Tourism and History Class 10 History Notes Maharashtra State Board
Tourism in the Past
The tradition of traveling is quite old in India. People used to travel for various reasons like pilgrimage, going to local fairs and festivals, in search of a renowned teacher and good education, for trade, etc. In brief, from ancient times people took to traveling for various reasons. The Buddhist literature tells us that Gautam Buddha traveled to several cities in ancient India to preach. Buddhist monks were ordained not to stay in one place but to keep traveling continuously to various places. Jain monks and sadhus also used to travel constantly. Yuan Shwang, the Chinese monk travelled to India in 630 C.E. In the medieval period Saint Namdev, Saint Eknath, Guru Nanak, and Ramdas Swami travelled extensively in India.
Tourism can be defined as traveling to visit places in distant regions for a specific purpose. In the latter half of the 19th century C.E. the name of Thomas Cook is noteworthy in the context of tourism history. He organized a trip by railway from Leicester to Loughborough for about 600 people. Later he was successful in Organising a round trip to Europe. Eventually, he established a travel agency selling tourist tickets. This early venture of Thomas Cook opened doors for the development of modern tourism.
Benjamin of Tudela is known as the first European traveler/discoverer. He was born in Spain. From 1159 to 1173 C.E. he traveled to France, Germany, Italy, Greece, Syria, Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Persia, India, and China. He maintained diaries of the accounts of his travels. His diaries are viewed as important historical documents.
Marco Polo, the Italian traveler of the 13th century introduced Asia, especially China to Europe. He stayed in China for 17 years. He wrote about the flora and fauna, social life, culture, and trade systems of Asia.
Ibn Batuta, the traveller of the 14th century took the world on a virtual travel of the Islamic world with his travel accounts. He was traveling for 30 years. He had resolved not to travel twice on the same route. His accounts help us understand medieval history and social life.
Gerardus Mercator, of the 16th century, was a cartographer. He is known for creating a world map and globe of the earth. His work proved to be very useful for navigation around the world.
The tradition of traveling from corner to corner was prevalent in India from ancient times. Vishnubhat Godase wrote down the accounts of his journey from Maharashtra to Ayodhya and back to Maharashtra. It is published as a book entitled, ‘Maza Pravas’. Vishnubhat traveled during times of the Indian war of Independence in 1857. He was the eyewitness for many events related to this historical event. His accounts are full of detailed descriptions of various incidences during this period, especially those about the life of Lakshmibai, the queen of Jhansi. We also get to know the nature of the Marathi language of the 18th century. This book is one of the important sources of the history of that period.
Types of Tourism
These days tourism has become an independent field of local, interstate, national, and international business. The desire to visit national and international monuments, places of historical importance and natural beauty, ancient centers known for handicrafts, pilgrim centers, industrial centers, and sites of various developmental projects, etc. promotes tourism. Tourists from all over the world wish to visit natural and manmade sites, which offer a delightful and awe-inspiring experience. The places like snow-capped peaks, beaches, and pristine jungles, which were neglected previously, became important locations of tourist interest. Mass media began to make special audio-visual presentations highlighting places of tourist interest. Tourism can be broadly typified into local tourism, interstate tourism, international tourism, religious tourism, historical tourism, health tourism, science tourism, agro-tourism, sports tourism, tourism based on special events, etc.
Local and Interstate Tourism:
This kind of tourism is not very overwhelming because it is within one’s own country. It does not cause difficulties of language, procuring currency, and documents. More so, we can plan it at a time suitable to us.
Nowadays, it has become easier to travel because of the easy availability of several options of railway, marine, and air transport. Marine transport has linked the coastal regions. There is a trans-European railway route. Aviation has brought the entire world closer. Because of the economic liberalization policy of the Indian government, the number of people traveling back and forth from India has increased considerably. They include people traveling for studies, relaxation, sightseeing, and professional assignments (meetings, agreements, etc.), also for shooting films, etc. One needs to procure various official documents for traveling abroad.
This type of tourism is popular all over the world. Tours to historical places are arranged to satisfy people’s interest in history. It can be noted in this context that Gopal Neelkanth Dandekar, a renowned Marathi writer used to arrange hiking tours to forts in Maharashtra, to explore the sights closely linked to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and his achievements. Tours are also arranged to important historical sites in India such as forts in Rajasthan, Ashrams of Mahatma Gandhi and Acharya Vinoba Bhave, important places related to the Indian War of Independence in 1857, etc.
People of various religious communities are dispersed globally. However, they feel united because of their mythological traditions and the places associated with those traditions. This creates a desire to travel to those places and it gives rise to religious tourism. In this context the constructions, undertaken by Ahilyabai Holkar and spending from her funds are noteworthy. Ahalyabai wanted to provide good amenities on the pilgrim routes like Chardham Yatras and Bara Jyotirlingas.
This type of tourism involves visiting places to observe special geographic features of a region. It includes various natural and animal sanctuaries, places like the Valley of Flowers (Uttarakhand), various beaches, and unique geographical wonders like the crater lake at Lonar and ranjankhalage (naturally carved out cavities in rocks) at Nighoj in Maharashtra. Many tourists like to visit these places to satisfy their curiosity.
People from Western countries find the health services and facilities in India comparatively cheaper and yet of a good standard. Hence, many foreigners preferred to come to India to avail of the medical facilities and health services. India is a tropical country, where ample sunlight is available throughout the year. This attracts tourists from countries with cold climates to India. The availability of facilities for Yoga training and therapies based on Ayurveda is one more reason to want to visit India.
Agro-tourism, which is also known as agri-tourism, is rapidly developing, especially meant for the urban population, which has very little exposure to rural life and agriculture. Now, Indian farmers are also visiting faraway places like agricultural research centers, agricultural universities, and countries like Israel where experimentation in advanced technology of agriculture is carried out.
Sports tourism was developed in the 20th century. There are various sports events organized on the international level like the Olympics, Wimbledon, World Chess Championship international cricket tournaments, etc. While there are events like the Himalayan Car Rally on a national level, events like the Maharashtra Kesari Wrestling competitions are organized on the state level. Traveling to attend such events comes under sports tourism.
Tourism based on Special Events:
People want to travel and they are often on the lookout for special reasons to do it. In the 21st century, it has become common to organize such events, which also help to promote tourism. Film festivals, various types of seminars and conferences, international book exhibitions, etc. are examples of such special events. People keep visiting several places to attend such special events. Many literature enthusiasts in Maharashtra travel every year to attend the ‘Akhil Bhartiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan’ (Pan Indian Marathi Literary Convention).
Development of Tourism
The crucial issue in the development of tourism is providing proper guidance to national and international tourists about various aspects of the actual travel, and proper social conduct during the tour and their stay at the destination places. Giving priority to ensure safe transport and security facilities for the tourists, amenities of a reasonably good standard, availability of good accommodation, and good washroom facilities on the travel routes is of great significance in promoting tourism. It is also very important to pay special attention to the special needs of handicapped tourists.
It is important to take a few primary precautions to preserve the historical heritage sites. A few things must be avoided at any instance, for example: vandalising or defacing the heritage monuments and sites. To avoid it everybody should refrain from activities like writing on walls or carving trees, painting ancient monuments in garish colors, etc. The lack of good amenities in the precincts of the heritage sites causes filthiness. It is essential for tourists that pamphlets, guides, and history books about a tourist site be available in their language. Hence, such literature should be made available in various languages. It would be helpful if the taxi drivers were trained to converse in more than one language. They may also be trained as tourist guides.
Conservation and Preservation of Heritage
It is a hard task to preserve and conserve heritage sites. Our country is very rich with historical sites dating to the ancient, medieval, and modern periods. It is also blessed with an abundance of nature. Heritage of any country is divided into, Natural Heritage and Cultural (manmade) Heritage. There are some Heritage Sites in India, that are acclaimed globally, such as the Taj Mahal at Agra, the Jantar Mantar observatory at Jaipur, and the rock-cut caves at Ajanta, Verul, and Gharapuri (Elephanta), Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Railway Terminus in Maharashtra. Kas Plateau in Maharashtra is located in the Western Ghats, which is a World Natural Heritage site.
There are tourists all over the world, who wish to visit world heritage sites. Foreign tourists come in large numbers to visit the heritage sites in our country. It makes us feel very proud when an Indian heritage site is declared as a world heritage site. However, whenever we visit such places we feel very disappointed because of what we see there. We get to see that people have written their names with charcoal; and have drawn pictures, vandalising the heritage site. It affects our image as a nation. To preserve the heritage sites we need to resolve that:
- I shall strive to maintain the cleanliness of heritage sites.
- I shall not do anything, which will result in vandalising of any historical site.
Professional Opportunities in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry
Tourism and Hospitality is an industry with the potential to create maximum employment opportunities. If managed professionally, it is a very stable industry. It has tremendous scope for experimentation and innovation.
To go on a tour to visit historical places is known as the ‘Heritage Walk’. One can experience the thrill of being a part of history by participating in heritage walks. ‘Heritage Walks’ as an organized group activity has gained popularity in many countries. India has a rich history, which can be traced back to many millenniums. Every region of India is full of historical places from the ancient, medieval, and modern periods. The ‘Heritage walk’ organized in the city of Ahmedabad is well-known. In the cities of Mumbai and Pune in Maharashtra such walks are organised regularly. Heritage walks can encourage people to support projects like the conservation and preservation of historical monuments, to collect authentic information about them, and to publish it through various media. Residences of renowned citizens who have passed away are also part of their heritage. In some cities ‘blue plaques’ with the names and other relevant information of such citizens are placed on their residences, as a part heritage scheme.
A good number of employment opportunities are available in the tourism and hospitality industry. The country that is a tourist destination begins to receive revenue even before a tourist arrives at the airport of that country. He has to pay for his visa. He spends on his travel, stays in hotels, food, payment to translators and guides, buying newspapers, reference books, souvenirs, etc. This contributes to the growth of the economy of that country. Markets in the vicinity grow along with the development of a tourist center. Hence, the local handicrafts and cottage industries also began to develop. The demand for locally processed food items and ethnic handicrafts increases. It results in better income for local artisans, business people, and wage earners.
Development of Tourism in Maharashtra:
Maharashtra is a state blessed with a rich heritage. The much admired rock-cut caves, paintings, and sculptures of Ajanta, Verul, and Gharapuri (Elephanta); pilgrim centers like Dehu, Alandi, Jejuri, Pandharpur, Shirdi, Shegaon, Tulajapur, Kolhapur, Nashik, Tryambakeshwar, Paithan, Haji Malang, Gurudvara at Nanded, Mount Mary Church in Mumbai, etc.; hill stations like Mahabaleshwar, Panchgani, Khandala, Lonavala, Matheran, Chikhaldara, etc.; dams at Koyananagar, Jayakwadi, Bhatghar, Chandoli, etc. and sanctuaries at Dajipur, Sagareshwar, Tadoba, etc. are among the important tourist centers in Maharashtra. The Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation was set up in 1975. It helped in the development of tourism in Maharashtra. The corporation has provided facilities for tourist hotels at 47 places. Together these hotels can accommodate more than 4000 tourists. Many private entrepreneurs are also providing hospitality services to tourists.
An Unusual Village of Books
Bhilar is a village near Mahabaleshwar, which boasts of the natural beauty and sweetness of strawberries. It is also known as the ‘Village of Books’. Every household in this village maintains a library of its own for the tourists to enjoy. Maharashtra State Government has implemented this scheme to accelerate the ‘Reading Culture’ movement for the reader-tourists to enjoy the beauty of Marathi literature enriched by the works of old and new authors and saints. It includes various types of texts like biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, literature by women, literature on sports, literature for kids, etc. If you go to Mahabaleshwar, make it a point to visit Bhilar as well.
Cultural tourism includes activities like visiting educational institutes of repute; trying to get a glimpse of local culture, history, and traditions; visiting historical monuments at a place; trying to appreciate the achievements of local people, and participating in the local festivals of dance, music, etc. Mahabaleshwar and Panchagani are hill stations. Thousands of tourists arrive here. These tourists are accompanied by guides who provide relevant information on the sightseeing tour. At some places, photographers are present to click nice snaps for the tourists. Horsekeepers provide horses for horse rides and horse cart rides. It is the local people who are engaged in these activities and they can earn good money for their services. In short, tourism has become a major source of their livelihood.
Well-structured Maharashtra State Board Class 10 History Notes Tourism and History can reduce anxiety during exams.