Applied History Class 10 History Notes Maharashtra State Board
What is Applied History?
‘Applied History’ is also known as ‘Public History’. ‘Applied History’ is a field of study concerned with the application of history for the benefit of people in contemporary and future times. Knowledge of history is useful as it can provide guidance in finding solutions to contemporary social issues and incorporate them in social planning. Knowledge of history is essential for this purpose. The projects and programmes related to applied history can create opportunities for people to participate along with technical experts. Their participation in the capacity of tourists visiting museums and ancient sites is also important. Tourism creates interest in history among people. They can volunteer to participate in the conservation and preservation projects of their city town or village.
People have lot of misgivings about the practicality of the knowledge of history. For example, history is usually thought as a field of interest only for historians and students wishing to pursue higher studies in the subject and not about practical life, history as a field of knowledge does not have any applicability to economically productive fields, etc. ‘Public History’ helps to overcome such misgivings and makes history meaningful in everyday life connecting people to history. There are many universities abroad, where various courses in ‘Public History’ are offered. Srushti Institute of Art Design and Technology is an institute in Bengaluru, Karnataka. This institute has an independent department, named, ‘Centre for Public History’. This department has taken up various projects and research in the field of public history.
Applied History and Research in Various Fields
History is about past events. The way our present lifestyle is shaped is dependent on the historical chain of events. Historical events related to various fields like politics, the social and religious structure of a community, philosophy, technology science, etc. Each of these fields has its history of building knowledge. The direction of future development in every field is dependent on the state of available knowledge. Hence, the method of history can prove to be of value in the research of various fields. For example,
The history of philosophy helps in understanding the origin of various ideologies, the intellectual traditions giving rise to those ideologies, and their historical development. Philosophy needs language as a medium of expression. To understand philosophical expression, knowledge of the history of language proves useful.
The history of science helps in understanding the chronological order of scientific discoveries, inventions, and theories. It can also help to understand the cause-effect chain that led to those discoveries and inventions. It is said that ‘need’ is the mother of inventions. Scientific discoveries/inventions are often the effects of human efforts to fulfill a need and also curiosity. These efforts are based on already available scientific knowledge. Knowledge of the history of science helps in understanding the factors that facilitated a scientific discovery/invention and also its chronology.
The history of technology helps in understanding the changes and their causes in the fields of agricultural production, commodity production, architecture, engineering, etc. Scientific discoveries/inventions and technological advancement are mutually dependent on each other. Knowledge of science and technology was very important at every step from the making of stone tools to agricultural production in the evolution of mankind. Later the advancement of science promoted the mechanisation of production. It is necessary to know the history of technology to understand the development of mechanization and the mutual dependence between science and technology.
4. Industry and Commerce:
The field of mutual social transactions expands with the growth of industry and trade. It also promotes the continuous development of the network of cultural interactions. It is an integral part of the industrial and commercial management. It is essential to understand the history of these processes. The nature of the market and commerce has continued to change. Accordingly, the nature of human relationships and social organization also has continued to change. To understand this development it is necessary to study the history of culture, social organization, and economic institutions.
5. Management Studies:
To understand various factors involved in the chain of production such as means of production, human resources, and processes of production, as well as the chain of market and sales management, etc. it is essential to know about similar functional systems of the past. It is essential to understand the psychological character of people working at various levels in the chain of production and marketing for healthy management. To achieve it, understanding the social and economic institutions that support the industrial and commercial processes is important. Knowledge of history in this regard makes management at various levels easier.
It is important to understand the development of various art forms with the help of their style of expression and their foundation in the form of intellectual emotional-cultural traditions. The key to the expressions in any art form, the emotional temperament of the artist, and the developmental history of the respective art form can be understood with the help of cultural history.
Humanities include disciplines like history, archaeology, sociology, anthropology, political science, economics, etc. To understand the history of the origin and development of these disciplines is an essential part of their learning. All disciplines are supposed to have their origin in philosophy. Ancient people all over the world tried to speculate to understand the relationship between the universe and human existence. It gave rise to various mythological stories about the origin of this world, the universal order, human life, gods and goddesses, rituals, and their philosophical explanations. Roots of philosophical ponderings are to be found in these mythological stories. Various disciplines under humanities have theoretical foundations based on philosophical theories. Only historical knowledge can help us in understanding these developmental stages.
Applied History and Our Present
People often ask about the practical value of history. The answer to the question about the nature of applied history answers this question as well. The visible and invisible relics of the past exist in the present. We nurture some kind of curiosity and attraction toward them. We wish to know more about their history because they represent the creative thoughts and traditions of our ancestors. It is our heritage. It helps in building our identity. The history of our heritage links us with our origin. Hence it becomes necessary to preserve and conserve it for the future, for our benefit as well as for the benefit of future generations. Applied history is concerned with the preservation and conservation of our heritage and making it accessible to people. Heritage management creates employment opportunities. In brief, applied history can be described as understanding our present with the help of history and finding the right direction for the benefit of our future.
Management of Cultural and Natural Heritage
(a) Cultural Heritage:
It is in the form of human creation. It is of two types – tangible and intangible.
- Tangible Cultural Heritage: This type of cultural heritage includes ancient sites, buildings, artifacts, manuscripts, sculptures, paintings, etc.
- Intangible Cultural Heritage: This type of cultural heritage includes the following things:
- Oral traditions and their language
- Traditional knowledge
- Social customs and rituals of celebrating festivals
- Styles of Performing Arts
- Certain traditional skills
- Communities, groups that represent such traditions, Customs, and skills
(b) Natural Heritage:
The concept of natural heritage gives importance to the thought of biodiversity. It includes the following things: Fauna, Flora, Ecology, and geomorphic characteristics which is crucial for sustaining the flora and fauna of a particular region. The benefit of future generations needs to preserve our heritage. UNESCO, the global organisation has announced some directives to promote cultural and natural heritage. Based on those directives list of sites and traditions is declared as ‘World Heritage’. The list of UNESCO’s World Natural Heritage now includes the Western Ghats. The Kaas plateau in the District Satara is also a part of the Western Ghats.
The Indian traditions declared as Oral and Intangible heritage:
- 2001: Kootiyattam, Sanskrit Theatre, Kerala.
- 2003: The tradition of Vedic Chanting.
- 2005: Ramlila – the traditional performance of the Ramayana in Uttar Pradesh.
- 2009: Ramman: religious festival and ritual theatre of the Garhwal Himalayas.
- 2010: Kalbelia: folk songs and dances of Rajasthan.
- 2010: Chhau dance: a tradition from eastern India.
- 2010: Mudiyett: a ritual theatre of Kerala.
- 2012: Buddhist chanting of Ladakh: recitation of sacred Buddhist texts in the trans-Himalayan Ladakh region, Jammu and Kashmir.
- 2013: Sankirtana: ritual singing, drumming, and dancing of Manipur.
- 2014: Traditional craft of making utensils of brass and copper among the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, Punjab.
- 2016: Yoga
World Cultural Heritage Sites – India
- 1983: Agra Fort
- 1983: Ajanta Caves
- 1983: Verul (Ellora) Caves
- 1983: Taj Mahal
- 1984: Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram
- 1984: Sun Temple, Konark
- 1986: Churches and Convents of Goa
- 1986: Fatehpur Sikri
- 1986: Group of Monuments at Hampi
- 1986: Khajuraho Group of Monuments
- 1987: Elephanta Caves
- 1987, 2004: Great Living Chola Temples – Gangaikondcholapuram, Brihadishwar, and Airavateshwar at Darasuram
- 1987: Group of Monuments at Pattadakal
- 1989: Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi
- 1993: Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi
- 1993: Kutub Minar and its Monuments, Delhi
- 1999: Mountain Railways of India – Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Nilgiri Mountain Railway, The Kalka-Shimla Railway
- 2002: Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya
- 2003: Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka
- 2004: Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park
- 2004: Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, Mumbai
- 2007: Red Fort Complex, Delhi
- 2010: The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur
- 2013: Hill Forts of Rajasthan
- 2014: Rani-ki-Vav (The Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat
- 2016: Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) at Nalanda, Bihar
- 2016: The Capital Complex at Chandigarh
- 2017: Ahemadabad – Historical City
World Natural Heritage Sites:
- 1985: Kaziranga National Park
- 1985: Keoladeo National Park
- 1985: Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
- 1987: Sundarbans National Park
- 1988, 2005: Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks
- 2012: Western Ghats
- 2014: Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area
- 2016: Khangchendzonga National Park
‘Cultural and Natural Heritage Management’ is one of the main aspects of applied history. The work of conservation and preservation of the Cultural Heritage falls under the jurisdiction of the Archaeological Survey of India and India’s State Departments of Archaeology. Besides, INTACH (Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage) is actively working in this field. The work of conservation and preservation of cultural and natural heritage requires the participation of experts from various fields. They need to be duly aware of the cultural, social, and political histories of the heritage site. Principles of applied history are useful in creating awareness among them. Thus,
- The operations necessary for the conservation, preservation, and development of the heritage site can be handled without causing any change in its original state.
- The local social structure and psychology of the local people, the challenges faced by them in the present situations and their expectations can be surveyed in detail.
- Due precautions can be taken to avoid hurting the sentiments of the local people while completing the projects of conservation, preservation, and development of a heritage site.
- Participation of the local people in the project can be facilitated.
- A systematic plan can be designed to employ the local skills creatively and create better livelihood opportunities.
Affiliated Professional Fields
Knowledge of history can be supportive in decision-making about respective legal provisions and public policies in the following fields:
- Museums and Archives
- Preservation and conservation of historical site
- Tourism and Hospitality
- Entertainment and Mass Media
The earliest museum (6th century B.C.E.) in the world was discovered during the excavations at the city of ‘Ur’ in Mesopotamia. The excavations were conducted by Sir Leonard Woolley (1922-1934). This museum was built by the princess of Mesopotamia. Her name was Ennigaldi. She was the curator of the museum. A noteworthy feature of that museum is the clay tablets inscribed with the descriptions of exhibited artifacts.
The ‘Indian Museum’ at Kolkata was founded by the Asiatic Society in 1814 C.E. Nathaniel Wallich, a Danish botanist was the founder and the first curator of the museum. The photograph of the museum seen here is dated to 1905. The museum has three main departments, Arts, Archaeology and Anthropology. Other affiliated departments are conservation, publication, photography, exhibition-presentation, modelmaking, training, library, and security.
Every field mentioned here requires expert personnel with specialized skills. For example, architects, engineers, historians, archaeologists, museum curators, sociologists, archive management professionals, legal experts, skilled photographers, etc. Of course, this is just a representative list. The help of experts from many more fields is required. These experts need to have adequate knowledge of the ancient sites and the historical background of the structural remains and artifacts. Projects in the field of applied history can create various opportunities for these professionals.
In this lesson we learned about the role of applied history in public training programmes for understanding the importance of history, for creating social awareness regarding the conservation, and preservation of our cultural and natural heritage, using knowledge of history for this purpose, to enhance the professional skills of people and to develop the industrial, commercial field, to carry out preparatory work and plan for effective implementation of heritage projects, etc. It is essential to avoid vandalizing of historic and public places and to ensure that they are preserved for the benefit of future generations.
Archives preserve and store old documents, official records, old films, etc. The National Archives of India is in Delhi. Every state in India maintains its archives independently. The main office of the National Film Archives of India is located in Pune, Maharashtra. It was established in 1964 as the Media Unit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Indian Government. It served three objectives. To search and obtain rare Indian films and to preserve the heritage for the benefit of future generations. To categorize the important aspects of films, to create documentation and catalogs, and to carry out research in the field. To establish a center for the dissemination of ‘film culture’.
Well-organized Maharashtra State Board Class 10 History Notes Applied History can aid in exam preparation and quick revision.