Industry and Trade Class 9 History Notes Maharashtra State Board
In this chapter, we are going to gather some information about industry and trade in India in the post-independence period. After India became independent, the Industrial Finance Corporation of India was established in 1948 to make available long-term loans to industrial projects. Similarly, the Industrial Development Corporation was established in 1954 to bring about greater development of the industrial sector.
Some Industries in India
The textile industry forms 14% of the total industrial production. It includes the powerloom and the handloom industries. The handloom industries are labour-intensive. According to the ‘Textile Committee Act 1963’, a Textile Committee has been established. This committee sets the quality standards for textiles manufactured for sale in the internal market as well as for export.
This industry functions under the Ministry of Textiles. The research about the species of the silkworm and mulberry trees is done in the Seribiotic Research Laboratory at Bengaluru. This industry is primarily in the States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Jammu and Kashmir. Now it is being spread in States with predominantly tribal populations.
India is the top-ranking country in jute production. India is a major exporter of jute products. We get cloth, sackcloth, and ropes from jute. ‘Mega cluster’ is a scheme that helps weavers through self-finance groups and non-governmental organizations. Help is given in the form of raw materials, design banks, development of technology, and welfare of the weavers.
This is a labour-intensive craft. Sculptors got employment due to the capacity of the craft to absorb more craftsmen, small investments, more profits, a preference for exports, and the possibility of earning more foreign exchange. Several cities have market mechanisms like ‘Dilli Haat’ which enables the craftsmen from rural and urban areas to get a market for their wares.
India is one of the major producers of vehicles. Vehicles are exported to 40 countries from India. The automobile industry is called the ‘sunrise sector’ in India. India’s tractor industry is the biggest in the world. One-third of the tractors manufactured worldwide are produced in India. Tractors manufactured in India are exported to Turkey, Malaysia, and several countries in Africa.
The role of the cement industry is important in the development of housing and infrastructure. This industry is one of the most technologically advanced. India is currently an important producer of cement in the world.
It is a big industry in India. It is primarily export-oriented.
India is one of the top producers of salt in the world. The annual production of salt in India is 200 lakh tons. The production of iodized salt is 60 lakh tons.
India is a leading producer of bicycles in the world. Bicycles are made in the States of Punjab and Tamil Nadu. The main center of bicycle manufacturing in India is Ludhiana. India exports bicycles to countries like Nigeria, Mexico, Kenya, Uganda, and Brazil.
Khadi and Village Industry:
The Khadi and Village Industries Commission was established to give impetus to industrialization in rural areas. The main objectives behind the establishment of the corporation were to develop the traditional industries, handicrafts, and cottage industries and to encourage industries that use the material and human resources available at the local level and make the villages self-reliant by creating employment there.
In India, agriculture is practiced using traditional and modern methods. Many agricultural tasks are performed using bullocks. Similarly, machines are being used in different tasks like ploughing, sowing harvesting, threshing, etc. The major occupation in India is agriculture and other tasks based on agriculture. Agriculture and animal husbandry are practiced in villages. Seventy percent of Indian society depends upon jobs related to agriculture and agricultural production. In this industry the participation of women is equal to that of men. Agriculture is practiced in different seasons in India. Many varieties of crops are grown. Jowar, wheat, rice, pulses, and oilseeds are mainly produced. Along with it, cotton and sugarcane are processed to manufacture cloth and sugar respectively.
Agriculture also includes the production of fruits and vegetables. Nowadays, industries processing these fruits and vegetables have come up. Agriculture fulfills man’s basic needs. To encourage farming, loans are given to farmers through rural banks and cooperative institutions. Study visits, agricultural outdoor trips, and farmers’ get-togethers are organized through the Panchayat Samitis to bring about improvements in agriculture. Tools and implements, seeds, and fertilizers are also supplied. The farmers are given training regarding soil testing, nursery of fruit plants, pisciculture, poultry, cattle and goat rearing, dairy farming, etc. Guidance is given to farmers by a district-level training institute. Financial help is given to build warehouses for storing the farm produce. India is rapidly becoming independent in food grain production and farming techniques. Modern techniques like drip irrigation, and organic farming are used for farming.
Policy of the Central Government:
In the fourth five-year plan, the focus was placed on the paper industry, pharmaceutical industry, motor-tractor industry, leather goods, textile industry, food processing industry, oil, colour, sugar industries, etc. According to the Industrial Licensing Policy of 1970, all those factories requiring an investment of more than 5 crore rupees were to be included as heavy industries. The big industrial houses and foreign companies were allowed to invest in heavy industries that were not reserved for the public sector. As a result of this policy, by the end of 1972, 3 lakh 18 thousand small industries were registered with the government registration office.
The availability of minerals, iron, and coal plays a major role in the industrial development of the country. We have adequate stores of iron, manganese, coal, and mineral oil in our country.
The government has reserved some forests for the industries based on forests. The task of conserving the forests is done by the central government, the State government, and by the local people. Forests are necessary for the raw materials for industries like construction, paper, newsprint, silk, matchboxes, medicinal herbs, honey, lacquer, and raw materials needed for paint.
Fisheries include seawater fish and freshwater fish found in rivers, canals, ponds, and lakes. Harbors have been built or old harbors have been redeveloped, and fish seed incubation centers and fishing industry training centers have been provided for the growth of this industry.
India has a rich cultural heritage. There are places of worship of different religions, pilgrimage centers, confluences of rivers, forts, caves, etc. all over our country. Tourists from our country as well as from abroad travel to India throughout the year. The facilities for tourists to stay, travel, etc. are provided through the Tourism Development Corporation. The sale of curios and the hotel industry thrives in tourist places. In some places, some guides give information to tourists about that area. Sometimes when vehicles don’t reach their destination in some remote and difficult-to-reach tourist places, the local people help the tourists in return for a fee. Employment opportunities are generated out of these needs.
Import-Export or Foreign Trade:
When planning started in 1951, the import of industrial goods and raw materials required for production increased, India’s imports included machines, iron, mineral oil, fertilizers, medicines, etc. India also gave impetus to exports after independence to gain valuable foreign exchange. India’s exports included tea, coffee, spices, cotton textiles, leather, footwear, pearls, precious stones, etc.
India’s internal trade takes place via railways, waterways, roads, airways, etc. Ports like Mumbai, Kolkata, Cochin, and Chennai are important. Commodities like coal, cotton, cotton textiles, rice, wheat, raw jute, iron, steel, oilseeds, salt, sugar, etc. are included in internal trade. Due to the development of industries, the standard of living in the country has improved. Many employment opportunities become available. On the whole, it helps in the progress of the country.
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