Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Class 7 Science Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Write the appropriate terms in the blanks:

Question a.
The alloys called …………. and …………. are used for making industrial magnets.
Answer:
alnico, Nipermag

Question b.
A magnetic field can pass through ………… and …………. .
Answer:
cardboard, bottle

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question c.
The intensity of a magnetic field is indicated by the lines of …………. .
Answer:
force

Question d.
The real test of a magnet is ……………… .
Answer:
repulsion

2. With whom should I pair up?

Question a.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Compass a. The highest magnetic force
2. Door of a cupboard b. Like poles
3. Repulsion c. A magnet
4. Magnetic pole d. A magnetic needle

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Compass d. A magnetic needle
2. Door of a cupboard c. A magnet
3. Repulsion b. Like poles
4. Magnetic pole a. The highest magnetic force

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

3. Write answers to the following questions:

Question a.
Distinguish between the two methods of making artificial magnets
Answer:

Single touch method Double touch method
1. In this method, one magnet is used to magnetise the steel bar. 1. In this method, two magnets are used to magnetise the steel bar.
2. In this method, the magnet is dragged from one end of the steel bar to another end. 2. In this method, two magnets are dragged from the middle of the steel bar to the opposite directions.
3. As only one magnet is used to induce magnetism, this method is called single touch method. 3. As two bar magnets are used to induce magnetism, this method is called double-touch method.
4. The magnetism created by this method is of low strength and lasts for a short time. 4. The magnetism created by this method is of high strength and lasts for a longer time.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question b.
Which substances are used for making electromagnets?
Answer:
The substances used for making electromagnets are, an iron nail, insulated copper wire, one or more batteries and a pair of wire strippers.

Question c.
Write a note on magnetic field
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field 1

  1. The region around a magnet where the magnetic force acts on an object is called a magnetic field.
  2. The magnetic field around a magnet can be shown by means of magnetic lines of force.
  3. The intensity of the magnetic field can be obtained from the number of lines of force.
  4. The intensity of a magnetic field is low where the lines of force are sparse and the intensity is high where the lines of force are concentrated.
  5. A magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials.
  6. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both the direction and the magnitude.
  7. Magnetic fields are produced by electric current.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question d.
Why is a magnetic needle used in a compass?
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field 2

  1. The magnetic compass is the most familiar compass type.
  2. It functions as a pointer to magnetic ‘north’ the local magnetic meridian, because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself with the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field.
  3. A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal direction.

Question e.
Explain with the help of a diagram how the intensity and direction of the magnetic field of a bar magnet can be determined.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field 1

  1. The region around a magnet where the magnetic force acts on an object is called a magnetic field.
  2. The magnetic field around a magnet can be shown by means of magnetic lines of force.
  3. The intensity of the magnetic field can be obtained from the number of lines of force.
  4. The intensity of a magnetic field is low where the lines of force are sparse and the intensity is high where the lines of force are concentrated.
  5. A magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials.
  6. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both the direction and the magnitude.
  7. Magnetic fields are produced by electric current.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

4. Give detailed information about how the merchants of olden times used a magnet while travelling.

Question a.
Give detailed information about how the merchants of olden times used a magnet while travelling.
Answer:

  1. The merchants of older times used a magnet whose north-south side was known.
  2. When the magnet is freely suspended, the north pole of the magnet settles in the direction of the geographic north pole of the earth.
  3. This is how the merchants come to know the directions while travelling.
  4. The idea for using loadstone in a compass first appeared in China.
  5. The first compass were made of loadstone, a naturally magnetised ore of iron.
  6. The Chinese used “south pointing spoon” which when thrown upon the ground comes to rest pointing at the south.
  7. Then the transition was made from loadstone spoons to iron needles.
  8. In the medieval period a magnetic needle in the shape of a fish, floating in the bowl of water was used as a compass, pointing south.
  9. It was called floating compass.
  10. In the twentieth century, liquid filled magnetic compass began to appear.
  11. There is a lesser known compass called dry mariners compass.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Project:

Question a.
Obtain information about the function of metal detectors.

Class 7 Science Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field Important Questions and Answers

Write the appropriate terms in the blanks:

Question 1.
The magnetic lines of force always run from the north pole to the ……………. .
Answer:
south pole

Question 2.
The unit of magnetic field strength is …………….. .
Answer:
A/M (Amperes per metre)

Question 3.
The earth behaves like a giant ………… .
Answer:
barmagnet

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 4.
The ……………. properties of magnetic field was proposed by scientist
Answer:
Michael Faraday

Question 5.
The region around a magnet where the magnetic force acts on an object is called the …………. .
Answer:
magnetic field

Question 6.
The ……………. of the magnetic field can be obtained from the number of lines of force.
Answer:
strength

Question 7.
The function of the metal detector is based on ………… .
Answer:
electromagnets

Question 8.
The magnetism is ………….. in the case of an electromagnet.
Answer:
temporary

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Match the following:

Question 1.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Iron, nickel, cobalt a. Electromagnet
2. Doorbell magnet b. Permanent magnet
3. Nickel, cobalt, aluminium c. Iron, nickel, titanium, aluminium
4. Cupboard magnet d. Magnetic metals
5. Lodestone e. Mariner’s compass
6. Nipermag f. Alnico

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Iron, nickel, cobalt d. Magnetic metals
2. Doorbell magnet a. Electromagnet
3. Nickel, cobalt, aluminium f. Alnico
4. Cupboard magnet b. Permanent magnet
5. Lodestone e. Mariner’s compass
6. Nipermag c. Iron, nickel, titanium, aluminium

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Write True or False correct and rewrite the false statements:

Question 1.
Material alnico is a mixture of aluminium, nickel and iron.
Answer:
False. Alnico is an alloy of aluminium, nickel and cobalt

Question 2.
Nipermag is alloy of iron, nickel, cobalt.
Answer:
False. Nipermag is an alloy of iron, nickel, aluminium and titanium

Question 3.
The magnetic force is concentrated at the centre of the magnet.
Answer:
False. The magnetic force is concentrated at the poles of the magnet.

Question 4.
Magnetism of electromagnet is permanent.
Answer:
False. Magnetism of electromagnet is temporary

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 5.
Like poles attract each other and unlike poles repel each other.
Answer:
False. Like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other

Question 6.
Two poles of a magnet cannot be separated from each other.
Answer:
True.

Answer in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
In which direction does a freely suspended magnet settle?
Answer:
The north pole of a freely suspended magnet settles in the direction of the geographic north pole of the earth. It settles in north-south direction.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 2.
Write any two functions of metal detectors.
Answer:

  1. Metal detectors are used in very important places like an airport, bus station, certain temples and buildings to inspect those who are entering these places.
  2. To detect very precious articles.

Question 3.
Which magnetic poles attract each other?
Answer:
Opposite magnetic poles attract each other.

Question 4.
What metals are used for making magnets?
Answer:

  1. Magnets are made from alloys of iron, cobalt and nickel.
  2. Nipermag is an alloy made up of iron, nickel, aluminium and titanium whereas alnico is an alloy made up of aluminium, nickel and cobalt.

Give scientific reasons:

Question 1.
Earth is called as a gigantic magnet.
Answer:

  1. The earth is called as a gigantic magnet because north pole of a freely suspended magnet always settles in the direction of the geographic north pole of the earth.
  2. It means that the South pole of some gigantic magnet must be near the geographic north pole of that magnet, near the geographic south pole of the earth.
  3. Gilbert inferred from this that the earth itself is a gigantic magnet.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 2.
A bar magnet kept on the cardboard arranges the iron fillings in line.
Answer:

  1. A bar magnet kept on the cardboard arranges the iron fillings in line because of the ‘magnetic lines of force’.
  2. These magnetic lines gauge the intensity of the bar magnet.
  3. The intensity of the magnetic field is low where the lines of force are sparse and the intensity is high where the lines of force are concentrated.
  4. Therefore, the iron fillings arrange themselves according to intensity of the magnetic lines of force.

Write short note on:

Question 1.
Functions of metal detector.
Answer:

  1. A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metals nearby.
  2. The function of these machines is based on electromagnets.
  3. Metal detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects, or metal objects buried underground.
  4. They often consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the ground or other objects.
  5. Metal detectors in the food manufacturing industry are used to detect and eliminate threats of metal contaminants in food.
  6. Metal detectors are used in very important places like an airport, bus station, temples, hospitals, railway stations, theaters, malls.
  7. They are used for inspection of persons entering these places.
  8. In geology, these machines are used to detect the presence and quantity of metals.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 2.
Write down the characteristics of magnets.
Answer:

  1. A freely suspended magnet settles in the north- south direction always.
  2. Magnets attract objects of iron, cobalt and nickel.
  3. The force of attraction of a magnet is greater at its poles than in the middle.
  4. Like poles of two magnets repel each other.
  5. Opposite poles of two magnets attract each other.
  6. If a bar magnet is suspended by a thread and if it is free to rotate its south pole will move towards the north pole of the earth.

Question 3.
Characteristic of magnetic lines of force
Answer:

  1. Magnetic lines of force start from the north pole and end at the south pole.
  2. They are continuous through the body of magnet. These are imaginary lines.
  3. Magnetic lines of force can pass through iron more easily than air
  4. The number of magnetic lines force determines the strength of the magnetic field at a particular point.
  5. Two magnetic lines of force do not intersect each other.
  6. They contract longitudinally and expand laterally.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Can you tell?

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Why does freely suspended magnet always settle in the north-south direction?
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field 3

  1. Gilbert gave a scientific explanation that earth itself is a gigantic magnet.
  2. The north pole of a freely suspended magnet settles in the direction of the geographic north pole of the earth since unlike poles attract.
  3. It means that the south pole of some gigantic magnet must be near the geographic north pole of the earth.
  4. In other words, the thing we call Earth’s geographic north pole is actually the south pole of the magnet inside the earth.
  5. That is why a freely suspended magnet always settles in geographic north-south attracted by opposite poles of the earth as a great magnet.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 2.
Which magnetic poles attract each other?
Answer:
Opposite magnet poles attract each other.

Question 3.
Which pole of a spherical magnet will get attracted towards the south pole of the bar magnet?
Answer:
The north pole of the spherical magnet will get attracted towards the south pole of the bar magnet.

Question 4.
Why does a bar magnet kept at a distance doesn’t attract pins?
Answer:

  1. The region around the magnet where the magnetic force acts is known as the magnetic field.
  2. It has its influence over a certain distance where these magnetic lines of force act.
  3. As these pins are outside this area of influence, a bar magnet does not attract those pins which are at a distance.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 5.
What is an electromagnet?
Answer:

  1. A soft metal core made into a magnet by the passage of electric current through a coil surrounding it is called an electromagnet.
  2. An electromagnet is a magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by electricity.
  3. The strength of an electromagnet can easily be changed by changing the amount of electric current that flows through it.
  4. The poles of an electromagnet can even be reversed by reversing the flow of electricity.
  5. An electromagnet works because an electric current produces a magnetic field.
  6. The magnetic field produced by electric current forms circles around the electric current.
  7. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off.

Question 6.
How can an electromagnet be made?
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field 4

  1. It is easy to make an electromagnet. To make an electromagnet we needs an iron nail of 10 cm length 1 metre long insulated copper wire, a battery cell, pins.
  2. Neatly wrap some insulated copper wire around an iron nail.
  3. The more wires you wrap around the nail, the stronger will be the electromagnet.
  4. Attach a battery to the wire, an electric current will begin to flow and the iron nail will become magnetised.
  5. When the battery is disconnected the iron nail will lose its magnetism.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Use your brainpower!

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Which direction will a magnetic needle show on the geographic north pole?
Answer:
North, all magnetic needle will show north direction.

Question 2.
Is magnetic force a vector or a scalar quantity?
Answer:

  1. It is a vector quantity. Because a magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric current and magnetic materials.
  2. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both direction and magnitude as such it is represented by a vector field.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 3.
What is meant by magnetic force?
Answer:

  1. The magnetic force, is a consequence of the electromagnet force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature.
  2. It occurs whenever objects interact in which there is charge in motion, eg. compass, a motor.
  3. Magnetic force is an attraction or repulsion that arises between electrically charged particles because of their motion.

Question 4.
How does a magnetic force act without direct contact?
Answer:
Magnetic force acts without even direct contact because of the penetrating ability of the magnetic field.

Question 5.
What is the difference between the gravitational force and magnetic force?
Answer:

Gravitational Force Magnetic Force
1. Gravitational force acts between any objects with mass. 1. Magnetic force acts between objects with specific properties.
2. It depends on the mass of the objects. 2. It does not depend on the mass of objects.
3. It acts over long-range as a gravitational field is large. 3. It acts over short-range as magnetic field is short.
4. Object are always attracted to each other. 4. Objects are either attracted or repelled.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 6.
Why is repulsion the real test for identifying a magnet?
Answer:
A magnet can attract the opposite pole of the magnet as well as magnetic substances (iron, cobalt, nickel).
So if a magnet attracts another object, we cannot say that other object is a magnet or a magnetic substance.
But if the magnet repels the object then we can surely say that the other object is a magnet because like poles of magnets repel each other.

Question 7.
How will you find a magnet from among the various articles given to you?
Answer:

  1. Magnet has the property to attract things made of iron, cobalt, nickel.
  2. A magnet has magnetic field which is invisible but it has the property of attracting, pulling other
  3. ferromagnetic material such as iron, cobalt and nickle.
  4. So if we bring any iron, nickle objects near it, they will be pulled toward the magnet.
  5. The real test is repulsion.
  6. The article which shows repulsion when one of the poles of a magnet is brought near is surely a magnet.

Find out:

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Why does the magnetic needle of a compass not settle parallel to the ground but at an angle to it?
Answer:

  1. Freely suspended magnet does not point to north, but aligns to earth’s magnetic field axially ie – north-south.
  2. The magnetic pole of the earth is different from true north (geographic north) because the magnetic north is constantly changing.
  3. It leads to a margin of error called declination in which there is an angle of difference (11.51)° between Magnetic North and True North.
  4. That is the reason the magnetic needle does not settle parallel to the ground.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Observe the diagrams and answer the questions given below:
Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field 5

Question 1.
Name the methods shown.
Answer:
Single touch and Double touch methods of magnetising a steel bar.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 19 Properties of a Magnetic Field

Question 2.
Give 2 points of difference between the methods.
Answer:

Single touch method Double touch method
1. In this method, one magnet is used to magnetise the steel bar. 1. In this method, two magnets are used to magnetise the steel bar.
2. In this method, the magnet is dragged from one end of the steel bar to another end. 2. In this method, two magnets are dragged from the middle of the steel bar to the opposite directions.
3. As only one magnet is used to induce magnetism, this method is called single touch method. 3. As two bar magnets are used to induce magnetism, this method is called double-touch method.
4. The magnetism created by this method is of low strength and lasts for a short time. 4. The magnetism created by this method is of high strength and lasts for a longer time.

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