Human Settlements Class 10 Geography Notes Maharashtra State Board
Examples of Settlement Patterns in India:
In India, we can see a variety of settlement patterns given the variety of climatic factors, availability of water, slope of the land, and level of development. Nucleated settlements are found throughout the plateau region of Narmada Valley, paddy lands in Bihar, U.P, Vindhyan Plateau, and several other cultivated parts of India. On the other hand, dispersed settlements are found in tribal parts covering the central part of India, eastern and southern Rajasthan, Himalayan slopes, and land with dissected and uneven topography.
Examples of Settlement Patterns in Brazil:
The earlier settlements in Brazil were formed by the settlers from Europe mainly in the coastal areas. Now the settlements have developed and are densely populated. The major reasons of development are as follows. Although the coastal climate is hot and humid, and flat land is limited due to rugged topography, the region has a good water supply and a large range of natural resources. e.g. Sao Paulo.
Sao Paulo has an extensive area under rich soil which makes it ideal for growing coffee. It also has a large supply of natural minerals close by, such as iron ore and it also has a steady energy supply. The South Eastern area has a good transport system too. This makes the Sao Paulo area a nucleated settlement.
Rural areas such as the north-east Highlands suffer from extreme droughts, which make it difficult to practice agriculture and hence settlements are sparse here.
Settlements become sparse as we move in towards the central part of Brazil. Given are the major reasons:
- The area is covered by thick dense equatorial rainforests (see fig).
- The climate here is unhealthy and unfit for settlement.
- Limitations on the use and exploitation of natural resources.
- Poor transport links in the region.
Urbanisation in India:
The level of urbanization is measured in terms of percentage of urban population to total population. It is clear from the above graph that the growth of urbanization in India has been slow. The level of urbanisation in India in 2011 was 31.16% which is quite low in comparison to developed countries. At the same time, the urban population is increasing expansion of the urban centres and the emergence of new towns has played a significant role in the growth of the urban population and urbanization in the country.
Urbanisation has been more in the southern part than in the northern part of India. Goa is the most urbanised state with 62% population living in urban areas. Delhi is more than 80% urban. In the state of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Kerala urbanzation is more. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Bihar, and Rajasthan are some of the states with low levels of urbanisation.
The Indian sub-continent has a long history since ancient times. Since ages, the population of this country has lived in river basins, plateaus, and mountains. Indraprastha (Delhi), Mithila, Varanasi, Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Ujjain, and Pratishthan (Paithan) were the urban settlements of earlier times. This shows that India has a great tradition of urbanisation.
Urbanisation in Brazil:
Brazil is one of the few developing countries which is highly urbanised. Brazil’s substantial urban growth process is unique and one of the underlying factors contributing to its present-day rapid economic growth. Today, about 86% of Brazil’s population lives in an urban area.
The definition of ‘urban’ is not very clear in Brazil. In Brazil, rapid urbanisation happened mainly in the South and South-east with Sau Paulo emerging as a major, metropolitan, and industrial area. Looking at this growth in a few parts of the country, the government is promoting a “Go West” policy which will reduce pressure on a few areas where the population is concentrated and will reduce regional imbalance in the country.
As you can see from the map, urbanisation has occurred more in the coastal states than the states in the interior of the country. States like Sao Paulo, Goias, and Minas Gerais have more urban populations than states in the North. As the population is less in the Amazon basin and Brazilian highlands, urbanisation is also less. In this part, Manaus is a port on the confluence of the Negro and the Amazon. Urbanisation has occurred here.
Comprehensive Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Geography Notes Human Settlements can help students make connections between concepts.