Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra State Board

Weather and Climate
Atmospheric conditions at a specific time at a particular place are referred to as weather. Atmospheric conditions depend upon a variety of factors. We frequently express our opinion about the weather by making statements like, ‘Today, it is too cold’ or ‘It is very hot today.’
Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board 1
Weather depends upon the prevailing conditions of the air. The climate of a particular region is the average of daily readings of various weather-related parameters recorded for several years. Hence, climate is a long-term predominant condition of the atmosphere.

Changes in Weather
Climate does not change continuously. The climate is that which remains constant in a region for a long duration. Thus we see that weather is related to a specific location and specific time whereas climate is related to a longer duration and larger area. Changes in the weather may occur for short periods whereas changes in the climate take place slowly over a much longer duration. Climate plays a very important role in our day-to-day life. It influences our basic needs like food, clothing, and shelter as well as our occupations. Climate is especially important for an agrarian country like India. Various climatic factors like direction and speed of wind, temperature, atmospheric pressure, etc. are considered during the construction of runways, seaports, huge bridges and skyscrapers, etc.

Importance of Weather in the Living World

  • Daily weather as also long-term climatic conditions influence human lifestyle directly or indirectly. Land, water bodies, plants, and animals collectively form the natural environment on earth. This environment is responsible for the development of organisms.
  • The climate of a particular region helps to determine the diet, clothing, housing, occupations, and lifestyle of the people of that region. For example, the characteristic lifestyle of Kashmiri and Rajasthani people.
  • The salinity of marine water, formation of oceanic currents, water cycle, etc. are all related to various weather and climatic factors.
  • Various climatic factors bring about the weathering of rocks in the earth’s crust.
  • Climate plays a very important role in the formation and enrichment of soil.
  • Microbes in the soil play an important role in the formation of organic materials. This process depends upon various climatic factors. Thus, it is very clear that the study of meteorology is very important from the viewpoint of human life.

Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

While ascertaining the climate of a particular region, a review of earlier studies of various aspects of climate is very important. Most countries in the world have established meteorology departments for making and recording such observations. These departments have ‘observatories’ which are equipped with modern instruments and technology. If present climatic conditions are analyzed concerning past climatic conditions, we can predict climatic changes in the future. However, as climate is the net result of a complex mixture of various atmospheric factors, forecasting it is complicated. Forecasting is easy for places where climatic changes are slow and of a limited nature. However, where climatic changes are complex, interdependent, and rapid, making forecasts is very difficult.

The science that studies the inter-relationships between the various components of air, natural cycles, geological movements of the earth, and climate is called meteorology. Meteorology includes the study of storms, clouds, rainfall, thunder, lightning, etc. Depending upon the study of such factors, weather forecasts are made. They are useful to common people, farmers, fisheries, aviation services, water transport, and various other organizations.

India Meteorological Department
The India Meteorological Department was founded by the British in 1875 at Shimla. Its head office is at Pune and its Regional Offices are in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Nagpur, and Delhi. Maps are prepared every day which indicate the daily predictions about the weather. Such maps are prepared and published twice every 24 hours. In this institute, research goes on continuously on various aspects like instruments for climatic readings, predictions about climate made using radar, predictions about climate-related to seismology, predictions regarding rainfall by satellites, air pollution, etc.

The India Meteorological Department provides important information regarding weather and climatic conditions to other departments like aviation, shipping, agriculture, irrigation, marine oil exploration and production, etc. Predictions regarding calamities like dust storms, sand storms, heavy rainfall, hot and cold waves, tsunamis, etc. are communicated to various departments, all types of mass communication media, and all citizens. For this purpose, India has launched several satellites equipped with high-class technology. Observatories at several locations are doing excellent work in the analysis of the information received from these satellites.

Monsoon Model and Climate Prediction
The tradition of forecasting the monsoon season in India is older than 100 years. After the famine of 1877, H. F. Blanford, the founder of IMD had made such a prediction for the first time taking the snowfall in the Himalayas as a parameter for this prediction. In the decade of the 1930’s the then director of IMD, Sir Gilbert Walker had underlined the relationship between various worldwide climatic factors and the Indian monsoon, and, based on available observations and previous recordings related to this relationship he put forth a hypothesis regarding the nature of the monsoon. With the initiative of Dr Vasantrao Govarikar in the decade of 1990 a monsoon model based upon 16 worldwide climatic parameters was developed. This model was in use from 1990 to 2002.

Mathematical Model (Dynamic):
Forecasts are made with the help of mathematical models that take into account estimates of current weather-related events and ongoing physical interactions between them. Data about current climatic parameters is mathematically analyzed with the help of the Param supercomputer. Various mathematical models based on daily geographic events are developed by supercomputer technology.

Holistic Model:
In this model, predictions are based on those parameters used in other models that have the greatest effect on the monsoon. Nowadays, predictions declared by IMD are the collective outcome of various models. This is called a holistic model.

Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Statistical Model:
In this model, current climatic observations in a region are compared with earlier parameters such as oceanic temperature, atmospheric pressure, and the nature of the monsoon rainfall of several years. This data is comparatively analyzed by statistical methods and predictions are made about the monsoon in the present conditions.

Presently, new models are being developed at the IITM. Work is in progress at two levels, namely, designing new models and developing new technology. The main focus is on the development of the radar system and satellite technology. Any meteorological model depends upon the inter-relationship between parameters used in that model and the results expected from it. However, as these inter-relationships concerning the ocean and atmosphere are never constant, meteorological models need to be changed continually.

Solid Waste Management: Need of the Hour
Many waste materials are generated through various daily human activities. This is called solid waste. If these waste materials are properly disposed of, they can be a valuable source of energy. Currently, solid waste is a serious worldwide problem as it causes both water and soil pollution. Solid waste is also a serious problem from the point of view of economic growth, environmental degradation, and health. It has posed a serious threat to nature and human habitat because of the air, water, and soil pollution it causes.
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Garbage Production Per Day
Solid waste generated in the main metro cities of the state is approximately as follows: Mumbai: 5000 tons, Pune: 1700 tons, Nagpur:900 tons. On 26th July 2005, a serious flood calamity had arisen in Mumbai. Improper solid waste management was one of the main reasons behind that calamity. Thus we see that accumulation of solid waste can lead to various calamities.

Classification Source
Domestic Waste Waste food, paper, plastic paper, plastic bags, vegetable waste, fruit skins, glass and sheet metal articles, etc.
Industrial Waste Chemicals, pigments, sludge, ash, metals, etc.
Hazardous Waste Chemicals generated in various industries, radioactive materials, explosives, infectious materials, etc.
Farm/Garden Waste Leaves, flowers, branches of trees, crop residues like straw, animal urine and dung, pesticides, remains of various chemicals and

fertilizers, etc.

Electronic Waste Non-functional TV sets, cell phones, music systems, computers and their parts, etc.
Biomedical Waste Bandages, dressings, gloves, needles, saline bottles, medicines, medicine bottles, test tubes, body parts, blood, etc. from clinics, hospitals, blood banks, and laboratories.
Urban Waste Waste generated through household industries and large commercial and industrial establishments carries bags, glass, metal pieces and rods, threads, rubber, paper, cans from shops, vegetable and meat markets, construction waste, etc.
Radioactive Waste Radioactive materials like Strontium-10, Cerium-141, Barium-140, heavy water, etc. generated from atomic energy plants, uranium mines, atomic research centers, nuclear weapons testing sites, etc.
Mining Waste Remains of heavy metals like lead, arsenic, cadmium, etc. from mines.

Biodegradable Waste:
This type of waste is easily degraded by microbes. It mainly includes kitchen waste (spoiled food, fruits, vegetables) ash, soil, dung, parts of the plants, etc. This waste is mainly of organic type and is also called ‘wet solid waste’ or ‘wet garbage’. If it is carefully decomposed, we can get compost and fuel of good quality from it. Such biofuel projects have been started in many cities.

Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board 3

Non-biodegradable Waste:
This type of waste is not easily degraded because it requires a very long period and the use of various techniques. It includes plastic, metal, and other similar materials. This type of waste is also called ‘dry solid waste’ or ‘dry garbage’.
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Necessity of Solid Waste Management:

  • To prevent environmental pollution and to keep the surroundings clean.
  • For energy as well as fertilizer production and through that to generate work and employment opportunities.
  • To reduce the strain on natural resources through the treatment of solid waste.
  • To improve the health and quality of life and to maintain environmental balance.

Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

It is the need of the hour to implement solid waste management practices to avoid the possible problems due to solid waste generated from urban and industrial areas and to maintain a clean environment. For this purpose, we should implement measures like increasing the efficiency of production processes so that minimum waste will be generated, and reducing garbage production by recycling and reuse of waste materials.
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7 Principles of Solid Waste Management

  • Reuse: After use materials should be reused for some other proper purposes.
  • Refuse Refusal to use articles made from non-degradable articles like plastic and thermocol.
  • Recycle the Production of useful articles by recycling solid wastes. For example, paper and glass can be recycled.
  • Rethink: Rethinking our habits, activities, and their consequences in connection with the use of various articles of daily use.
  • Reduce Restrictions on the use of resources to avoid wastage. Old materials should be reused. One thing should be shared by many. Use and throw type of objects should be avoided.
  • Research: Conduct research related to the reuse of materials that are temporarily out of use.
  • Regulation and Public Awareness: Following the laws and rules related to waste management and motivating others to do the same.

Period Required for Degradation of Waste

Waste Material Period of Natural Degradation
Banana Peelings 3 – 4 weeks
Cloth Bags 1 month
Rags 5 months
Woollen Socks 1 year
Wood 10 – 15 years
Leather Shoes 40 – 50 years
Tin Cans 50 – 100 years
Aluminium Cans 200 – 250 years
Certain Plastic Bags 10 lakh years
Thermocol/Styrofoam Cup Infinite Duration

If the time required for the degradation of the solid waste generated around us is long, it seriously affects other environmental factors. What care will you take to avoid this?
Figure A, below shows a method of storing waste, and B, shows the use of specific dustbins as per the type of waste. Think about how such eco-friendly waste management can be achieved by following these methods in our homes, too.
Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board 6

Disaster Management
Various natural disasters like thunderbolts (lightning), floods, fire, and man-made disasters like accidents, bomb explosions, chemical accidents in industries, stampedes in mass gatherings, riots, etc. occur around us from time to time. They cause large-scale damage to life and property.

First Aid to Disaster Victims:
The main objective of first aid is prevention of death, preventing deterioration of health, and starting the process of rehabilitation. Hence, it is important to know about the emergency measures or first aid practices to be followed.
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Basic Principles of First Aid: Life and Resuscitation – ABC

  • Airway: If the victim has difficulty breathing, the head should be held in a backward sloping position or the chin should be raised so that the respiratory passage remains open.
  • Breathing: If breathing has stopped, the victim should be given artificial ventilation by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  • Circulation: If the victim is unconscious, then after giving mouth-to-mouth respiration twice, the heart should be pressed down hard by pressing the chest with both palms. These two actions should be repeated alternately about 15 times. This is called cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). It helps to bring the circulation back to normal.

Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Disaster management is an action implemented through proper planning, organized activity, and coordination. It includes the following:

  • Prevention of losses and danger.
  • Improving tolerance.
  • Providing relief from disaster, minimizing the intensity and extent of harm.
  • Preparation to face the disaster.
  • Immediate action in the disaster situation.
  • Assessment of damages and intensity of the disaster.
  • Arranging for rescue work and help.
  • Rehabilitation and rebuilding.

If the victim is injured and bleeding through the wound, then the wound should be covered with an antiseptic pad and pressure applied on it for 5 minutes with either thumb or palm.

Fracture and Impact on Vertebrae:
If any bone is fractured, the fractured part must be immobilized. It can be done with the help of any available wooden rods/batons/rulers. If there is an impact on the back or vertebral column, the patient should be kept immobile on a firm stretcher.

If victims have burn injuries, it is beneficial to hold the injured part under clean and cold flowing water for at least 10 minutes.

For injuries like sprains, twisting and contusion, the ‘RICE’ remedy should be applied:

  • Rest: Allow the victim to sit in a relaxed position.
  • Ice: Apply an ice pack to the injured part.
  • Compression: After the ice-pack treatment, the injured part should be massaged gently.
  • Elevate: The injured part should be kept in a raised/elevated position.

Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board 8

Environmental Management Class 9 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Other Emergency Measures: Boats are used by the civil administration to rescue people trapped in a flooded area. As an emergency measure, wooden boards, bamboo floats, and air-filled rubber tubes from a tire can be used to advantage.

Students often rely on comprehensive Maharashtra State Board Class 9 Science Notes Environmental Management to excel in their classes.

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