Industries Class 8 Geography Notes Maharashtra State Board
The process of converting the available raw material into finished products is done in the factories. The finished product is durable, more useful, and has an added value. Industries or manufacturing units provide secondary occupation. Due to the availability of resources, the development of science and technology, and other favourable conditions, there is the development of industries and a boost to industrialization. Industries help in speeding up the economic development of humans and it also helps in achieving the economic development of a country.
Factors Affecting the Location of an Industry:
Taking into account the above factors, note in different colours the favourable factors required for the factories and given below and the following.
- Iron and Steel
In any given area the development of industries is dependent on several factors such as the availability of raw materials, water, labour, transport, capital, market, etc. As per the availability of these factors, specific industries develop. Because of the unequal distribution of these factors, industrial development does not take place at the same pace in all places. Some regions are suitable for the development of industries while in other regions, only particular industries develop. Dense forests and desert areas are not conducive to industrial development.
While looking for answers to the above questions you must have realized that for the localization of the iron and steel industry, the most important factors are the availability of raw materials and energy, both of which are available around Jamshedpur. The raw material is heavy and bulky and it is uneconomical to transport it to a factory far away. Hence it is favourable to establish this industry in the area where the raw material is available. This is the reason for the establishment of the iron and steel industry at Jamshedpur.
Classification of Industries as per their Nature:
All three pictures above are related to the concept of industries, but the nature of their work is different. In these industries, raw materials, labour force, capital, land, etc. are all essential factors. As per the nature of the work, industries can be classified. Very often the finished product from one industry is used as a raw material in another industry e.g. sugar produced in the sugar factories is used as a sweetener, a raw material in the manufacture of products such as biscuits, jams, and jellies. Similarly, iron rods are used as raw materials in the engineering industries, in the manufacture of steel furniture, etc.
Agro Based Industries:
India is a predominantly agrarian country. In India a variety of agricultural products is available. Different types of agro-based industries have come up. In addition to these, industries processing agricultural products have also developed. These include the dairy industry, fruit processing, food processing, jaggery making, etc. Industries dependent on agricultural products have been established everywhere. There has also been the development of heavy industries like textiles and sugar.
The establishment of industries and industrial development have an important role in the economic development of a country. Industrial development is essential for improving the standard of living and increasing the per capita income of the citizens. The citizens of a country get employment opportunities and their lifestyle improves. The per capita income of the country goes up and there is an increase in the export of finished products. This results in an increase in the foreign exchange reserves. For all these reasons it is necessary to give a fillip to industrialization in a country. The government establishes industrial estates to boost industrial development and increase employment opportunities in a region.
Industries have an important role in the economic development of a country. Hence all countries make special efforts for promoting industrial development. To enable this, industrial estates have been established. These estates are given concessional rates for electricity, water, and taxes.
Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (M.I.D.C):
On 1st August 1962 in Maharashtra, the state government established the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation and through it, set up industries in every district of the state. Through this, the decentralization of industries is expected throughout the state. Like Maharashtra, other states have also established such corporations. In these industrial estates very often auxiliary industries have been established. In addition, employment opportunities have been made available to local people. In these industrial estates, various facilities necessary for industries have been made available.
There are many advantages of industrial development. There are also some disadvantages. Because of industrialization, the youth in an area get employment. It also helps in increasing the per capita income. For the economic development of an agrarian country, it is necessary to have industries based on agricultural products. Such industries not only result in agricultural development but also the economic development of a country. The standard of living of people also rises.
Information Technology Industry:
Information Technology is an important engineering branch in today’s world. In this branch, work is carried out by computers. In this industry, India has made rapid progress. The availability of skilled manpower is the most important reason for this.
In this industry searching for technical information, obtaining, analyzing and compiling it, presenting it graphically, and providing it as per requirement is the nature of work. All this information is obtained from the internet on computers, mobiles, and other devices. The creation or development of special softwares on these handsets is another important component of the industries. Today there is an increase in the use of computers and technology. There is a great variety in the types of information collected, and it is used all over the world.
Corporate Social Responsibility:
When an industrialist or a group of industries work for the betterment of society and the conservation of the environment, it is known as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Showing responsibility to society by helping needy people or needy organizations is an important task. With this objective, when an industry or a group of industries have made a profit of over 5 crores, they are expected to spend at least 2% of their profits on acts benefitting society. For this, their assistance in the areas below is expected.
- The provision of educational facilities
- The provision of facilities related to health.
- The development of the village or region.
- Establishing centers for people like environmental development centers etc.
There is a tax rebate on the amount spent by the industry or group of industries on various schemes under Corporate Social Responsibility.
Industrialization and Environment:
Manufacturing includes the processing of raw materials to obtain the finished product. During the manufacture of the products, some harmful residual materials and pollutants are also left behind. As a result, there is the pollution of air, water, noise, and land. This type of pollution is termed industrial pollution. Industrial pollution, the resultant environment, and the problems relating to it are being seriously discussed at an international level. While deciding the location of industries, along with the traditional factors, serious thought is being given to environmental factors. To control the pollution caused by industries, proper disposal of sewage and harmful residuals and proper treatment of the pollutants should be done.
Fuel-saving vehicles and other equipment must be manufactured. Pollution control, preservation of natural resources, environmental management, etc. are factors that must be taken into account. In India, to check industrial pollution many laws and regulations have been framed, both at the national and the state levels e.g. the Water and Air Pollution Control Act and the Conservation of Environment Act. The Central Pollution Control Board of India looks into the prevention and control of pollution. In this context, any contravention of these laws would mean that the management of the factory would be held responsible and would be liable for punishment.
Water Literacy – The need of the hour:
Water is a basic necessity in human life. Due to increasing population, changing climatic conditions, irregular rainfall, etc many countries in recent times are facing the problem of acute water shortage. India also will be facing a problem of acute water shortage shortly. This has come to light through a survey of water industries. India is a country blessed with ample natural resources. The rivers of India are rainfed. It is essential to check this flow of water and use it judiciously.
Small check dams, and canals, recharging our underground reservoirs, reusing water, reducing water pollution, treating wastewater from industries and reusing them, etc. are all methods of proper water management. While using water for our personal needs we need to take care not to waste water and to use minimum possible water. Even these small steps will help in overcoming the problem of water shortage. Public awareness of water management is the need of the hour.
Well-structured Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Geography Notes Industries can reduce anxiety during exams.