Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 History Solutions Chapter 7 Sports and History Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.
Maharashtra State Board Class 10 History Solutions Chapter 7 Sports and History
(A) Choose the correct option from the given options and complete the statement.
(1) The ancient event of Olympic competitions used to be held at ………………………… .
(a) Olympia, Greece
(2) The wooden dolls made in Maharashtra are known as ………………………… .
(B) Identify and write the wrong pair in the following set.
(1) Mallakhamb – Outdoor game based on physical skills
(2) Water polo – Water sport
(3) Skating – Adventurous ice sport
(4) Chess – Outdoor game
(4) Chess – Outdoor game
Write notes :
(1) Toys and Festivals
- Toys and festivals are inter-related since ancient times.
- Toys are used for decoration in different cultures and religions during festivals.
- In some cultures toys are distributed as gifts. Santa Claus gifts children toys during Christmas.
- As part of Diwali celebration in Maharashtra, model forts are made displaying images of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, his soldiers and animals which are toys.
- Clay images of snakes and bullocks are- sold during festivals like Bail pola and Nagpanchami.
(2) Sports and movies
- The presence of sports was limited to a scene in the movies made earlier.
- In recent times, biographical movies are made on sportspersons and on sports.
- Movies like Lagaan and Dangal are made related to cricket and wrestling respectively.
- Biographical movies are made on Mary Kom, and the Phogat sisters.
- Movies are made on careers of famous sprinter Milkha Singh.
- Bharat Ratna Sachin Tendulkar and Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni.
- Overall, movies and sports are related from the silent era till date.
Explain the following statements with reasons.
(1) Currently the structure of sports economy has been significantly affected.
- The process of globalisation has influenced the field of sports in the 20th-21st century.
- International matches of various sports like Cricket, Football, etc. are*telecast in every corner of the world.
- Fans watch these matches for entertainment,r and aspiring players to learn more.
- The citizens of the non-participating countries also watch these matches.
- Retired players get a chance on television channels as commentators.
- Matches garner a large audience, hence the commercial companies look at it as an opportunity to advertise and sell their products.
- All these factors have led to change in the structure of sports economy.
(2) Toys can tell us about cultural history.
A tradition of making different type of toys for entertainment is going on since ancient time.
- Toys give us an idea about the cultural and religious development of that period.
- Clay models of forts and the images of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj placed on fort gives us an idea about the structures of forts during that period.
- An ivory doll found at Pompeii, an ancient city in Italy, sheds light on Indo-Roman trade and cultural relations.
- The mention of games, toys and flying and dancing dolls in Kathasaritsagara give us an idea about cultural history of toys. In this way, we come to know about cultural history from toys.
Write detailed answers to the following questions.
(1) Write about the history of sports equipment and toys in ancient India.
- The history of sports equipment and toys dates back to epic age. The ancient Indian literature and epics mention various games such as games of dice, wrestling, horse and chariot race.
- Sports are of two types ‘Indoor Games’ and ‘Outdoor Games’. Indoor games such as chess, card games, dice, carrom, kachkavadya or Indian ludo, Bhatukli were very popular. It can be noted that all of them required equipment to play.
- Cards to play card games, dice to play game of dice, a board and pieces to play chess, bunch of seeds or stones to play sagargote; (playing house) to play Bhatukli.
- Likewise, Outdoor games like marbles, lagori (seven stones), vitti-dandu, bhavare (tops) all require material like marbles, stones, tops, a small and large stick to play.
- A Sanskrit play by Shudraka is named as Mrichchhakatika. It means a clay cart. A clay cart was a toy used to play during Harappan period.
- Kathasaritsagara has very interesting descriptions of games and toys. There are descriptions of flying dolls. There is a mention that on pressing a key some dolls used to fly, some used to dance and some used to make sounds.
(2) Explain the close tie between sports and history.
Sports and history are closely related with each other.
- It is a must for a sports writer to know the history of the game he chooses to write on.
- In order to write a review on any sport competition, the critic should have knowledge of competitions held in the past.
- A comparative study of the skills, techniques and strategies used in the past and developments or improvements in the present makes the review comprehensive.
- The writer has to resort to history while writing columns or articles on sports events like Olympics or Asiad or any national or international matches.
- While commentating on Akashvani and Doordarshan, an expert commentator needs to have good knowledge of the history of the game, previous records of illustrious and eminent players, statistical analysis and historical anecdotes related to the game and players.
- Coaches, special experts, selection committee should have information of the players, their strength and weakness and also history of the players in the opposing team. Even players should know history of their competitors.
In short, it is essential to know the history of all the aspects related to sports.
(3) Explain the difference between indoor and outdoor games.
|Indoor games||Outdoor games|
|1. Most of the indoor games are played by sitting at one place. They are played in a closed environment.||1. Outdoor games are played on a field.|
|2. Indoor games require skills but physical exercise is negligible.||2. Outdoor games need more physical exercise and skill.|
|3. As there is no exertion in indoor games, so it is not essential to develop stamina.||3. Outdoor games require stamina and strength.|
|4. Indoor games do not involve adventure.
||4. Outdoor games involve adventures at times, e.g.. Auto racing|
|5. Indoor games includes Chess, Indian Ludo (Playing house) Bhatukli and many more.||5. Outdoor games involve national and international games like Kabaddi, Kho-kho, Hockey, Cricket, etc.|
|6. With the exception of chess and carrom no competitions are held for rest of the Indoor games.||6. National and international competitions are held of almost all outdoor games.|
(1) Collect information about your favorite sports and its players.
(2) Discuss the hardships the sportspersons have to face while training for the sport with the help of information gathered through movies and literature.
Complete the sentences by choosing the correct option:
(a) The activity which combines physical exercise and entertainment is ……………………….. .
(b) ……………………….. was looked upon as a game and entertainment by ancient people.
(c) ……………………….. and its various tactics were devised by Balambhat Deodhar, the physical trainer of Peshwa Bajirao II.
(d) The Indian Government has honoured Sachin, Tendulkar with ……………………… for his illustrious achievements in the field of cricket.
(a) Padma Shri
(b) Khel Ratna
(c) Arjuna Award
(d) Bharat Ratna
(d) Bharat Ratna
(e) ……………………… is the national game of India.
(f) The National Sports Day of India is celebrated on 29th August which is the birth date of …………………….. .
(a) Khashaba Jadhav
(b) Sachin Tendulkar
(c) Major Dhyan Chand
(d) Bal J. Pandit
(c) Major Dhyan Chand
(g) Vishnubhat Godse in his book Maza Pravas wrote that sports and physical activity had great importance in the daily schedule of ………………………
(a) Tatya Tope
(b) Queen of Jhansi Lakshmibai
(c) Bahadur Shah Jaffar
(d) Nanasaheb Peshwa
(b) Queen of Jhansi Lakshmibai
(g) Maruti Mane is known for …………………….. .
(h) …………………….. wrote the play Mrichchhakatika which means a clay cart.
(i) The findings in the excavations of …………………….., an ancient city in Italy includes an ivory doll made by Indian craftsmen.
(j) An interesting description of games and toys is found in ……………………. .
(k) Major Dhyan Chand was honoured in 1956 with …………………….. for his marvellous achievements in hockey.
(a) Padma Shri
(b) Padma Bhushan
(c) Padma Vibhushan
(d) Bharat Ratna
(c) Padma Bhushan
(l) …………………….. was the first Indian female boxer to win a bronze medal in the Olympics.
(a) P 7 Sindhu
(b) Mary Kom
(c) Geeta Phoghat
(d) Saina Nehwal
(b) Mary Kom.
Identify the wrong pair in the following and write it:
|(1) Mallakhamb||Outdoor game based on physical skills|
|(2) Water Polo||Water sport|
|(3) Skating||Adventure ice sports|
|(4) Chess||Outdoor game|
Wrong pair: Chess – Outdoor game
|(1) Mallakhamb trainer||Balambhat Deodhar|
|(2) Wizard of Hockey||Milkha Singh|
|(3) First Indian female boxer||Mary Kom|
|(4) First Indian female wrestlers||Phogat sisters|
Wrong pair: Wizard of Hockey – Milkha Singh
Do as directed
(A) Complete the graphical description:
(B) Prepare a Tree-Diagram on typs of games:
Write short notes:
(a) Indigenous Games:
- The games which have their origin in India and are an important part of Indian culture are indigenous games.
- They are of two types – ‘Indoor Games’ and ‘Outdoor Games’. Indoor Games are played within a closed environment and a number of them are played by sitting at one place. Chess, card games, dice, carrom, etc. are indigenous indoor games.
- An open space or preferably a playground is required to play outdoor games. Kabaddi, Atyapatya, Kho-kho etc. are indigenous outdoor games.
- The special feature of indigenous games is that they do not require high cost material and hence are less expensive. Phugadi, Zimma, Bhatukali are some of the indigenous games played by girls. In modern times, all national and international games are played by both girls and boys.
Explain the following statements with reasons:
(a) Major Dhyan Chand is called the Wizard of Hockey.
- Major Dhyan Chand was part of hockey teams as a player in 1928 and 1932 which won gold medal at Olympics.
- He was also captain of the Indian Hockey team which won a Gold Medal at the Berlin Olympics in 1936.
- He shot 25 goals against America and Japan in the 1932 Olympics.
- He shot more than 400 goals in his entire career which include national and international matches. Owing to his brilliant achievement he is called the ‘Wizard of Hockey’.
(b) Globalisation has influenced sports.
- No sport is limited to any one country. Television and other media channels telecast matches widening the reach of sports in all comejcs, of the world.
- International competition Asiad, Paralympics, Cricket Wc watched by people irrespective r
part of the world.
- World Cup matches of cricket, hockey and football are held.
- No country has a monopoly on any sport which means that globalisation has influenced sports.
(c) A commentator should know the history of the game.
- The mere description of a live match is not enough for commentators.
- A commentator should have good knowledge of the history of the game, previous records (who made or who broke) and eminent players in the past as well as events related to different competitions.
- Along with the history and information of the playground, commentator should narrate records made by the players in different matches.
- It will make his commentary interesting. Therefore, it is essential for the commentator to know the history of the game.
Answer the following questions in 25-30 words:
(a) Explain the importance of sports.
Sports has gained great importance for the following reasons:
- Sports helps us to overcome our pains, worries and sufferings. We feel relaxed and refreshed by playing games.
- Games which involve a lot of physical activity not only provide good exercise but also help in building a tenacious and strong body.
- One. can develop courage; determination and sportsmanship playing games. A sense of cooperation and teamspirit develops when we participate in games which require collective participation.
- Team games also help in developing a leadership! quality.
(b) Write about the history of sports.
- It is a natural instinct in human beings to play. From beginning of civilisation till date man has played different types of games for his entertainment.
- Hunting was a way of obtaining food for the ancient people as well as considered a game.
- Horse and chariot races, wrestling, game of dice (dyut) are mentioned in ancient Indian literary texts and epics.
- Dolls, whistles, toy carts were discovered in the excavations at Harappa. So, it can be said that the history of sports is as old as the history of man.
(c) Write about the importance of sports in education field.
- Sports are an integral part „ of education. The making of a player begins at school level.
- Many types of sports events are held at the international level. To make the players competent they are given opportunity to play at district, state and national level.
- They are promoted and sponsored by the government and private sectors. Talented and ranking players get State scholarship or National scholarship.
- Seats are reserved for them in colleges and Universities. It has been observed that the foundation of successful players is laid in school life.
(d) What do we need to know while making movies on sports?
While making a movie on sports the makers should have complete information of the. sport as well as its history.
- Nowadays special research teams are appointed by production houses which do thorough research on the subject of the movie.
- In order to gather information on the sportsperson or the sport it is essential to study books, articles, columns written by eminent sports writers.
- If the movie is on a sportsperson, all interviews published in national and international magazines and newspapers should be read.
- Factors such as period, type of equipment used, sports wear, dressing style, social life needs to be studied.
- General understanding of the people about the game, practises and famous sportspersons is required.
Read the following passage and answer the following questions:
(a) Complete the Concept Map:
(b) How are the experts in history helpful regarding international sports competition?
Experts in history are helpful to write and critically analyse the game.
(c) How are professional opportunities available in field of sports?
There are many professional opportunities available in the field of sports.
- Writers are in demand who can write on sports and critics to write reviews are in demand.
- Commentators are in demand on Television, radio and various other private channels. Experts and assistants are needed to provide information regularly.
- Coaches train the players, playground staff to maintain the field, umpires, etc.
- Cameramen, computer experts and team of assistants to have uninterrupted transmission. Trained and qualified referees are required to work at district, national and international levels.
- Overall, a great number of job opportunities are available in the field of sports.
Write a detailed answer to the following:
(a) Write about the history of sports literature and toys in ancient India.
A new enterprise is developing in publishing related to sports in India. There is extensive written work on various sports.
- Many books related to sports and biographies are published. Encylopaedias are being written on sports.
- An independent encyclopaedia is written on exercise. The History of Mallakhamb is recently published.
- Sports magazines are published fortnightly and monthly.
- Many newspapers have allotted a separate section or last pages for news related to sports.
- ‘Shatkar’ was a sports magazine published some years ago. There is ample of literature available on sports.
(b) Trace the development of toys and their importance.
- Toys and games have been essentially part of entertainment from ancient times. Every I developing society has made toys for the 8 entertainment and education of their children.
- Toys were found at archaeological sites at various places. The toys were made of clay, baked clay, terracotta and ivory.
- Either a mould was used to make the toy or it was fashioned by hand.
- Toys and the material used to make them were indicators of the development and advancement of civilisations.
- An interesting description of flying dolls is found in Kathasaritsagara. The dolls used to fly, made some sound and some danced when a key was pressed.
- Toys give us information about the period it was made, how they were made, religious and 8 cultural practices and technical know-how of the 8 people. ’
Observe the picture and write information about the event it is related to:
- This picture is the logo of the modern Olympic Games. The five interlocked rings represent the five continents of the world.
- The rings coloured blue, yellow, black, green and red on a white field are known as the ‘Olympic rings’. The symbol was originally designed in 1912 by Pierre de Coubertin.
- Olympic rings are the symbol of games which were first played in the ancient city of Olympia. They were held after every four years.
- The ancient Olympics had fewer events than the modern games and only Greek men were allowed to participate. Events such as Horse and Chariot race, Footrace, Wrestling, Boxing, Discus Throw, Pentathlon were held.
- The Greeks standardised rules of the sports were laid which was helpful to organise the games systematically.
- The modern Olympic games are also held every four years. It is a great honour for sportspersons to participate and win the Olympic medals.