Environmental Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Environmental Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra State Board

Ecosystem A review

The ecosystem is formed by biotic and abiotic factors and their interactions with each other. Each factor plays a very important role in the ecosystem. Producers like plants are important. Herbivores like deer, goats, sheep, cattle, horses, camels, etc. feeding upon producers are also important. Predators like lions and tigers which prevent the overpopulation of herbivores are also equally important. A question may arise in our mind as to whether the caterpillars found in nature, organisms present in filthy places, termites, and insects present in dung, are useful. However, those organisms are also important though they are dirty. They are responsible for cleaning the environment. It means that our existence is due to these factors present around us. Hence, we should care for these factors.
Environmental Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board 1
Paddy is cultivated on a large scale in various states of South India. Paddy fields are frequently attacked by grasshoppers. Similarly, frogs are also present in large numbers in the mud of paddy fields, to feed upon grasshoppers and snakes are also present therein to feed upon their favorite food- frogs.

Relationship between Environment and Ecosystem

Environment is a broad concept. Physical, chemical, and biological factors affecting the organisms in any possible way is collectively called as environment. In short, the environment is the condition of the surroundings. It includes many biotic, abiotic, natural, and artificial factors. There are two main types of environment. One is the natural environment and the other is an artificial environment.

Environmental Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

The natural environment consists of air, atmosphere, water, land, living organisms, etc. Continuous interactions occur between biotic and abiotic factors. Their interactions are very important. The artificial environment is also affecting the natural environment directly or indirectly. The environment consists of two basic factors – Biotic factors and abiotic factors. The science that deals with the study of interactions between biotic and abiotic factors of the environment is called ecology. The basic functional unit used to study ecology is called an ecosystem.

The environment consists of many ecosystems. We have studied some ecosystems in earlier classes. A small pond is an ecosystem whereas the Earth is the largest ecosystem. In brief, biotic and abiotic factors occupying a definite geographical area and their interactions collectively constitute the ecosystem.

Which cycles are operated in the environment? What is their importance?
Environmental balance is maintained through the continuous operation of various natural cycles like the water cycle, carbon cycle, gaseous cycles like the nitrogen cycle, oxygen cycle, etc. Environmental balance is also maintained due to the various food chains of the ecosystem. Human existence is impossible without the existence of nature. Hence, it is a basic responsibility of human beings to preserve nature without disturbing its balance. It is said that we have got this Earth planet on lease from our future generations and not as an ancestral property from our ancestors. Hence we should not forget to conserve it for ourselves and future generations.

Environmental Conservation

When some natural factors of the environment and some artificially polluted factors harm the environment, it creates an imbalance between various factors of the environment and ultimately affects the existence of biotic factors. At present, many environmental problems have arisen due to the effect of various natural and artificial factors on the Earth. Environmental pollution is one of those main factors.
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Generally, contamination of any material is its pollution. Unnecessary and unacceptable change in the surrounding environment due to natural events or human activities is called environmental pollution. i.e. Direct or indirect changes in physical, chemical, and biological properties of air, water, and soil that will be harmful to humans and other living beings are environmental pollution. Various reasons like population explosion, fast industrialization, and indiscriminate use of natural resources, deforestation, and unplanned urbanization are responsible for environmental pollution.

Environmental Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Pollution is a broad concept. Various types of pollution like that of air, water, sound, soil, thermal, light, and pollution occur around us. The ultimate adverse effect of all these is on the existence of all living organisms and out of this, environmental conservation has become the need of the hour.

Radioactive Pollution:
Radioactive pollution can occur due to two reasons natural and artificial. UV and IR radiations are natural radiations whereas X-rays and radiations from atomic energy plants are artificial radiations. Chornobyl, Windscale, and Three Miles Island mishaps are the major mishaps of the world to present. Thousands of people have been affected in the long term due to these accidents. Some of the effects of radiation are as follows:

  • Cancerous ulceration occurs due to higher radiations of X-rays.
  • Tissues in the body are destroyed.
  • Genetic changes occur.
  • Vision is adversely affected.

Need for Environmental Conservation
The general public is not aware of the rules of environmental conservation. There should be large-scale participation of the people in environment conservation. It will be possible to answer the environmental problems only if environmental protection-conservation becomes an effective public movement. For this purpose, values like a positive attitude and affection towards the environment, knowledge about it, etc. should be inculcated among the children since their childhood. This will help to make future generations more aware of environmental conservation and protection. To achieve this, it is necessary to increase the awareness through education. Today, all the developed, developing, and underdeveloped countries have accepted the responsibility of environmental protection. Their efforts are in that direction. They have defined the plans for environmental protection and have constituted the necessary laws.

Environmental Conservation – Our Social Responsibility

Since the existence of humans, there is an interrelationship between humans and the environment. Humans stepped onto the Earth long after the formation of Earth. On Earth, human beings proved superior as compared to other animals with the help of characteristics like intelligence, memory, imaginary ability, etc. Humans established domination over nature. Humans utilize all the natural resources as much as possible.

In an attempt to live a satisfactory life, humans kept on snatching from nature as much as possible and this led to an increase in problems. From this entire scenario, we can understand that human has a crucial role in maintaining the environmental balance. If humans have disturbed the environmental balance, then humans only can conserve and improve the quality of nature. Many times, the general public is unaware that its activities are harmful to the environment and thereby unknowingly many activities happen.

Laws Enacted about Environmental Conservation:
Forest Conservation Act, 1980: The land reserved for forest conservation has been prohibited to use for any other purpose by this law. Ex. Permission of the central government is compulsory for mining activities. Any person who disobeys this law is entitled to imprisonment for 15 days.

Environmental Conservation Act, 1986: The purpose of this act is to control pollution and punish the persons or institutes harming the environment. Any person or factory is prohibited by this act from releasing pollutants into the atmosphere beyond a permissible limit. The person breaching this rule is entitled to either five-year imprisonment or a fine up to Rs. 1 lakh. The National Green Tribunal was established in 2010 for the effective implementation of environment-related laws.

Environmental Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

The Big Story of a Small Man
Jadav Molai Payeng is a highly capable person born in the nomadic tribe of Assam. Born in 1963, he has been working as a forest worker since the age of 16 years. Once, a large number of snakes died in the flood of the Brahmaputra River flowing by the village. As a preventive measure, Molai planted 20 bamboo plantlets. In 1979, the local Social Forestry Department began a social aforestation project on 200 hectares of land. ‘Molai’ was one of the few forest workers who were looking after that project.
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Molai continued to plant the trees even after the completion of the project. As a result of his continuous work of planting and caring for the trees, the barren area witnessed the forest cover over 1360 acres. Today, this jungle in Kokilamukh of Jorhat district of Assam is the result of the hard work for 30 years. He has been awarded the prestigious ‘Padmashree’ award by the government of India for this unparalleled work. Now, it is well known as ‘Molai Jungle’. Many people come together to destroy the forest, but a single person, if determined, can establish a new forest!

Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity

The most harmful effect of the environmental pollution occurs on the living organisms. Have you seen some examples of this in your area? Our living world had been richly diverse. It consisted of a variety of plants and animals. However, we are not able to see some specific animals about which we had listened from our earlier generations. Who is responsible for this? Biodiversity is the richness of living organisms in nature due to the presence of varieties of organisms, ecosystems, and genetic variations within a species. Biodiversity occurs at three different levels.

Genetic Diversity:
The occurrence of diversity among the organisms of the same species is genetic diversity. Ex. Each human being is different from others. The possibility of wiping out the species arises if there is a decrease in the diversity within the species whose members are involved in sexual reproduction.

Species Diversity:
Innumerable species of organisms occur in nature. This is called species diversity. Species diversity includes various types of plants, animals, and microbes.

Ecosystem Diversity:
Many ecosystems are present in each region. The ecosystem is formed through the interaction between plants, animals, their habitat, and changes in the environment. Each ecosystem has its own characteristics animals, plants, microbes, and abiotic factors. Ecosystems are also of two types natural and artificial. There should be a positive attitude of human beings towards the environment for the welfare of the entire living world. For this purpose, the following roles are important. You can be a conservator, organizer, guide, plant friend, etc. Describe about the role you wish to perform and your plans for that role.

Environmental Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Sacred Groves
The forest conserved in the name of god and considered to be sacred is called a sacred grove. These are in fact ‘sanctuaries’ conserved by the society and not by the government forest department. As it has been conserved in the name of god, it has special protection. These clusters of thick forests are present not only in the Western Ghats of India but in the entire country. More than 13000 sacred groves have been reported in India.
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Till now, we have studied the rules and regulations about environmental conservation and protection, in this lesson. Many people in society are voluntarily coming together to perform this noble work. Many institutes at state, national, and international levels are involved in this work.
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How can Biodiversity be Conserved?

  • Protecting the rare species of organisms.
  • Establishing national parks and sanctuaries.
  • Declaring some regions as ‘bioreserves’.
  • Projects for the conservation of special species.
  • Conserving all plants and animals.
  • Observing the rules.
  • Maintaining a record of traditional knowledge.

Hotspots of Biodiversity

34 highly sensitive biodiversity spots are reported all over the world. Such areas had once occupied 15.7% area of the Earth. At present, 86% of the sensitive areas are already destroyed. Presently, only 2.3% area of the Earth has been left over with sensitive spots. It includes 1,50,000 plant species which are 50% of the world’s count. As far as India is concerned, out of 135 species of animals, 85 species are found in the jungles of the eastern region. About 1,500 endemic plant species are found in the western ghat. Out of the total plant species in the entire world, 50,000 are endemic. Collect more information about the locations of these hotspots present in the world.

Three Endangered Heritage Places of the Country
The Western Ghat spread over the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamilnadu, and Kerala has been endangered due to the mining industry and search for natural gas. Habitats of the Asiatic lion and wild bison of this region have been under threat. Manas Sanctuary of Assam is under threat due to dams and indiscriminate use of water. Tigers and rhinos of that region are under threat. Sunderban Sanctuary of West Bengal is reserved for tigers. However, the tiger population and overall local environment are seriously challenged by dams, deforestation, excessive fishing, trenches dug for the same, etc.

Classification of Threatened Species

1. Endangered Species:
Either the number of these organisms is declined or their habitat is shrunk to such an extent that they can be extinct shortly if conservative measures are not implemented.
Example: Lion-tailed monkey, lesser florican.

2. Rare Species:
The number of these organisms has considerably declined. Organisms of these species being endemic may become extinct very fast.
Example: Red panda, Musk deer.

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3. Vulnerable Species:
Number of these organisms is extremely low and continues to decline. The continuous decline in their number is a worrisome reason.
Example: Tiger, Lion.

Environmental Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

4. Indeterminate Species:
These organisms appear to be endangered but due to their behavioral habits (like shyness), there is no definite and substantial information.
Example: Giant Squirrel (Shekhru).

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) prepares the ‘Red List’ that contains the names of endangered species from different countries. Pink pages of this book contain the names of endangered species while green pages contain the names of previously endangered but presently safe species.

Well-maintained Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Science Notes Environmental Management can serve as a reference for lifelong learning.

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