Population Class 10 Geography Notes Maharashtra State Board
Population is an important resource of any country. The qualitative aspects of a population are important for a nation’s economic and social progress. Let’s study the population of Brazil and India.
India’s population is around 121 crores according to Census 2011. India is the second most populous country in the world. India occupies only 2.41 percent of the land area of the world whereas it supports 17.5 % of the world’s population. India’s average population density is 382 persons per sq. km. as per the 2011 Census.
In India, population is very unevenly distributed. Physiography, climate, and play an important role in the distribution of population. Due to the fertile land, plain land, and availability of water, human settlements have been established in these parts for many centuries. Due to farming, industries, and trade, the proportion of the population was concentrated in a few places. For example, the northern plains of the country, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Pune, Bengaluru, Chennai, etc. On the contrary, in mountainous hilly regions, desert areas, and dense forest areas, density is sparse because of inaccessibility, absence of facilities, and tough life.
Brazil is the most populated country in the South American continent. With a population of around 19 crores, according to Census 2010, it ranks 5th in the world. It is also the fifth in the world concerning the area. Brazil occupies 5.6% of the world’s total land and has 2.78% of the world’s total population. Therefore, the density of the population is around 23 persons per sq. km.
The distribution of the population is very uneven in Brazil. The majority of Brazilians have concentrated within 300 kilometers of the eastern coastal areas also called the coastal lowlands. Therefore, agriculture and industries have flourished well here. As a result, a higher density of population is found here. On the other hand, the interior of the Amazon Basin is very sparsely populated. Unfavorable climate, heavy rainfall, accessibility, and dense forests are the barriers to the development of human settlements here. Therefore, settlements occur only in a few places in the Amazon basin. The central and western part of Brazil is less populated. The density of population in the highlands of Brazil is moderate.
Concerning both countries, the characteristics of the population are prominently notable.
- The sex ratio in Brazil has been more than 1000 for decades.
- Considering the sex ratio of Brazil, the number of women has considerably increased than men since 2001.
- In India men outnumber women.
- In India, we see fluctuations in the sex ratio for a few decades.
- There has been a slight increase in the sex ratio after 1991.
Age and Sex Pyramid:
Considering the age of the population, Brazil’s population is getting slowly older, but in India, the situation is different. The proportion of youth in India is higher. This means India has a higher working population.
Population Growth Rate:
The rate of growth of the population has reduced considerably in Brazil. However, this is not the condition in India. From 2001 to 2011, India’s population increased by 18.2 crores. India’s population growth rate was higher till 1971. Then this rate stabilized. The rate of population growth is now declining, but the population is still growing. It is observed that in Brazil, the rate of growth is declining and Brazil’s population may not increase in the next two decades.
An increase in life expectancy is an indicator of the development of that society. Improvement in medical facilities, progress in the medical field, and access to nutritious food lead to an increase in average life expectancy. In most of the developing countries, life expectancy is still less. But with socio-economic development, it is increasing.
The Census of India conducts an enumeration of the population every ten years. Similarly, in Brazil, IGBE i.e. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics carries out a census every ten years. The first census survey of both the countries was carried out in 1872. In India, the Census is conducted at the start of the decade. (1961, 1971, …….). In Brazil, the Census is conducted at the end of the decade. (1960, 1970, …….)
Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Geography Notes Population can be used for revisiting and reinforcing previously learned content.