Conflict with the Mughals Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Conflict with the Mughals Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra State Board

So far, Shivaji Maharaj had successfully fought the Adilshahi; but for expanding the Swaraj, conflict with the Mughals was inevitable. The Mughals posed a great threat to the Swaraj even as it began to expand. Maharaj triumphed over this threat too. He regained his forts and territories from the Mughals. He got himself crowned. He took up a campaign of the South. We shall learn about all these events in this chapter.

Shaistakhan’s Invasion:
In February 1660, Shaistakhan left Ahmadnagar and entered the Pune province. He ravaged the territory of the Swaraj by sending small units of his army to the neighboring areas. He encamped at Chakan. Firangoji Narsala, the Killedar of the fort of Chakan offered a strong resistance to Shaistakhan’s army. Finally, the Mughals captured the fort of Chakan. Shaistakhan set up his camp at Lal Mahal in Pune where Shivaji Maharaj had lived in his childhood. Khan sent his forces to the regions around Pune. These forces looted the people. Two years passed, but he did not think of leaving. Naturally, this hurt the people’s morale. In these circumstances, Maharaj drew up a bold plan.

Conflict with the Mughals Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Shivaji Maharaj decided to raid Lal Mahal secretly under his leadership. On 5 April 1663, Maharaj raided Lal Mahal at night with a select band of soldiers. In this raid, Shaistakhan lost his fingers. He suffered great humiliation. He left Pune and shifted his camp to Aurangabad. Due to this episode, he incurred the displeasure of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb transferred him to the province of Bengal. The successful attack on Shaistakhan had an impact on the people and their faith in the capability of Maharaj was strengthened even further.

The Surat Campaign:
In three years, Shaistakhan had ravaged large territories of the Swaraj. It was necessary to make good this loss. For this, Shivaji Maharaj devised a plan for teaching the Mughals a lesson. Surat was a big trade center and port under Mughal control. The British, Dutch, and French had their factories there. Maximum revenue was being generated by this city for the Emperor. It was a rich city. Maharaj marched on Surat. Inayat Khan, the Subhedar of Surat could not put up any resistance. Mahara obtained plenty of wealth from Surat without bothering the common people. His campaign of Surat was completely successful. This campaign was a stunning blow to Emperor Aurangzeb’s prestige.

Jaisingh’s Invasion:
To curb the increasing activities of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb sent Mirzaraja Jaisingh, an experienced and powerful Rajput Sardar. Jaisingh came to Pune. He started rallying all the forces against Shivaji Maharaj. To the Portuguese of Goa and Vasai, the Dutch of Vengurla, the British of Surat, and the Siddis of Janjira, Jaisingh suggested that they should start a naval campaign against Maharaj.

Jaisingh drew up a plan to capture the forts in possession of Maharaj. Mughal forces were sent to various parts of the Swaraj. They ravaged the territories of the Swaraj. Maharaj endeavored to resist the Mughals. Jaisingh and Dilerkhan laid siege to the fort of Purandar. When the Mughals put the fort of Purandar under siege, Murarbaji Deshpande fought with the greatest of courage. He died a hero’s death.

Considering the seriousness of the situation, Maharaj began talks for a treaty with Jaisingh. He met Jaisingh personally. A treaty between Jaisingh and Maharaj was signed in June 1665. It is known as the ‘Treaty of Purandar’. By the terms of the treaty, Maharaj gave to the Mughals, twenty-three of his forts and the adjoining territories yielding an annual revenue of four lakh hons. He also assured the Mughals of help against the Adilshahi. The Treaty was ratified by Aurangzeb.

Conflict with the Mughals Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Agra Visit and Escape:
After the Treaty of Purandar, Jaisingh launched a campaign against the Adilshahi. Maharaj helped Jaisingh but this campaign of Jaisingh was not successful. Jaisingh and Aurangzeb felt that Shivaji Maharaj ought to be kept away, at least for some time, from the Deccan politics. Jaisingh proposed to Shivaji Maharaj that he should visit Agra and meet the Emperor. He guaranteed the safety of Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji Maharaj set out for Agra. He was accompanied by Prince Sambhaji and a few of his trusted people who were ready to risk their lives for him.

Shivaji Maharaj reached Agra. Aurangzeb did not treat him with due honour at his court. Maharaj gave vent to his rage. The Emperor then put him under house arrest. Undeterred by this action of the Emperor, Maharaj devised a plan to escape from this house arrest. He adroitly escaped from Agra and reached Maharashtra safely after a few days. He reached Rajgad. While returning from Agra, he had left Sambhaji Raje at Mathura. Later, Prince Sambhaji was brought safely to Rajgad. While Maharaj was away from Swaraj, Veermata Jijabai and the associates of Shivaji Maharaj looked after the administration of Swaraj.

On the Offensive Against Mughals:
Immediately after returning from Agra, Maharaj did not want any conflict with the Mughals. However, he wanted to recapture the forts and territories given to the Mughals as per the Purandar treaty. For this, he prepared a comprehensive and bold plan. It was his strategy to capture the forts by sending a well-equipped army on the one hand, and on the other hand, to keep the Mughals unstable by invading the territories of the Deccan under their control.

Maharaj attacked the Mughal territories of Ahmadnagar and Junnar. Then, he recaptured several forts such as Sinhgad, Purandar, Lohagad, Mahuli, Karnala, and Rohida, one after the other. Then Maharaj attacked Surat for a second time. While returning from Surat, he fought a great battle with the Mughals at Vani-Dindori in Nashik district. Maharaj defeated the Mughal Sardar Daudkhan in the great battle. After that, Moropant Pingale captured Triambakgad near Nashik.

Thus Shivaji Maharaj was successful in the offensive that he had launched against the Mughals. Sardars such as Tanaji Malusare, Moropant Pingale, Prataprao Gujar, etc. made a valuable contribution to these offensives. Krishnaji Anant Sabhasad, a contemporary chronicler, thus describes this campaign: ‘(He) took as many as twenty-seven forts in four months and earned a great reputation for himself’.
Conflict with the Mughals Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board 1
Maharaj ascended the throne of Swaraj. He now became the Chhatrapati of the Swaraj. As a symbol of sovereignty, the Rajyabhisheka shaka (the coronation era) was started. Maharaj became the founder of a new era. On the occasion of the coronation, special coins were minted – a gold coin called Hon and a copper coin called Shivrai with the legend ‘Shri Raja Shivachhatrapati’ inscribed on them. Thereafter, all royal correspondence (Rajpatra) carried the words, ‘Kshatriyakulaavantansa Shri Raja Shivachhatrapati’. A dictionary showing Sanskrit alternatives for Persian words was prepared. It is known as Rajya-vyavahara-kosha.

The founding of the Maratha Swaraj involved a relentless struggle for over thirty years. Maharaj realized that now the Swaraj needed to win general recognition as a sovereign independent State. For this, a formal coronation was necessary. On 6 June 1674, he had himself coronated at Raigad by Gagabhatt, a learned Pandit. The coronation of Shivaji Maharaj was a revolutionary event in the history of Medieval India. While explaining the importance of this event, Sabhasad (a contemporary chronicler) writes, ‘It was no mean achievement for a Maratha King to become such a great Chhatrapati.’

Conflict with the Mughals Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board

Shortly after this, on 24 September 1674, Shivaji Maharaj had his second coronation performed under the guidance of Nischalpuri Gosavi. There were two traditions of religious ceremonies in India – Vedic and Tantric. Maharaj honored both the traditions and had two coronation ceremonies performed.
Conflict with the Mughals Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board 2
Prince Sambhaji Raje was 17 years old at the time of the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj. He has described the coronation ceremony in the treatise ‘Budhabhushanam’. It is based on his own experience. Without measuring or counting, plenty of money, clothes, elephants, and horses were donated to the great scholars who had come to attend the coronation ceremony from different regions. Thus, Shivaji Maharaj spread his fame in different directions. An extremely valuable and grand throne was made for the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj. There were eight bejeweled pillars on eight sides of the throne. This throne made of thirty-two ‘mann’ of gold had been studded with precious jewels.

The Campaign of the South:
Three years after the coronation, in October 1677, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj undertook a campaign of the South. He went to Golconda. There he called on the Qutubshah. He entered into a treaty of friendship with him. Later, Maharaj won Bengaluru, Hoskote in Karnataka, Jinji Vellore, etc. forts in today’s Tamil Nadu and some other territories of Adilshah. He appointed Raghunath Narayan Hanamante the chief administrator to look after these conquered territories. Vyankoji, the half-brother of Shivaji Maharaj, was then ruling at Tanjavur. Shivaji Maharaj tried to get him to participate in the activities of the Swaraj. After Vyankoji Raje, the rulers of Tanjavur encouraged art and learning. The Saraswati Mahal library there is world famous.
Conflict with the Mughals Class 7 History Notes Maharashtra Board 3
In this campaign of the South, Maharaj had annexed the fort of Jinji in Tamil Nadu to his Swaraj. This proved to be of great importance in later years. When the Mughal Emperor stayed put in Maharashtra to destroy Swaraj, the then Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj had to leave Maharashtra for reasons of safety. At that time, he took shelter in the southern fort of Jinji and ran the administration of Swaraj from there. Soon after the victorious campaign of the south, Shivaji Maharaj passed away on Raigad on 3 April 1680. His death at the age of fifty was a great loss for Swaraj. A great era came to an end.

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