Land Use Class 8 Geography Notes Maharashtra State Board
Land use is the way or purpose for which land in a region is used. The interaction between geographical factors and man has resulted in land use. Land use changes with time. As man’s needs have increased the use of land for different purposes has also increased. Mineral-rich land is used for mining. Fertile plains are used for agriculture
Types of Land Use
Rural Land Use:
In rural areas, agriculture is the main occupation. Agro-based activities are also common in rural areas. This influences the location of the rural settlements. Hence these settlements are located close to the agricultural fields and forest areas. The settlements of miners are close to the mining areas while fishermen’s settlements are near the seashore. In rural areas, the availability of land is more and the population is less, hence population is sparse. In rural areas, the extent of residential areas is less. Land use in the rural areas can be classified in the following manner.
This is the land under cultivation. Normally this land is under individual ownership. This land can be classified as per the ownership of the land and types of agriculture.
This is agricultural land that is temporarily not in use. To improve the fertility of the soil, the farmer does not use a part of his agricultural land for one or two seasons.
A demarcated forest area is also a type of rural land use. From this area forest products like firewood, gum, and grass are obtained. Forests comprise large trees, bushes, creepers, and grass.
This land is under the ownership of the village Panchayat or the government and is used for grazing purposes. This land belongs to the entire village. Very little grassland is under individual ownership.
Urban Land Use:
There has been an increase in urban settlements in the twentieth century. In urban areas, land is used for different purposes. It is necessary to make maximum use of the land. In urban areas concerning population, the land is limited. Therefore the distribution of population is dense. Urban land use can be classified in the following manner.
Commercial Land Use:
Some parts of cities are only used for commercial purposes. In these areas, there are many shops, banks, and offices. This has given rise to the concept of the Central Business District (CBD). For example, In Mumbai, the Fort Area or the BKC (Bandra Kurla Complex)
Residential Land Use:
Here the main land use is for residential purposes. In this area houses and residential buildings are included. Since the population is more in the urban areas, residential land use has increased.
Transport Land Use:
In urban areas, transportation facilities are important for the movement of goods and people. For this purpose, different transportation facilities are found in cities like public bus stops, railway lines, metro, monorail, commercial vehicles, etc. In addition to this, the number of private vehicles is also large. Hence in cities roads, railway lines, stations, petrol pumps, transport depots, and vehicle repair centers occupy large areas. These are included in the transport land use.
Public Utility Area:
For the various needs of the population, some services are provided by the local governing bodies, state government, or central government. The area under these services comes under this category eg. hospitals, post offices, police stations, police grounds, schools, colleges, universities, etc. The land use under the category is important. These services diffuse the tensions caused by to burgeoning population.
Recreational Land Use:
In cities, some areas have to be specially reserved for the entertainment of the population. The use of such spaces is mainly for fields, gardens, swimming pools, theatres, etc.
Mixed Land Use:
In some areas, we find all these uses together. Such areas are said to have mixed land uses. Eg. residential areas and entertainment areas. On maps, special colours are used to indicate such areas. Red-residential, Blue-Commercial, Yellow- agricultural, and Green- Forest areas.
Transitional Areas and Suburbs:
Rural settlements start outside the boundary areas of urban settlements. But the intermediate area in between is called the transitional area. In this area, there is a blend of rural and urban land use. In these areas land use is of a mixed nature. In this zone, cultural activities are also of a mixed type. Over time this area is converted into an urban area and these regions become suburbs eg. Bandra, Bhandup, etc. are suburbs of Mumbai city.
After the Industrial Revolution, urbanization occurred on a large scale throughout the world. Since this urbanization was not well planned, cities began to grow haphazardly. Because of employment opportunities there, a large-scale migration to cities occured. As a result, the availability of land is always a serious problem in cities. A lot of diversity is visible in the land use of cities. Limited land, varied land uses, and burgeoning cities resulted in the thought of having planned cities for the future. Even before a city grows, its land use is pre-determined and a planned layout is prepared. Accordingly, the cities are developed. Singapore, Seoul (South Korea), Zurich (Switzerland), Washington D.C. (USA), Brasilia (Brazil), Chandigarh, Bhubaneswar (India), etc. are all examples of planned cities.
You may have realized that in different countries, the percentage under various land uses differs. Based on the availability of land the population of a country, its quality and needs, land use types vary. In Japan for example the percentage of land under forests is more and the percentage under permanent agriculture is very low. Compared to India the percentage of land under forest is low while the percentage under permanent agriculture is high.
Ownership of Land and Ownership Rights
Under land utilization, we have seen how land is put to different uses. The ownership of land could be private or public. Land registration in this context is done under the revenue department of the government. All the information about the registered land can be obtained from the revenue department in the 7/12 extract. Let us get some information about this. One can get to know under whose ownership the land is from the 7/12 extract. The extract is a record kept by the Public Revenue Department. Serial Numbers 7 and 12 are distinctive sections of the law about the ownership of land.
The seven-by-twelve extract is a kind of mirror about the land. This is because just by reading the extract sitting in one place one can get complete information about that piece of land without actually going there. The register of the revenue department records the details of the ownership rights of the family, the status of debts and loans, transfer of ownership, and the area under different crops. ‘Village Form’ No.7 and ‘Village Form’ No.12 are combined to prepare a 7/12 extract, hence it is termed 7/12 extract. These village forms are available with the talathi of every village for land and revenue collection purposes.
How is the 7/12 Extract Read?
Occupant class 1 means the land over which ownership rights are available through generations. This is ancestral property. Occupant Class 2 means the land given by the government to marginal farmers or landless people. Such land can be sold, leased, pledged, given as charity, or transferred only with the sanction of the district collector. Below that under “Assessment” the amount of tax is Rs/Paise. In “other rights” the names of other joint holders are included. This also shows the status of loans taken for agriculture and whether they have been repaid or not.
Ownership of nonagricultural land is recorded on the property card. This document showing ownership rights and the area of the property is made available from urban land records. It has the following information – city survey number, plot number, amount of tax, area of the property assessed, right to access, etc.
Factors Affecting Land Use
Rural Land Use:
- Type of Slope
- Irrigation Facilities
- Natural Resources
- Government Policies
Urban Land Use:
- Location and Site
- Natural Resources
- Housing Development Policies
- Transportation Routes
- Trade and Commerce
- Playgrounds and Entertainment Facilities
- Government Policies
Maharashtra State Board Class 8 Geography Notes Land Use can be used for revisiting and reinforcing previously learned content.