Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Class 7 History Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Complete the following chart:

Question 1.

Village (Mauja) Kasba Pargana
What it means ……… …………. ………….
Officers …………….. …………….. ……………..
Example ……….. ………….. …………….

Answer:

Village (Mauja) Kasba Pargana
What it means A small village A big village Group of Villages
Officers Patil Kulkarni The Shete
The Mahajan
The Deshmukh
TheDeshpande
Example Bavdhan Wai Kasba of Wai Pargana The Pune Paragana

2. Write the meaning:

Maharashtra Before The Time Of Shivaji Maharaj Question Answer Question 1.
Budruk
Answer:
(i) ‘Badruk’ is a suffix added to the name of the village, which indicated that the village was independent.
(ii) The original town was called Budruk.
(iii) Example: Vadgaon Budruk.

Maharashtra Before Shivaji Question 2.
Baluta
Answer:
(i) A share of the agricultural produce paid by peasants to the artisans for their services to the villagers.
(ii) This share was known as Baluta.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Maharashtra Before The Times Of Shivaji Maharaj Question 3.
Vatan
Answer:
Vatan is an Arabic word. In Maharashtra it is used to refer to hereditary land to which the holder does not have to pay revenue.

3. Find out and write:

Maharashtra Before Shivaji Maharaj Question 1.
People from Africa who had settled along the Konkan coastline –
Answer:
Siddi

Maharashtra Before Shivaji Question Answer Question 2.
The author of ‘Amrutanubhav’ –
Answer:
Sant Dnyaneshwar

Maharashtra Before Shivaji, Question And Answer Question 3.
The place where Sant Tukaram belonged to –
Answer:
Dehu near Pune

Question 4.
He composed Bharuds –
Answer:
Sant Eknath

Question 5.
He explained the importance of physical fitness
Answer:
Sant Ramdas

Question 6.
Women Sants –
Answer:
Sant Soyrabai, Sant Nirmalabai, Sant Muktabai, Sant Janabai

Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

4. Write about these personalities and their work in your own words:

Question 1.
Sant Namdeo
Answer:

  • Sant Namdeo was a great saint of the Varkari movement.
  • He awakened the sense of equality in men and women belonging to all castes through the medium of his excellent Keertan.
  • His abhanga compositions are well-known.
  • He travelled to Punjab and propagated his thoughts.
  • His compositions are included in the ‘Guru Grant Sahib’ of the Sikhs.
  • He propagated the message of Bhagwat religion (from village to village) in all quarters.

Question 2.
Sant Dnyaneshwar
Answer:

  • Sant Dnyaneshwar wrote the ‘Bhavartha- deepika’ or ‘Dnyaneshwari’.
  • He also composed Amrutanubhav.
  • He showed a simple way of worship and conduct which the common people could follow easily.
  • His ‘Pasayadaan in Dnyaneshwari uplifts the mind.

Question 3.
Sant Eknath
Answer:

  • His compositions include abhanga, gavalana, bharud, etc.
  • He had stated the Bhagvat Dharma in detail in a simple manner.
  • His abhangas show the warmth of devotion.
  • He presented people’s life in Bhavarth Ramayana.
  • He believed that the Marathi language was inferior to no other language.

Question 4.
Sant Tukaram
Answer:

  • Sant Tukaram belonged to Dehu near Pune.
  • His compositions or abhangas are very pleasing and lucid, reaching the greatest poetic heights.
  • His ‘Gatha’ is a precious treasure of the Marathi language.
  • He freed many poor families from the bonds of loan.
  • He criticized the prevalent hypocrisy and superstitions in the society.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

5. Why were droughts a great calamity for the people?
Answer:
The droughts were a great calamity for the people because:

  • The prices of food grain had risen.
  • There was a severe scarcity of food grains.
  • Entire families were destroyed.
  • There was no fodder for cattle.
  • Water became scarce.
  • Cattle and farm animals died.
  • Agriculture was completely ruined.
  • All financial transactions came to a standstill.

Activities

  1. Plan how you will help a Varkari Dindi.
  2. Dress up as Sants and present their compositions.

Class 7 History Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj Additional Important Questions and Answers

Complete the sentence by choosing the appropriate word from the options given below:

Question 1.
______ was made up of many villages. (Mauja, Kasba, Pargana)
Answer:
Pargana

Question 2.
The chief of the village was the ______ (Patil, Kulkarni, Mahajan)
Answer:
Patil

Question 3.
The ______ was the chief of Patils in Pargana. (Deshpande, Deshmukh, Kulkarni)
Answer:
Deshmukh

Question 4.
The compositions of _______ are included in the ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ of Sikhs. (Sant Namdeo, Sant Eknath, Sant Tukaram)
Answer:
Sant Namdeo

Question 5.
__________ was the main occupation of people. (Fishing, Pottery, Agriculture)
Answer:
Agriculture

Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Question 6.
Pune was a big Pargana consisting of ______ villages. (64,290,40)
Answer:
290

Question 7.
‘Amrutanubhav’ was composed by _______ . (Sant Eknath, Sant Namdeo, Sant Dnyaneshwar)
Answer:
Sant Dnyaneshwar

Question 8.
A great famine occured in Maharashtra in ________ CE. (1630,1635,1648)
Answer:
1630

Question 9.
The Mahajan maintained the accounts of the _______. (Kasba, Peth, Mauja)
Answer:
Peth

Question 10.
________ is a precious treasure of the Marathilanguage. (Gatha, Abhanga, Keertans)
Answer:
Gatha

Question 11.
The headquarters of a pargana was called _______. (Peth, Kasba, Mauja)
Answer:
Kasba

Question 12.
Sant Dnyaneshwar’s _______ in Dnyaneshwari uplifts the mind. (Pasayadaan, Gaulana, Gatha)
Answer:
Pasayadaan

Question 13.
________ was at the centre of the Sant movement. (Pandharpur, Dehu, Peth)
Answer:
Pandharpur

Question 14.
________ criticized the hypocrisy and superstition in the society in very strong terms. (Sant Tukaram, Sant Dnyaneshwar, Sant Eknath)
Answer:
Sant Tukaram

Question 15.
______officers were the link between the people and the government. (Mahajan, Watandar, Kasba)
Answer:
Watandar

Question 16.
A ______ was a big village and the headquarters of the Pargana. (Kasba, Mauja, Peth)
Answer:
Kasba

Question 17.
Chakan Pargana had _______ villages and Shirwal had only ______ villages.
(64, 40, 290)
Answer:
64, 40

Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Question 18.
Sant _______ composed abhanga, gavalana, bharud, etc. (Eknath, Namdeo, Dnyaneshwar)
Answer:
Eknath

Match the following:

Question 1.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(1) The Deshmukh

(2) The Deshpande

(3) The Kulkarni

(4) The Patil

(a)   Maintained peace in the village.

(b)     Maintained record of the revenue.

(c)   Chief of the Kulkarnis.

(d)  Chief of the Patils.

Answer:
1 – d
2 – c
3 – b
4 – a

Question 2.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(1) Mauja (a) A big village
(2) Kasba (b) A small village
(3) Pargana (c) A market
(4) Peth (d) Many villages together

Answer:
1 – b
2 – a
3 – d
4 – c

Question 3.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(1) Sant Namdeo (a) He composed the ‘Amrutanubhav’.
(2) Sant Dnyaneshwar (b) He built a memorial to Sant Chokhamela at Pandharpur.
(3) Sant Eknath (c) His Gatha is a precious treasure of Marathi language.
(4) Sant Tukaram (d) He believed that the Marathi language was inferior to no other language.

Answer:
1 – b
2 – a
3 – d
4 – c

Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Find out and write:

Question 1.
The headquarters of a Pargana –
Answer:
Kasha

Question 2.
Watandars of the Peth –
Answer:
The Shete and the Mahajan

Question 3.
A peth established in the name of Shivaji Maharaj –
Answer:
Shivapur

Question 4.
He was from Jamb in Marathwada –
Answer:
Ramdas Swami

Explain the meanings of:

Question 1.
Abhanga
Answer:
Abhanga is a form of devotional poetry sung in praise of the Hindu God.

Question 2.
Dnyaneshwari
Answer:
Dnyaneshwari is the first book to describe the translation of Bhagavad Gita from Sanskrit to Marathi.

Question 3.
Kasba
Answer:
A Kasba was like a big village. It was usually the headquarters of a Pargana. For e.g. Wai kasba of Wai parganas were the headquarter of those Parganas.

Question 4.
Watandar Officers
Answer:
Watandar officers were the link between the people and the government.

Answer the following question in one sentence:

Question 1.
What work did Sant Dnyaneshwar compose?
Answer:
Sant Dnyaneshwar composed Bhavartha-deepika or Dnyaneshwari and Amrutanubhav.

Question 2.
How were the compositions or abhangas of Sant Tukaram?
Answer:
The compositions or abhangas of Sant Tukaram were very pleasing and lucid thereby reaching the greatest poetic heights.

Question 3.
Who were the disciples of Sant Tukaram?
Answer:
Sant Tukaram’s disciples were of different castes and creeds.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Question 4.
Name a few associates of Sant Tukaram.
Answer:
The associates of Sant Tukaram included Navji Mali, Gavnarshet Wani, Shivba Kasar, Santaji Jagnade, Mahadajipant Kulkami and Bahinabai Siurkar.

Question 5.
What was the duty of the Patil in the village?
Answer:
The duty of the Patil was to settle any disputes and maintain peace.

Question 6.
What was Baluta?
Answer:
The peasants gave a share of their agricultural produce to the artisans for their services to the village community. This share was known as Baluta.

Question 7.
Who were the Deshmukhs and Deshpandes?
Answer:
The Deshmukhs and the Deshpandes were the Watandar officers of the Pargana. The Deshmukh was the chief of Patils and the Deshpande was the chief of Kulkamis in the Pargana.

Question 8.
Who were called ‘Topikar’?
Answer:
The Portuguese, the British, the French and the Dutch who had come from Europe were facing intense rivalry during the period. There was stiff competition amongst them to capture the market for trade. These different people from Europe on the basis of their customary headgear were called ‘Topikar’.

Question 9.
Which European powers had a stiff competition amongst them to capture the markets for trade in Maharashtra?
Answer:
The Portuguese, Dutch, British and the French had a stiff competition amongst them to capture the markets for trade in Maharashtra.

Question 10.
Which social evils greatly influenced society in the times before Shivaji Maharaj?
Answer:
Blind beliefs and rituals greatly influenced society in the times before Shivaji Maharaj.

Answer the following in brief:

Question 1.
Who were the Watandars and how did they misuse their power?
Answer:
(i) Watandars were the officers. They were the link between the people and the government.
(ii) At the time of invasion from the enemy or drought, they represented the grievance to the government.
(iii) Sometimes, watandars collected more money from the people and did not send it to the government in time.
(iv) So, the people suffered harassment.

Question 2.
Contribution of the Sants:
Answer:
(i) Sants gave the message of equality and taught humanity.
(ii) They preached that people should live together in harmony, unity and love.
(iii) They created self confidence, amongst the people of Maharashtra.
(iv) They taught the true meaning of religion.
(v) They showed the path of devotion by living amongst the people and sharing their joys and sorrow.

Let’s Discuss:

Collect more information about the Pandharpur Vari and discuss the following topic.
Question 1.
In which month do the Varkaris go on the vari?
Answer:
On Ashadhi Ekadashi, that is in the month of July.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 History Solutions Chapter 4 Maharashtra before the Times of Shivaji Maharaj

Question 2.
How is the vari planned?
Answer:
(i) The whole group is divided into sub group called as Dindi.
(ii) Each Dindi has 100 to 500 members.
(iii) The Palkhi is at the centre of the vari and the Dindi are ahead.
(iv) The time table of vari route is published in advance and followed.
(v) All the details are given before, the locations, breaks including lunch, rest, night stay location etc.
(vi) Every dindi has one truck or vehicle to carry luggage and food material.
(vii) The tents are set up and food is prepared before the dindi arrives at the location.
(viii) The dindi’s even decides the sequences of the Abhang to be sung.
(ix) The Doctors also devote 21 days in the Vari and take care of the members health.
In this way the Vari is well planned in advance.

Question 3.
Plan how you will help a Varkari Dindi
Answer:
(i) Arranging drinking water on the route for the Varkaris.
(ii) I will make a list of the things which needs to be arranged and then make the necessary arrangements accordingly.

Question 4.
A few lines said by the Sants have been given in Marathi in this chapter. Try to find their meaning by taking the help of your teacher, parents, internet, books, etc.
Answer:
(i) Translation: Dance to the time of Keertans. Light the lamps of knowledge in the world.
Meaning: Sant Namdeo asks to spread knowledge in the world through Keertans.

(ii) Translation: Sanskrit language is made by God Then is Prakrit made by thieves?
Meaning: The scriptures were in Sanskrit and only priests could read scriptures in Pre-Shivaji’s times. Sant Eknath said that all languages were languages of God.

(iii) Translation: The one who calls the tormented and unhappy people as their own, Only he is a true saint. There is God only there.
Meaning: Sant Tukaram says that a true saint calls the weak and tormented people as their own. And God resides only at such places.

(iv) Translation: Gather wealth by ideal actions, spend it seriously
Meaning: Sant Tukaram says that a person should not earn by wrong methods and should not spend wealth carelessly.

(v) Translation: Tukaram says only he is a saint who shares sorrows of the world.
Meaning: Sant Tukaram says that only a person who reduces the sorrow from this world is a true saint.

(vi) Translation: Onions, raddish, vegetables, There resides my God.
Meaning: Sant Sawata says in these lines that God resides in all things in life including farm work.

(vii) Translation: Gather all the Marathas, Propagate Maharashtra religion.
Meaning: Ramdas Swami asks the Maratha people to be united and spread their culture.

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