Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Class 7 English Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Write what is implied in the following sentences.

Question a.
But few know his inspirational life story, which is all about courage and fighting against the odds.
(What does it tell you about Faraday’s life?)
Answer:
Faraday was bom into an extremely poor family. He had a speech defect which ended his formal education. He wanted to become a scientist. He came across a lot of difficulties and failures but through courage and determination, he achieved fame and name.

Question b.
Even then Davy did not have much hope for Faraday.
(What do the words ‘even then’ suggest?)
Answer:
Davy hired Faraday as his Secretary. Faraday worked relentlessly and became indespensible to Davy. ‘Even then’ suggests that even though Faraday did everything to prove himself, Davy did not believe that Faraday was capable of doing anything great.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question c.
People started telling Davy that of all his discoveries, the best was Faraday himself.
(What does it suggest about Davy’s work?)
Answer:
The line suggests that the people felt that Davy had made discoveries which were good but Faraday’s discoveries stood out in comparison to Davy’s work.

2. Break the passage into convenient smaller sections. Give sub-headings or titles to each section.

Question 1.
Break the passage into convenient smaller sections. Give sub-headings or titles to each section.
Answer:

  • 1st para: Michael Faraday, an inspiration
  • 2nd para: Unhappy childhood
  • 3rd para: Reading, an obsession
  • 4th para: Twist in life
  • 5th para: Magic of Electricity
  • 6th para: Play of destiny
  • 7th para: Fruits of labour
  • 8th para: Revolution for mankind
  • 9th para: A scientist is born
  • 10th para: Challenges in life
  • 11th para: Magic of magnets
  • 12th para: A legend is born
  • 13th para: Failure – a stepping stone to success
  • 14th para: Obstacles – a challenge
  • 15th para: Luck smiles again
  • 16th para: Believe in yourself

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

3. List the different gadgets and instruments mentioned in the passage. Find more information about them (at least 3), using the Internet.

Question 1.
List the different gadgets and instruments mentioned in the passage. Find more information about them (at least 3), using the Internet.
Answer:
Gadgets and Instruments:
Fan, air conditioners, sewing machines, power tools, cars, trains, aeroplane engines, induction motors, telescopes, Bavarian glass, microscopes, electrical generators, light bulbs. Now you add to the list of gadgets and instruments. You can add your own too.

1. Microscope: It is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), a Dutch scientist, who in the late 17th century became the first man to make and use a real microscope. All microscopes came with a lens that can magnify 40 times the normal size.

2. Electrical generator: It was invented by Michael Faraday in 1831. It is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Sources of mechanical energy include steam, turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, etc. It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.

3. Fan: A fan is a machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air. The fan consists of a rotating arrangement of blades which act on the fluid. The fan was invented by Schuyler Skaats Wheeler in 1882.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

4. Find out more about the following scientists with the help of the internet.
(a) Michael Faraday
(b) Humphry Davy
(c) Thomos Edison
(d) James Maxwell

Question 1.
Find out more about the following scientists with the help of the internet.
Answer:
(a) Michael Faraday: Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was an English (British) Scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He was highly influenced by Humphry Davy and William Thomas Brande. He had notable awards to his credit, a few being Royal Medal, Copley Medal, Rumford Medal, Albert Medal.

(b) Humphry Davy: Humphry Davy (1778-1829) was a British scientist. It was he who found out that the inhalation of nitrous oxide produced surprising results, it came to be known as the laughing gas. He was awarded a medal by Napoleon and he identified the element iodine for the first time. He is remembered for his discoveries of sodium, potassium, calcium.

(c) Thomas Alva Edison: Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) an American inventor and businessman, has been described as America’s greatest inventor. He invented the photograph in 1877 because of which he came to be known as ‘The Wizard of Monto Park’. Thomas Edison had hearing problems during his childhood which persisted. The phonograph was the first machine that could record the sound of someone’s voice and play it back.

Edison recited the nursery rhyme ‘Mary had a little lamb’ and the phonograph played the words back to him. This was invented by a man whose hearing was poor and thought himself as deaf. It was Edison who designed a system of power plants. He has got 1093 patents to his credit. Many awards to his credit. Some of them are Franklin Medal, Albert Medal, Technical Grammy Award, etc.

(d) James Clerk Maxwell: James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics His most notable work was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation. He is known as the Father of Modern Physics. His other contributions included producing the first colour photograph taken in 1861 and many more. He earned an array of awards. To name a few, Rumford Medal, Keith and Hopkins prize, Adams prize, etc.

5. Language Study: Subject and predicate: A word or a phrase in a sentence that shows who or what does the action, is the subject. In the following sentences, the underlined part is the subject.
The baby is laughing.
The glass fell from the table.
The predicate Ls the part of a sentence that tells us something about the subject. The underlined parts of the following sentences show the predicates in them.
The baby is laughing.
The glass fell from the table.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Class 7 English Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists Additional Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What is the meaning of:

Question i.
Reading became his obsession.
Answer:
He could think of nothing else but reading.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question ii.
Electricity became a lifelong fascination.
Answer:
Electricity enchanted him throughout his life. Electricity was his passion throughout his life.

Question 2.
Why do you think Faraday’s friend gave him a free ticket to Davy’s programme?
Answer:
Faraday’s friend gave him a free ticket to Davy’s programme because he knew about Faraday’s fascination for electricity and also that he could not afford the ticket.

Question 3.
Give one example each to show that:

Question i.
Faraday was a good pupil.
Answer:
Davy tried to find out how an electric current could be applied continuously, but failed to figure it out. He asked Faraday to try his hand at it. Faraday set to work and within a few days, solved the problem.

Question ii.
Davy was not a good mentor.
Answer:
Davy was not happy at Faraday’s achievement but was jealous of Faraday.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question 4.
An induction motor is a commonly used electrical machine. What examples of its uses are given here?
Answer:
The examples of electrical machine in which induction motor is commonly used are:

  1. fans
  2. air conditioning
  3. sewing machines
  4. photographs
  5. power tools
  6. cars
  7. trains
  8. aeroplane engines.

Question 5.
Why were Faraday’s drawings not accepted?
Answer:
Faraday’s drawing were without any mathematical equations as he did not know much about advanced mathematics and lacked formal education. Faraday’s drawing without mathematical equation could not be understood and so his drawings were not accepted.

Question 6.
Does it mean they were wrong?
Answer:
No, Faraday’s drawings were not wrong. It lacked mathematical equations because of which it could not be understood.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Reading Skills, Vocabulary and Grammar

Read the following passage and do the activities.

Simple Factual Questions:

Question 1.
State whether true or false.
i. Faraday’s Laws are about electricity.
ii. Faraday did not suffer speech defect as an adult.
Answer:
i. True
ii. True.

Complex Factual Questions:

Question 1.
Where was Michael Faraday bom?
Answer:
Michael Faraday was born into a poverty- stricken family in a dirty London suburb.

Question 2.
What came to an end when Michael Faraday was twelve?
Answer:
Michael Faraday’s formal education came to an end when he was twelve.

Question 3.
What were the odds against Faraday in his childhood?
Answer:
Faraday was born into an extremely poor family. He suffered from speech defect as a child. He could not even pronounce his own name. Other children laughed at him and even his teachers did not help him. when he was twelve, his mother was forced to pull him out from school. This put an end to his formal education.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Vocabulary:

Give the word meaning for.

Question 1.
‘mentor’
Answer:
A wise and trusted counsellor or teacher.

Question 2.
‘reverse engineer it’
Answer:
Taking apart an object and analyzing its components and workings in detail.

Word building.

Question i.
Give the noun form:
(a) inventor
(b) friend
(c) mysterious
(d) agree
Answer:
(a) invention
(b)friendship
(c) mystery
(d) agreement

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question ii.
Give the verb form:
(a) explosion
(b) comprehensive
(c) revolution
(d) success
(e) inspirational
(f) education
(g) modem
(h) courage
Answer:
(a) explode
(b) comprehend
(c) revolve
(d) succeed
(e) inspire
(f) educate
(g) modernize
(h) encourage

Question iii.
Give the adverb form:
(a) difficult
(b) secret
(c) random
(d) invisible
Answer:
(a) difficulty
(b) secretly
(c) randomly
(d) invisibly

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question iv.
Give the adjective form:
(a) communicate
(b) education
(c) experiment
(d) succeed
Answer:
(a) communicative
(b) educative
(c) experimental
(d) successful

Grammar:

Question 1.
Michael Faraday is regarded as one of the most distinguished scientists and inventors! (Add question tag)
Answer:
Michael Faraday is regarded as one of the most distinguished scientists and inventors isn’t it?

Personal Response:

Question 1.
Do you like reading inspirational stories?
Answer:
Yes, I do like reading inspirational stories. Reading inspirational stories motivates me to do something in life so that I too can gain fame and name while trying to make the world a better place to live in.

Read the following passage and do the activities.

Simple Factual Questions:

State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question i.
Faraday succeeded Davy as the head of the laboratory after Davy’s death.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question ii.
He was so engrossed in the lecture that he applaud with the rest of the crowd.
Answer:
False

Complex Factual Questions:

Question 1.
What was the subject of Davy’s lecture?
Answer:
The subject of Davy’s lecture was ‘The Mysterious force of Electric Fluid’.

Question 2.
What happens when an electric current is applied to a wire?
Answer:
When an electric current is applied to a wire, it causes that wire to behave like a magnet.

Question 3.
Why did Davy choose Faraday as his assistant?
Answer:
Davy was temporarily blinded by a chemical explosion which took place inside his lab. He needed an assistant with an excellent memory. He was reminded of Faraday and decided to make him his assistant.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question 4.
Was Davy fair in his treatment of Faraday?
Answer:
No, Davy was unfair in his treatment of Faraday. He looked down upon Faraday because of his low social status and education. He told Faraday not to aspire for too.much and to stick to book-binding.

Question 5.
How did Faraday respond to that treatment?
Answer:
Davy’s treatment did not dishearten Faraday. Faraday was relentless. He worked day and night and learnt as much as he could and became indispensible to Davy.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Give the noun forms of the following.
i. comprehensive
ii. aspire
Answer:
i. comprehension
ii. aspiration.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question 2.
Give the adverb form:
i. difficult
ii. invisible
Answer:
i. difficulty
ii. invisibly.

Grammar:

Question 1.
Destiny had a strange plan in store for him. (Use a question tag)
Answer:
Destiny had a strange plan in store for him, didn’t it?

Question 2.
Identify the subject and predicate from the following sentences.

  1. Davy became his role model.
  2. Destiny had a strange plan in store for him. Subject Predicate
Subject Predicate
a. Davy became his role model.
b. Destiny had a strange plan in store for him.

Personal Response:

Question 1.
What actions and thoughts of Faraday show that he was inspired by Davy?
Answer:
The actions and thoughts of Faraday which shows he was inspired by Davy are as follows:

  1. He kept taking notes.
  2. He was so engrossed in the lecture that he forgot to applaud.
  3. He bound the notes he had taken down into a book, hoping to gift it to Davy.
  4. He was inspired to become a great scientist and Davy became his role model.
  5. Faraday thought that it would be wonderful if Davy became his mentor.

Read the following passage and do the activities.

Simple Factual Questions:

Say whether the following statements are true or false.

Question i.
Faraday succeeded Davy in 1829.
Answer:
True

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question ii.
In 1830 Faraday developed memory loss which continued for the rest of his life.
Answer:
False

Complex Factual Questions:

Question 1.
When did Faraday develop memory loss?
Answer:
Faraday developed memory loss in 1840.

Vocabulary:

Question 1.
Give a sub-heading or title to the extract.
Answer:
‘Faraday – a Legend is born’.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Grammar:

Question 1.
Find any 4 verbs from the above extract.
Answer:
died, succeeded, made, moved.

Question 2.
Find any 2 proper nouns from the above extract.
Answer:
Faraday and Davy.

Question 3.
Faraday was now a legend. (Add a question tag)
Answer:
Faraday was now a legend, wasn’t he?

Question 4.
Remember that piece of Bavarian glass Faraday had kept on his shelf? (State the Kind of sentence)
Answer:
Interrogative Sentence.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Personal Response:

Question 1.
Write the idea behind an electrical generator.
Answer:
Faraday noticed that if he moved a magnet, it would produce electrical current, converting motion into electricity. This is how the electrical generator came into being.

Question 2.
How far did Faraday convert the reminder of his first major failure into an instrument of great success?
Answer:
Faraday used the reminder of his first major failure, the Bavarian glass, to show the concept of polarisation. He thus converted it into an instrument of great success.

Question 3.
What complicated experiment did Faraday begin after he developed a memory loss?
Answer:
After developing a memory loss, Faraday began a complicated experiment to prove that light was closely related to electricity and magnetism.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Language Study

Do as directed.

Question 1.
Pick out the subject and predicate.

Question i.
A wealthy, educated physicist, he met.
Answer:
Subject: He
Predicate: met a wealthy, educated physicist

Question ii.
He was unable to explain.
Answer:
Subject: He
Predicate: was unable to explain

Question iii.
The induction motor spurred a revolution.
Answer:
Subject: The induction motor
Predicate: spurred a revolution

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question iv.
At thirteen, however, he stated working.
Answer:
Subject: He
Predicate: started working at thirteen

Question v.
One day he came across a book on electricity.
Answer:
Subject: He
Predicate: came across a book on electricity one day.

Question vi.
Other children laughed at him.
Answer:

  • Subject: Other children
  • Predicate: laughed at him
  • Remember: If there is no subject, put a ‘you’ in the subjects place.
  • e.g. Shut the door.
  • Subject: You Predicate: Shut the door

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question 2.
Other children laughed at him. (Add a question tag)
Answer:
Other children laughed at him. didn’t they?

Question 3.
He started reading it. (State the kind of verb – Transitive/ Intransitive)
Answer:
started – transitive verb reading – transitive verb

Question 4.
Other children laughed at him. (Begin with’He…’)
Answer:
He was laughed at by other children.

Question 5.
Faraday solved the problem. (End with ‘…Faraday’)
Answer:
The problem was solved by Faraday.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question 6.
Faraday was now a legend. (Make it interrogative)
Answer:
Wasn’t Faraday now a legend?

Question 7.
James Maxwell was a wealthy, educated physicist. (Frame a ‘Wh’ question so as to get the underlined word as the answer)
Answer:
Who was James Maxwell?

Question 8.
Get me a glass of water. (Separate the subject and predicate)
Answer:
Subject-You
Predicate – Get me a glass of water.

Question 9.
He undertook it as challenges and opportunities. (Identify the part of speech of the underlined words)
Answer:
challenges, opportunities – nouns.
Writing Skills

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Question 10.
Find out from the internet an inspiring story.
Answer:
Lionel Messi, bom in 1987, into a middle-class family who lived in Argentina. He grew up in a football-loving family. He developed a passion for football at an early age. At 5, he showed great skills at a club coached by his father. It was strange to see that he was way too short when compared to the boys of his age. Wherever he went he was the shortest of all.

This did not stop him from playing. At the age of 11, he was diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency and had to take medical assistance. Every night he had to take an injection in his legs for 3 years. His family could not afford the treatment for long. Though he was a great asset for his soccer club, they refused to pay his bills. Lady Luck smiled on him and his family. At 13, he got an offer from F. C. Barcelona that they would pay for his treatment if he played for them.

His family moved to Spain with no money or job, all in the hope that his treatment will make him big enough to play soccer. At 17, despite being injury prone he became the youngest player in F. C. Barcelona to score a goal and became a star performer. Today, Lionel Messi is known as one of the greatest footballers of all time. He has won the most Ballon d’Ors in the world. The FIFA Ballon d’Or (Golden Ball) also known as the European Footballer of the year, was an annual association football award presented to the world’s best male player.
Messi’s story teaches us ‘Never lose hope.
You never know what tomorrow might bring. Keep believing in yourself’.

Great Scientists Summary in English

The lesson ‘Great Scientists’ is an inspirational and motivational lesson. The story about Michael Faraday and his journey through all odds in life to become one of the most distinguished scientists and inventors of modern times is really an eye-opener to all those who give up easily when faced with a difficult situation. Perseverance and a will to win will surely reach you to the height of success is described in this story. This is a story all teens must-read.

Introduction:

The lesson ‘Great Scientists’ is taken from the introduction to ‘Reignited’ by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 English Solutions Chapter 2.7 Great Scientists

Glossary:

  1. persevering (v) – to continue doing something in a determined way despite having difficulties ‘
  2. deterred (v) – discouraged
  3. distinguished (adj) – renowned, famous
  4. inspirational (adj) – encouraged or making you feel you want to do something
  5. poverty-stricken (adj) – extremely poor
  6. defect (n) – lack or fault in a person
  7. formal education (n) – classroom based education given by trained teachers
  8. obsession (n) – the state of being preoccupied with someone or something
  9. fascination (n) – passion
  10. renowned (adj) – famous
  11. comprehensive (adj) – exhaustive
  12. dejected (adj) – sad
  13. relentless (adj) – persistent
  14. indispensable (adj) – that one cannot do without
  15. career (n) – profession, occupation
  16. revolution (n) – something that signifies a great change
  17. reverse (v) – to turn something inside out
  18. accomplish (v) – to finish successfully
  19. significant (n) – notable
  20. souvenir (n) – an item of sentimental value
  21. complicated (adj) – difficult
  22. randomly (adj) – without definite direction
  23. filings (n) – particles of something (metal)
  24. invisible (adj) – which cannot be seen
  25. galaxies (n) – milky way
  26. aliens (n) – any life form of extra terrestrial origin
  27. conviction (n) – belief
  28. epitomizes (v) – sums up
  29. mentor (n) – a wise and trusted counsellor or teacher
  30. reverse engineer it – taking apart an object and analyzing its components and working in detail
  31. dynamo – a machine for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy
  32. applaud – clap.
  33. perseverance – hard work.
  34. aspirations (n) – hopes of achieving something.
  35. binding (v) – to join separate pieces of paper and make a book.
  36. chemist (n) – a person who does chemical experiments or research.
  37. consistent (adj) – that does not change over a period of time.
  38. engrossed (v) – engaged with complete attention.
  39. hooked (adj) – being so excited about something that you are unable to leave.
  40. isolated (adj) – alone, separate.
  41. legend (n) – a person who is very famous and admired.
  42. novel (adj) – new and unusual.
  43. pursue (v) – to engage in an activity over a long period of time.

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