# Population Class 8 Geography Notes Maharashtra Board

## Population Class 8 Geography Notes Maharashtra State Board

Several factors are responsible for the development of a region. Out of these, population is an important factor. While studying the population of any region, the following aspects have to be considered.

• Population Growth
• Population Distribution
• Population Density
• Structure of Population

Population Growth:
From the above exercise, it can be seen that there is a constant change in the population of a region. Sometimes there is a decrease in population and at other times there is an increase. This increase or decrease is related to the following factors.

• Birth Rate: The number of live births per one thousand people in a year shows the birth rate.
• Death Rate: The number of deaths per one thousand people in a year, shows the death rate.
• Life Expectancy: The average lifespan of an individual expected in an area at the time of birth.
• Migration: The movement of an individual or a group out of an area or into an area is called migration. When people move into a region from outside, for residence, it is called in migration and when people move out of a region for residential purposes it is called out-migration.

All the above factors affect the population growth. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate is responsible for the natural population changes. Similarly, the migration of an individual or a group constantly results in the change of population. The unchecked growth of the population puts pressure on the resources of a region. On the other hand, a controlled growth of the population will lead to the availability of resources in the right proportion. A controlled population is an indicator of the development of a region.

Take about 100 grains of black-eyed beans (chawali). First, scatter these beans on a square of 30 × 30 cm. Now scatter 100 more beans on a square of 15 × 15 cm. While scattering the grains take care to see that the grains do not touch one another or pile up one on top of the other.

Distribution of Population:
When the grains of chawali are scattered over two areas of different sizes, in the larger area, the distribution appears sparse. Similarly, we can understand the distribution of population in a region. Some regions are mountainous while others are flat plains. Geographical conditions vary. Some regions are well endowed with natural resources, while others have limited resources. These conditions affect the distribution of the population. In areas with abundant resources, naturally, the population is larger. In these areas, there is dense population distribution. In areas with scarce resources, unfavorable climates, undulating terrain, etc. the population, distribution is sparse.

Factors Affecting Population Distribution

Physical Factors:

• Location
• Relief
• Climate
• Soil
• Mineral Resources

Economic Factors:

• Agriculture
• Industry
• Urbanization
• Transport
• Markets

Political Factors:

• Wars
• Political Instability
• Government Policies

Social Factors:

• Race
• Religion
• Language

Density of Population:
The ratio of the population of a country to its area is population density. While discussing population distribution density of the population is also considered. The density is calculated as per the formula given below.
Density of population = $$\frac{\text { Population of a Region }}{\text { Area of a Region }}$$
From the area of a region and its population, one can calculate how many people live in a square km. The density of the population is not the same everywhere. In some regions, the area is small but the population is large, For example, Kerala. In other regions the area is large but the population is small. Therefore, the density of the population is low. For example Rajasthan.

Structure of Population:
Population can be subdivided into various categories. By studying the correlation between the subdivisions, an understanding of the structure and quality of the population is possible.

Sex Ratio:
As per gender, the population can be divided into males and females. This is a natural division that can be easily understood. In a population, when both genders are around the same number it indicates a balanced population. In population studies the ratio of men and women is considered important. This ratio is calculated as follows:
Sex Ratio = $$\frac{\text { Total number of females }}{\text { Total number of males }}$$ × 1000

When for every one thousand males the number of females is less, the sex ratio is said to be low, and when for every one thousand males the number of females is more, the sex ratio is said to be high.

In regions where the proportion of females is more than males, predominantly the out-migration of men is high. The out-migration is very often for employment purposes, for example, in Kerala. But where the proportion of females is less than males, in most cases, the birth rate of females is less.

Age Structure:
In a region, when the population is subdivided as per the age groups this is called the age structure of the population. Age structure is useful for the projection of population and for understanding the dynamics of the age structure arrangement. Similarly, it also helps in understanding the proportion of active and dependent populations. In India, the productive population is the population between the ages of 15 and 59. This group of people is active in service and business. They directly participate in the economic activities of a region.

In regions where the proportion of this population is higher, especially youth, development is rapid. The dependent population falls into two subgroups. The people below 15 years of age are totally dependant on the productive population. People above 60 years also fall in the Dependant category but their knowledge and experience make them a valuable asset to the whole society.

Occupational Structure of the Population:
The population of a region can be classified into working and nonworking groups. These people who are not in jobs or professions, despite being in the productive age group, come under the non-working group. This nonworking group is dependent on the working group. If the proportion of the working population is higher in a region then the population is termed as industrious. Such a region has rapid development.

Area of Residence:
The population of a region can be divided into two groups as per the area of residence: rural and urban. People in rural areas are mainly employed in primary occupations and in urban areas, the proportion of people working in secondary and tertiary occupations is large. The population in the rural areas is involved in the production of food grains. The urban population is dependent on the rural population for the supply of food grains.

Literacy:
In society, some people are literate and others are illiterate. In our country, a person who can read and write is termed as literate. This definition can vary from one country to another. The percentage of literacy throws light on the quality of the population. People above the age of seven can be classified as literate and illiterate. Literacy is an indicator of the social and economic development of a society. If the percentage of literacy is higher then the country develops socially and economically. Literacy leads to the development of a cultured and progressive society.

Migration:
The movement of an individual or a group from one place to another is termed migration. This could be for a short period, a long period, or permanently. Marriage, education, business, transfer, tourism, natural calamities, wars, etc. are the reasons, why people migrate. There are many kinds of migration. Regions from where people migrate show a fall in population. Such regions experience a shortage of manpower. On the other hand, the areas to which they migrate show an increase in population and a strain on public amenities and facilities. Due to migration the composition of the population also changes. Migration is an important factor affecting the distribution of population. Due to migration, there is a redistribution of the population of a region. The structure of the population also changes.

The above table has given the percentage of the migrant population of some selected countries. In countries where the percentage of migrant population is higher, job opportunities, good business prospects, the availability of natural resources, and economic development are the main causes. On the other hand, political and social factors, economic backwardness, etc are some of the reasons accounting for a low percentage of this population. Even though the percentage of this population is low in India, when compared to the total population, the actual figures are large.

Population – A Resource:
Population as a resource is important for the economic, social, and cultural development of any country. Rather than population numbers, it is the quality of the population which is important. Along with the percentage of literacy, sex ratio, age groups, health, educational levels, etc are also considered while thinking of the population as a resource. The supply of skilled or unskilled labour depends on the quality of the population.

In the earlier exercise, you noticed that there was an increase in population in town A/B. That only means, that there was a growth of population. But, can you say anything about the ‘development’ of those towns? If there are no houses for this increasing population and no adequate drinking water then of what use is this growth only? In those towns for how many people has additional drinking water been made available? How many children have started attending school? Or in which city are the people happier? Growth does not mean development! Then how can development be measured?

For many decades only a country’s gross national product was used for measuring development. It was assumed that the greater the economic prosperity, the more the development of a country. But this does not mean that the people are happy with the quality of life in that country. In reality, development is related to the quality of life, the opportunities available there, and freedom. In the decade of 1980 to 1990, Mahbub Ul Haq and Amartya Sen put forth the concept of the Human Development Index (HDI). United National Development Programme. (UNDP) publishes a list of countries based on HDI scores every year.

Human Development Index:
The Human Development Index holds an important place in the study of human conditions related to international economic development. Today, it is commonly accepted that only economic prosperity does not mean development. This is not just the expectation of individuals but also a region or a country. The human development index is used as a yardstick to measure regional development. While computing this index, three main parameters have been considered.

• Economic Parameter (Standard of Living)
• Health Parameter (Life Expectancy)
• Education Parameter (Number of Years of Schooling)

The values of the Human Development Index range from 0 to 1. Highly developed regions have a value close to 1 and as the level of development goes down, the value of the HDI decreases. In an area with very little development, the value of the index is close to zero.

Density of Population in Maharashtra:
While considering the district-wise density of the population in Maharashtra, the following features stand out. Population density is less in the eastern districts of Maharashtra, while they are higher in the western districts. Higher density indicates urbanization and higher levels of industrialization. Therefore Mumbai city district and Mumbai suburb district, Thane, Pune, and Nagpur districts have higher density. The rainshadow districts as well as the districts in the extreme east which are densely forested show less density.

Information about many parameters related to population is obtained through actual surveys. These surveys are called censuses. In India, these surveys are conducted once in ten years at the start of the decade. The latest census was conducted in 2011. The statistical information obtained through these surveys is classified, presented graphically, and used in comparative studies and planning.

Comprehensive Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Geography Notes Population can help students make connections between concepts.