Tourism, Transport and Communication Class 10 Geography Notes Maharashtra State Board
Tourism in Brazil:
Clean, white sand beaches, attractive seacoast, beautiful islands, orchards, deep dense forests of Amazon, various birds and animals attract lots of international tourists here. The new capital city of Brasilia is also a tourist attraction. Cities like Rio-de-Janeiro and Sao Paulo are large cities that attract lots of tourists. Tourism is an important economic activity in several regions of the country. Looking at the sensitivity of the natural resources in Brazil, ecotourism is developing at a faster rate in Brazil.
As shown in the figure, the number of international tourists visiting India in 2015 is more than that of Brazil. Even though this is true, the share of the tourism sector in the GDP is less than that of Brazil. Apart from this, the proportion of the Indian population engaged in tourism proportion is higher than in Brazil. This is primarily dependent on the size of the population of those countries and the size of the GDP. (See figure).
According to this, the population of India is more than Brazil and so is its GDP. As the GDP of India is higher than Brazil and so also its population, therefore, the contribution of tourism to GDP appears lesser than Brazil’s, and population engagement seems higher.
Tourism in India:
It is seen in the figure that the number of international tourists in India is constantly growing. But this increase appears to be more after 2010. This increase in the number of international tourists is consistent. Foreign tourists visit India for heritage, adventure, cultural, health, and business tourism. Ecotourism is also being given a boost in India. Considering the heritage of India, there are plenty of opportunities for tourism in many parts of the country. Many places are being developed for this.
Some Tourism Sites in India and Brazil
The most common method of transportation is roadways. Roadways account for more than half of the transportation system in the country. However, the density of the road network is concentrated in the eastern part of the country. The forested lands of the Amazon River basin and the swampy lands have limited the development of roadways in this part.
Waterways have been developed on a commercial basis in the Amazon River. Boats ply from Iquitos in Peru to the mouth of the river. The longest waterways in the world can be navigated through these waterways (around 3700 kms). Another river important for waterways is the south-flowing Parana River. Coastal shipping is also carried out in the coastal areas. Railways have not developed very well in Brazil. The use of trains for long-distance transportation of passengers is restricted to a few urban tourist routes though it is cheaper. The contribution of airways is less in the transportation system of the country.
As compared to Brazil, India has a denser network of transport. About 85 percent of passenger and 70 percent of freight traffic are carried by roads every year. Freight and passenger transport has been facilitated due to the development of the railways. Railways are important for the growth of the Indian economy. The railway network is relatively less dense in the hill states, northeastern states, central parts of India, and Rajasthan while it is dense in the North Indian Plains, Railways are very important for a vast country where distances are large.
Waterways are a cheap means of transport. Waterways contribute about 1% to the country’s transportation. It comprises rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc. Approximately 95 percent of India’s foreign trade moves through ocean routes. Apart from international trade, these are also used for transportation between the islands and the rest of the country. As compared to Brazil, airways in India are more developed and the use of internal airways is also increasing. The development of means of transport is an indicator of the rapid progress of a country.
Communication in Brazil:
You are already aware of the vast longitudinal extent of Brazil. Are the westernmost and easternmost extreme points of Brazil’s mainland in the figure? You will find that because of the vast longitudinal extent of the country, the difference between the two extreme points is around 168 minutes. (2 hours 48 minutes) There are different ‘time zones’ in the country. Brazil has four time zones. It is behind the GMT by 2, 3, 4, or 5 hours. The red line in the map shows the GMT-03 time zone which is considered to be the official Brazilian time, BRT. It is 3 hours behind GMT.
Development of Communication in Brazil:
Telecommunication services in Brazil are well-developed and efficient. This industry includes landlines as well as mobile services, television broadcasting, radio broadcasting, and computer/internet access. Today, more than 45% of the Brazilian population has access to the internet. The telecommunications infrastructure is fairly modern, particularly in central-south Brazil. However, the north and northwest are drastically less developed.
Over recent years, mobile telephones have led to the rapid expansion of telecommunication services in Brazil. The nature of Brazilian territory, especially land mass size and the large pockets of unpopulated and densely vegetated areas create significant impediments to the expansion in coverage of telecommunication services. Brazil is developing technology to send domestically-made satellites into space with its rockets.
Communication in India:
India too has a large longitudinal extent. The difference between the two extremes most points are 2 hours or 120 minutes. India has only one standard time zone. The 82.5°E longitude is the Indian Standard Time (IST). It passes through Allahabad. It is ahead by 5 hours 30 minutes from the Greenwich Meridian Time (GMT). With the explosion of electronic media, the telecoms industry has become one of the fastest-growing sectors. In this era of information and communication, more digitally enhanced communication devices like mobile phones, the Internet and satellites are paving the way to expansion for the wider reach of communication technology.
India is one of the largest users of smartphones and internet. With the development of our satellites, India has come a long way in this field. ISRO (India Space Research Organisation) looks after the space launching programmes of India. To date, this institute has established many records in the satellite launch. The Brazilian Space Agency (AEB) is the civilian authority in Brazil responsible for the country’s burgeoning space program. The Brazilian Space Agency has pursued a policy of joint technological development with more advanced space programs. Initially, it relied heavily on the United States but now it is working with China, India, Russia, and Ukraine.
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