help.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 67)

In which Quadrants of wellness illness continuum will you place Karan, Lalita, Pramila and Santosh?
Answer:
Karan – Quadrant 2, Pramila – Quadrant 3, Lalita – Quadrant 4, Santosh – Quadrant 3.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 68)

Collect information about Anxiety disorders and discuss this with your friends or parents.
Answer:
Anxiety disorders are characterised by feelings of worry and restlessness that tend to interfere with daily activities. Besides generalized anxiety disorder and phobia which are explained in the chapter, anxiety disorders includes Panic disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) and Social Anxiety disorders include disorders in which anxiety is the main symptom or is experienced. When an attempt is made to modify maladjustment.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Activity 6 (Textbook Page. No. 69)

Collect information about other types of phobia.
Answer:
A phobia is a persistent, irrational fear of a situation or object. Phobias are of three types viz. Social phobia (fear of social situations); specific phobias (fear of particular situations) and agoraphobia (fear of being alone in public places from which there is no easy escape). Some phobias are:

  1. Claustrophobia (fear of enclose spaces)
  2. Acrophobia (fear of heights)
  3. Homophobia (fear of blood)
  4. Zoophobia (fear of animals)
  5. Arachnophobia (fear of spiders)
  6. Pyrophobia (fear of fire)
  7. Trypanophobia (fear of needles and injections)
  8. Xenophobia (fear of foreigners or strangers)

Activity 7 (Textbook Page. No. 71)

We make use of various strategies to reduce our stress. Speak to five of your friends and make a list of atleast ten different strategies used by them to reduce stress. Share it with your group and discuss which are healthy and which are unhealthy.
Answer:
Some strategies to reduce stress are-

  1. Negative coping such as use of alcohol/drugs, over eating, agression, etc.
  2. Exercise
  3. Developing a hobby
  4. Indulging in some constructive activity
  5. Following relaxation/meditation techniques
  6. Seeking social support, i.e., of friends/ family, etc.
  7. Having proper time management
  8. Developing rational thinking and positive attitude
  9. Indulging in self care, e.g., proper diet, rest, etc.
  10. Seeking professional help if needed

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

Activity 9 (Textbook Page. No. 74)

Identify from the internet the red flags (signaling symptoms) for various disorders that you have already studied.
Answer:
Red flags for the following disorders.
(1) Phobias

  • Displaying extreme nervousness or distress when in the presence of the source of the phobia
  • Avoidance behaviour
  • Refusal to face certain situations

(2) Depression

  • Irritability, moodiness and agitation.
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Unexplained aches and pains
  • Disruptions in sleep habits
  • Changes in appetite and eating habits
  • Suicidal thoughts.

(3) Bipolar disorder

  • Change in thought processes, and concentration
  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Change is social interaction
  • Uncharacteristic moodiness

(4) PTSD

  • Persistent negative thoughts
  • Trouble in concentration
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Engaging in reckless behaviour
  • Changes in sleep and appetite
  • Loss of interest in friends/family/favourite activities.

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