Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes – Physical and Chemical

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes – Physical and Chemical Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes – Physical and Chemical

Class 7 Science Chapter 13 Changes – Physical and Chemical Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Distinguish between the following.

Question a.
Physical change and Chemical change
Answer:

Physical changes Chemical changes
1. In a physical change material may change its 1. A change which after physical properties and
shape, size, texture or state. composition also.
2. No new compound is formed. 2. New compound /substance is formed due to chemical change.
3. The change is temporary. It is reversible. 3. The change is permanent and irreversible.
4. Examples: Evaporation of water, boiling of water, melting of ice. 4. Examples: Burning of wood, paper, souring of milk, digestion of food, rusting of iron.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question b.
Periodic changes and Non-periodic change
Answer:

Periodic changes Non-periodic change
1. Some changes occur again and again after a definite interval of time. Such changes are called periodic changes. 1. In this, certain changes will recur after one occurrence, it cannot be said for sure, even if they occur interval is not fixed. Such changes are called non-periodic changes.
2.  Examples: movement of clock hands in clock showing time, change of season, day and night formation, heart beat, ripening of fruit, rising and setting of the sun. 2. Examples: volcanic eruption, occurrence of an earthquake, tsunami, forest fires, freezing of water to form ice, sneezing, rusting of iron.
3. They repeat themselves after a fixed interval of time. 3. They do not repeat themselves after a fixed interval of time.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question c.
Natural change and Man-made change
Answer:

Natural change Man-made change
1. Changes that occur naturally on its own are called natural changes. 1. Changes that are result of human activity. Such changes are called man-made.
2. Examples ripening of a fruit, spoiling of milk, change in the climate 2. Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, pollution of air, water and soil.

2. Under which different types can the following changes be classified?

Question a.
Conversion of milk into yoghurt.
Answer:
Manmade (useful).

Question b.
Bursting of cracker.
Answer:
Manmade (fast change).

Question c.
Occurrence of an earthquake.
Answer:
Non-periodic.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question d.
Revolution of earth around the sun.
Answer:
Periodic. (Natural change)

Question e.
Stretching of a spring.
Answer:
Physical, reversible change.

3. Give reasons.

Question a.
While purchasing canned food, its expiry date should be checked.
Answer:

  1. Canned food is processed food.
  2. After certain period of time it may get spoilt due to some growth of micro-organism it may get intoxicated.
  3. If we consume such food we may get food poisoning, so we should check the expiry date.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question b.
An iron article should be given a coat of paint.
Answer:

  1. When an iron article is kept for long time it gets corroded due to presence of oxygen in atmosphere.
  2. Iron gets oxidized to iron oxide which forms a reddish brown layer on it and iron gets rusted.
  3. It is called corrosion. Due to corrosion things become weak.
  4. So an iron article should be given a coat of paint so that it is protected against corrosion.
  5. Paint gives protection to iron.

Question c.
A Wooden article should be polished.
Answer:

  1. When a wooden article comes in contact with moisture there is possibility of fungal growth and also termites will make wooden article brittle and break.
  2. So a wooden article should be polished which forms a protective layer.
  3. It does not allow the wooden article to get decayed by moisture or attacked by termite.

Question d.
Copper and brass utensils should be tinned.
Answer:

  1. Due to corrosion of copper or brass a greenish layer is seen to form on it.
  2. So to protect copper and brass utensils from corrosion they are coated with tin.
  3. This process is called thinning.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question e.
A dry handkerchief gets wet at once on dipping in water, but it takes long for a wet handkerchief to dry.
Answer:

  1. The dry fibres of handkerchief absorbs water to its maximum capacity immediately that is why handkerchief gets wet at once.
  2. When wet handkerchief dries, all the water absorbed has to become water vapour by evaporation.
  3. This depends on surrounding air and heat.
  4. That is why wet handkerchief takes a long time to dry.

4. What will you take into account while identifying the following:

Question a.
A physical change in a substance.
Answer:
I will take into account the following facts.

  1. Whether the shape, size or state of the substance is changed.
  2. Whether it is a temporary change.
  3. Whether it is a reversible change.

Question b.
A chemical change in a substance.
Answer:
I will take into account the following facts.

  1. Whether a new substance is formed.
  2. Whether it is a permanent change.
  3. Whether it is a non-reversible change.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

5. Read the paragraph and note down the various types of changes it mentions.

Question a.
Read the paragraph and note down the various types of changes it mentions.
It was nearing six o’clock in the evening. The sun was setting. A breeze was blowing. Leaves on the tree were shaking. Sahil was sitting in the courtyard, rolling balls of wet soil and shaping them into various toys. Then he felt hungry and went into the house. Mother made a dough from wheat flour and fried purees. While eating hot purees, his attention was drawn outside the window. It had started raining. There was lighting too. Sahil was enjoying his dinner in the dim light.
Answer:

  1. Clock showing six o’clock time – It is a periodic change.
  2. Sun was setting – A periodic change.
  3. Breeze was blowing – A natural change.
  4. Leaves shaking – A natural change.
  5. Making toys from wet soil – Physical change.
  6. Making dough from wheat flour – Physical change
  7. Frying purees – Chemical change.
  8. Raining – Natural change.
  9. Lightning – Natural change.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Project:

Question a.
Visit a place where work like powder coating. spray painting is done. Make a note of the information you obtain.

Class 7 Science Chapter 13 Changes – Physical and Chemical Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the blanks and rewrite the sentences:

Question 1.
Burning of candle is a ………………. change.
Answer:
chemical

Question 2.
Cooking of vegetable is ………………. change.
Answer:
useful

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 3.
A man painted his main gate made up of iron to prevent it from ………………. .
Answer:
rusting

Question 4.
Galvanization is a process used to prevent the rusting of ………………. .
Answer:
iron

Question 5.
Making sugar solution is a ………………. change.
Answer:
physical

Question 6.
A physical change is generally ………………. .
Answer:
temporary

Question 7.
Grinding of wheat grain changes its size, it is a ………………. .
Answer:
physical change

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 8.
Iron benches kept in lawns and gardens get rusted. It is a change because a new ………………. is formed.
Answer:
chemical, product.

State whether the following statements are True or False. Correct and rewrite the false statement:

Question 1.
Iron and rust are the same substance.
Answer:
False, Rust is oxide of iron.

Question 2.
Iron pipes coated with zinc do not get rusted easily.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Formation of manure from leaves is a physical change.
Answer:
False, it is a chemical change.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 4.
Cutting a log of wood into pieces is a chemical change.
Answer:
False, it is a physical change.

Question 5.
Digestion of food is a chemical change.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Melting of wax is a chemical change.
Answer:
False, it is a physical change.

Question 7.
Dissolving sugar in water is physical change.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
Changes in which new substances are formed are called physical changes.
Answer:
False, they are called chemical change.

Question 9.
Breaking down of larger food particles into smaller particles is a chemical change.
Answer:
False, it is a chemical change.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 10.
Setting of curd is a physical change.
Answer:
False, it is a chemical change.

Question 11.
Heating of iron is a physical change.
Answer:
True

Question 12.
Cooking a vegetable is chemical change.
Answer:
True

Question 13.
Freezing water into ice is a chemical change.
Answer:
False, it is a physical change

Define the following.

Question 1.
Physical change:
Answer:
In a physical change the material may change shapes or forms but no new compounds are formed and change can generally be reversed by reversing the conditions.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 2.
Chemical change
Answer:
A chemical change produces a new substance having new and different properties and which cannot be reversed by reversing the conditions.

Question 3.
Periodic change
Answer:
Some changes occur again and again after . a definite interval of time, such changes are called periodic changes.

Question 4.
Non-periodic change
Answer:
Changes that do not repeat themselves after a fixed interval of time are called non-periodic changes.

Question 5.
Reversible change
Answer:
The changes that can occur in a forward and reverse direction again and again are called reversible changes.

Question 6.
Irreversible change.
Answer:
The changes which we cannot reverse back to same thing are called Irreversible changes e.g. Burning of wood, paper.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 7.
Condensation
Answer:
The process by which matter changes from its vapour or gaseous state into its liquid state by cooling is called condensation.

Question 8.
Corrosion of metals
Answer:
When an iron article rusts, a reddish brown layer (of iron oxide) forms on it. A greenish layer is seen to form on a copper article. This is called corrosion of metals.

Question 9.
Galvanization
Answer:
Iron articles are given a thin coat of zinc to prevent corrosion this is called galvanization.

Question 10.
Tinning
Answer:
Copper and brass articles are coated with tin. This is called tinning.

Question 11.
Natural change
Answer:
Changes that occur naturally like ripening of a fruit, spoiling of milk are called natural changes.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 12.
Man-made change
Answer:
Man-made changes are result of human- activity. E.g. Burning of fossil fuel.

Question 13.
Useful change
Answer:
Many changes such as baking bread, cooking food are useful to us, they are called useful changes.

Question 14.
Harmful change
Answer:
The changes that are not useful or changes that harms living things or the environment are called harmful changes.

Name or Give two example of:

Question 1.
Two physical changes.
Answer:

  1. Melting of wax
  2. Melting of ice

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 2.
Two chemical changes.
Answer:

  1. Burning of wax candle
  2. Burning of wood or paper.

Question 3.
Two periodic changes.
Answer:

  1. Occurrence of day and night
  2. change of seasons

Question 4.
Two non-periodic changes.
Answer:

  1. A meteor moving across the sky.
  2. A bird sitting on a tree flies away.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 5.
Two reversible changes.
Answer:

  1. Melting of wax.
  2. Freezing water into ice.

Question 6.
Two irreversible changes.
Answer:

  1. Ripening of a mango.
  2. Burning of wood

Question 7.
Two natural changes.
Answer:

  1. Lighting in the sky.
  2. Earthquake.

Question 8.
Two manmade changes.
Answer:

  1. Baking bread
  2. Cooking food.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 9.
Two useful changes.
Answer:

  1. Ripening of mango
  2. Curdling of milk.

Question 10.
Two harmful changes.
Answer:

  1. Spoiling of milk.
  2. Air pollution.

Match the following:

Question 1.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Photosynthesis a. Physical change.
2. Dissolving sugar in water b. Chemical change
3. Burning of wood c. Man-made change.
4. Melting of wax d. Periodic changes.
5. Digestion of food e. Non-periodic change
6. Heartbeat f. Chemical change.
7. Occurrence of earthquake. g. Physical change.
8. Deforestation h. Chemical change.

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Photosynthesis b. Chemical change
2. Dissolving sugar in water a. Physical change.
3. Burning of wood f. Chemical change.
4. Melting of wax g. Physical change.
5. Digestion of food h. Chemical change.
6. Heartbeat d. Periodic changes.
7. Occurrence of earthquake. e. Non-periodic change
8. Deforestation c. Man-made change.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 2.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Depositing a layer of zinc on Iron a. Tinning
2. Souring of milk b. Rust
3. Curdling of milk c. Galvanization
4. Iron oxide d.  Chemical changes
5. Depositing layer of tin on copper and brass article. e. Man-made changes.

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Depositing a layer of zinc on Iron c. Galvanization
2. Souring of milk d.  Chemical changes
3. Curdling of milk e. Man-made changes.
4. Iron oxide b. Rust
5. Depositing layer of tin on copper and brass article. a. Tinning

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Distinguish between the following.

Question 1.
Reversible change and Irreversible change
Answer:

Reversible change Irreversible change
1. The changes that can occur in a forward and reverse direction again and again is called reversible. 1. The changes which we can not reverse back to some thing are called irreversible change.
2. E.g.: (a) Melting a wax candle and obtaining the original solid wax again, (b) Stretching a rubber or spring. 2. E.g.: Burning of paper or wood cannot be undone. Wood cannot be obtained from the ash.

Under which different types can be following changes be classified:

Question 1.
Formation of curd from milk.
Answer:
Manmade change (useful), chemical

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 2.
Burning of wood or paper.
Answer:
Manmade, chemical change.

Question 3.
Glowing of bulb.
Answer:
Manmade (fast).

Question 4.
Rusting of iron.
Answer:
Chemical change (harmful)

Question 5.
Burning of Camphor.
Answer:
Chemical change

Question 6.
Souring of milk.
Answer:
chemical change (harmful)

Question 7.
Digestion of food.
Answer:
Chemical change (useful), irreversible

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 8.
Change of season.
Answer:
Periodic change, natural change

Question 9.
Day and night formation.
Answer:
Periodic change

Question 10.
Heartbeat.
Answer:
Periodic change

Question 11.
Water pollution.
Answer:
Manmade, harmful change

Question 12.
Air pollution.
Answer:
Manmade, harmful change

Question 13.
Burning of fossil fuel
Answer:
Manmade (irreversible change)

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 14.
Ripening of fruit.
Answer:
Natural, chemical

Question 15.
Change-in climate.
Answer:
Natural, periodic

Question 16.
Melting of ice into water
Answer:
Physical change

Question 17.
Germination of seed.
Answer:
Natural, slow, desirable.

Question 18.
Bursting of balloon.
Answer:
Irreversible change (fast).

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Give reasons:

Question 1.
The burning of wax is a chemical change
Answer:

  1. Because when the cotton wick embedded in the candle is burnt, ash and smoke is formed.
  2. It is not possible to make wick again from the smoke and ash.

Can you tell?

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
We see many man-made materials in our day-to-day life. For what purpose are they produced.
Answer:
We see many man-made matrical in our day to day life. For example,

  1. Air conditioners for getting cool air in houses offices and cars.
  2. Wooden furniture made from wood obtained by cutting trees.
  3. Refrigerators to protect food from spoiling.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 2.
You made a link from the glass piece. How will you change the shape of the link to give it its original shape?
Answer:
Heat the glass piece again at the link. When it becomes soft break it.

Question 3.
How will you restore the original candle after melting one ?
Answer:
Collect the melted wax and give the required shape when it is soft.

Question 4.
What comes after daytime?
Answer:
Night time (periodic change)

Question 5.
What is the next stage after sunrise?
Answer:
Sunset (periodic change)

Question 6.
What comes after a high tide in the sea?
Answer:
Low tide (periodic)

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 7.
A bird sitting on a tree flies away.
Answer:
non-periodic change.

Question 8.
A meteor streaking across the sky.
Answer:
non-periodic change.

Use your brainpower!

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
What kind of change is the falling of a tree in a storm?
Answer:
Natural change.

Question 2.
What kind of a change is the conversion of milk into yoghurt?
Answer:
Manmade ‘ change, useful change and a chemical change

Question 3.
What is meant by irreversible change? Give some examples.
Answer:

  1. An irreversible change is a permanent change that cannot be undone, cannot reverse it back to original substance.
  2. In irreversible change new materials are always formed.
  3. Irreversible changes are permanent changes.
  4. Heating, burning, mixing, powdering are few processes which causes irreversible changes.

Examples:

  • burning of paper or wood
  • cooking of raw egg.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 4.
Which type of change is the change of seasons from summer to rains to winter?
Answer:
Natural and periodic change

Question 5.
Which hands of a clock show periodic changes from 6.00 am to 6.00 pm? How many times?
Answer:
Small (hour) hand (12 times).

Question 6.
Which of the following are physical changes and which are chemical changes?
(making a table from wood, burning wood, breaking of a glass object, ripening of a tomato, rusting of iron.
Answer:

Physical Chemical
1. Making a table from wood 1. Burning wood
2. Breaking of a glass object 2. Rusting of iron
3. Ripening of a tomato

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 7.
What are periodic and non-periodic changes?
Answer:
1. We find that some changes occur again and again after a definite interval of time. Such changes are called Periodic changes, e.g. Sunrise and Sunset.
2. On the other hand, it cannot be ‘Slid for sure when certain changes will recur after one occurrence. Even if they recur, the time interval is not fixed. Such changes are called non-periodic changes, e.g. A meteor streaking across the sky.

Question 8.a.
Which changes shown in the pictures below are temporary.
Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical 1.1
Answer:
(b) Removing iron nails with help of magnet
(d) Conversion of ice cubes into water.

Question b.
Which of the changes are permanent?
Answer:
Bud blooming into flower.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question c.
In which did the original matter undergo a change?
Answer:

  1. In permanent change
  2. Bud blooming into flower.

Question d.
In which the original matter remain unchanged?
Answer:
In temporary changes
(b) iron nails
(d) ice cubes.

Question e.
In which of the changes was a new substance with a new property formed?
Answer:

  1. Bud blooming into flower.
  2. Ice to water, Ice is in solid state, Water is in liquid state.

Maharashtra Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 13 Changes - Physical and Chemical

Question 9.
Give some examples of fast and slow changes that occur in your surroundings.
Answer:

Fast Slow
1. Burning of paper or wood 1. rusting of iron
2. Burning of candle 2. germination of seeds
3. Bursting of a balloon 3. curdling of milk
4. Bursting of crackers 4. ripening of a fruit

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