Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra State Board


Variously dangerous events occur many times in the environment. Those are called disasters. Some of the main natural disasters are floods, wet and dry famines, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc. These are ‘all of a sudden’ troubles to mankind. Such events cause sudden changes in the environment and thereby cause damage to it. The environment is also damaged due to the use of natural resources for our development. This leads to sudden disasters, unexpected to humans. These can be called man-made disasters.

Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

United Nations has defined the disaster as ‘the sudden event that leads to the huge loss of life and property. Words like ‘huge’ and ‘sudden’ are important in the definition. As the disaster occurs suddenly, it cannot be predicted. Hence, precautions are not possible. Huge losses to the property occur in the area of disaster. There are long-term effects on society due to incidences of life and property loss. Various areas of life like economic, social, cultural, political, law and administration, etc. are affected by it. Life in the area of disaster is disturbed totally. There is loss of life and property of the people in distress.
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Earlier, we have studied various types of disasters and the measures to be taken. None of the different disasters are similar. The period of each disaster is not the same. Some disasters are short-term where whereas some are long-term. The reasons behind each disaster are also different. Depending upon the nature of the disaster, it can be determined which component of the environment will be affected more.
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Earlier, we have studied the effects of various types of disasters and the precautionary measures to be taken in case any disaster happens. We can classify the disasters in other ways too; like catastrophic disasters. Ex. Cyclones in Odisha, catastrophic earthquakes in Gujarat and Latur, frequently buzzing cyclones in coastal Andhra Pradesh, etc. which lead to chaos, and huge loss of life and property in respective regions. However, irrespective of all these, life has always returned to normal within a short time. Disasters making an impact for a long duration are those whose after-effects are either severe or whose severity increases with time. Ex. Famine, various problems with the crops, strikes of workers, rising levels of oceans, desertification, etc.

Effects of Disaster
We have understood the serious effects of disaster with the help of the above-mentioned questions. Collapsing of bridges, flooding of coastal villages, and shortage of food are some of the problems of floods. Collapsing of houses, and developing cracks in land are some of the effects of earthquakes. Disasters like forest fires and droughts also adversely affect the environment. However, what is the exact nature of these disasters? Whether there are any changes in nature before the occurrence of disasters? For how long did the effects occur after the occurrence of the disaster? How? It needs to be thought over all these aspects. This helps us to understand the nature and gravity of the disaster.

Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Disasters affect the economy of the nation. That effect is always relative to disaster and the economy i.e. if any port is destroyed, there are long-lasting effects on the economy due to huge expenses on its reconstruction. An effect of the disaster on social leadership is that if local leadership is not strong enough, citizens become confused. It affects their participation in rescue and rehabilitation activities. Administrative problems arise during the disaster. If local governing bodies are affected by disasters, related departments cannot answer the problems of disaster efficiently. All the concerned departments are affected by the disaster and thereby entire system collapses.

Nature and Scope of Disaster
Taking into consideration the scope of the disaster, some of the important facts must be thought over, as follows:

  • Pre-disaster phase
  • Warning phase
  • Emergency phase
  • Rehabilitation phase
  • Recovery phase
  • Reconstruction phase

Taking into consideration the nature and scope of disaster, only three aspects of disaster are important for common citizens.

1. Phase of Emergency:
The important characteristic of this phase is that maximum lives can be saved by quick actions during this phase only. Various actions like search and rescue operations, medical assistance, first aid, restoring communication services, and removing the people from the affected area are expected in this phase. The gravity of disaster can be estimated in this phase only.

2. Transitional Phase:
Rehabilitation work is started in this phase, after the subsidence of any type of disaster. It includes clearing debris, restoring the water supply, repairing roads, etc. so that it will help to bring normalcy to public life. Rehabilitation of the victims is an important aspect of this phase. Generally, different institutes offer monetary and other types of help to such people. It helps to soothe the mental stress at the earliest if these victims are offered a permanent means of earning livelihood and this is true rehabilitation.

3. Reconstruction Phase:
This is a highly complicated phase. This phase begins in a transitional phase. People reconstruct their buildings and facilities like roads and water supply are restored. Farming practices are restarted. However, it takes a long time for reconstruction. Planet Earth has experienced many natural disasters. Listening to the description of those disasters brings numbness to the mind. Most of the disasters and related unprecedented situations have occurred in the Asian continent and region of the Pacific Ocean. Huge loss of life and the planet Earth has occurred due to such disasters. Generally, such conditions of natural imbalance have arisen due to greed for the economic progress of human beings.

Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

In reality, old problems of several years have become fierce. Ex. The increasing population, its increasing needs emerging problems are now at the end. Such disasters have increased after World War. Condition of instability arises in the country due to various reasons like economic inequality, racial and religious differences, etc. Incidences like terrorism, abduction, and social differences have become routine now. Production and use of harmful chemicals are under ban in developed countries. However, the production of either the same or those chemicals that can wipe out the human race is common in developing and poor countries.

In 2014, there was a huge landslide in the village of Malin, Tal. Ambegaon, Dist. Pune. Following is the image of the school reconstructed after the disaster.
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Another such threat to human beings is from the atomic energy plants. Ex. Radiation leakage occurred after a blast in an atomic energy plant at Chornobyl, Russia. Its ill effects are still experienced in the region. This atomic energy plant was only used for electricity generation. Nowadays, many countries are equipped with atomic energy. Out of this, the risk of radiation leakage is increasing due to carelessness. Hence, the importance of disaster management has become the foremost need of almost all nations.

It is most necessary for citizens of all countries because they are the main sufferers of any type of disaster. Hence, the direct participation of citizens in disaster management is highly necessary. Similarly, disaster management schemes should be changed concerning the location, time, and nature of the disaster. It should not be restricted for a particular period. Overall, there may be any type of disaster, it should be overcome. The concept of disaster management has arisen out of this only.

Disaster Management

Disaster may be minor or major, short-time or long-time, it should be overcome and effective disaster management is necessary for it. There is a close relationship between disaster management and public participation. Disaster management is either the prevention of disasters or making arrangements to face them or at least achieve the ability to face them. Disaster is a very fast process it is an accident. What shall we do in such a situation? How can we protect ourselves, our belongings, and our animals? In the case of disaster management, there should be an attempt to minimize the losses. Disasters are never planned but losses due to it can be prevented in a planned manner.

Objectives of Disaster Management

  • Disposal of human life suffered by human beings during the calamity and release of the people.
  • Supply of essential commodities to the people to reduce the effect of disaster.
  • They restore human life in the region by creating reconciliation in disaster.
  • Rehabitant disaster victims.
  • Considering protective measures in disaster, such disasters will not happen in the future and slop take care to reduce their intensity.

Disaster management is achieving or time to time improving the ability to face disasters through scientific and careful observations and analysis of data. For example, preparing the action plan through the study of various aspects like preventive measures, rehabilitation, and reconstruction, and executing that plan is nothing but the management of disaster.
Disaster management can be divided into two parts.

Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Pre-Disaster Management
This includes the complete preparation and planning to face any type of disaster. For that purpose.

  • Identifying the pro-disaster areas.
  • Collecting the information about the intensity of disaster and probable sites of disasters through predictive intensity maps and hazard maps respectively.
  • Getting special training for disaster management.
  • Increasing awareness about disaster management among the general public through training programs, mass media, etc. Post-disaster management

Post-Disaster Management

  • Providing all types of necessary help to victims of disasters.
  • Participation of preferably local people saved from the disaster in arranging the help to victims.
  • Quick establishment of the help center. Different types of disasters need different types of control centers.
  • Categorization of the help material received from the control center, delivering the material to victims, and continuous review of the help.
  • Being always prepared for disaster rescue.

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Structure of Disaster Management Authority

In case of disaster, an authority has been established at the level of government. The following flow chart indicates the function of control and coordination under disaster management from the national to the village level. Disaster Management Act, 2005 has been passed in our country.

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District Disaster Management Authority:
At the district level, the district collector is responsible for disaster management and implementation of rehabilitation schemes. The collector plans, coordinates, and controls the implementation of a rehabilitation program, gives out necessary instructions, and reviews the entire system. District collector is also responsible for designing the schemes for each district, separately for each type of disaster, and getting those sanctioned by state-level authorities.

District-wise Disaster Control Unit:
The district control unit is established immediately either after the impact of a disaster or after getting intimation about it. It reviews various aspects of the disaster and keeps continuous contact with various agencies like an army, air force, navy, telecommunication department, paramilitary forces, etc. to get help. It is also responsible for coordinating with various voluntary organizations for their help in disaster management.

Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

National Disaster Response Force was established as per the Disaster Management Act, of 2005. Divisions of this force are working in the army. Overall, 12 divisions are working in the country. Its headquarters is in Delhi and it is in action all over the country with the help of the army. In Maharashtra, the National Disaster Response Force is in action through the State Reserve Police Force. Personnel of this force have substantial contributions to rescue work in disasters like cyclones, cliff-sliding, building collapse, etc. Website: http://www.ndrf.gov.in
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First Aid and Emergency Action:
You have studied in earlier classes about the types of first aid to be offered to persons injured in disasters. Use of this knowledge is useful for offering help to classmates or people around you facing any disaster or injury therein.
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Sometimes, we have to face the disaster due to our unawareness. Some symbols given beside are seen used around us. Those symbols can be ignored. Such symbols are useful to avoid mishaps.
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In emergency conditions, various transportation methods like cradle method, carrying on back, and carrying on two hands are to be followed. Those methods depend upon the condition of the victim. We face different types of major or minor disasters in our daily lives. Varieties of disasters like accidents, stampedes, injuries in fighting, electric shocks, burns, heat shocks, snake bites, dog bites, fires due to electric short circuits, epidemics of any disease, etc. happen around us. Victims of disaster need to be offered some primary help before actual medical treatment. First aid is useful in such circumstances.
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First Aid Kit
It is essential to have the material necessary for first aid with us. That material is available in the first aid kit. You can also prepare a first aid kit. It is also important to use whatever material is available in the given condition for first aid. The necessary material in the first aid box

  • Bandage strips of different sizes
  • Wound gauze.
  • Triangular and circular bandages
  • Medicated cotton
  • Hand gloves
  • Clean and dry cloth pieces
  • Soap
  • Antiseptic (Dettol/ Sarlon)
  • Safety pins
  • Blade
  • Small Pins
  • Needle
  • Band-aid
  • Torch
  • Scissor
  • Thermometer
  • Petroleum jelly

Mock Drill

It is a practice to check the preparedness to face the disaster as early as possible. Virtual/Apparent situation of disaster is created to check the reaction time for any type of disaster. Trained personnel observe their responsibilities to check the execution of the plan designed for disaster redressal. This helps to check the efficacy of the system prepared for disaster redressal. The mock drill is arranged for disaster fires in various schools the firefighters. It includes demonstrations like extinguishing the fire, rescuing the people trapped at higher floors of buildings, rescuing persons whose clothing has caught the fire, etc. Such activities are also arranged by the police force and voluntary organizations.

Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board 10

Objectives of Mock Drill:

  • Evaluating the response to the disaster.
  • Improving the coordination between various departments of disaster control.
  • Identification of own abilities.
  • Improving the ability of quick disaster response.
  • Checking the competency of the planned actions.
  • Identifying the possible errors and risks.

Disaster Management Class 10 Science Notes Maharashtra Board

Do not chaos and push each other while using the staircase in the school. Remind important helplines and use them as needed. Ex. Police 100, Fire Fighting Force 101, Disaster Control Unit 108, Ambulance 102, etc. Follow the traffic rules. Look at the left and right sides while crossing the road and ensure that any vehicle is not passing by. Do not touch any unclaimed object. Do not spread rumors. Do not cause chaos in crowded places.

Well-organized Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Science Notes Disaster Management can aid in exam preparation and quick revision.

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