Natural Regions Class 7 Geography Notes Maharashtra Board

Natural Regions Class 7 Geography Notes Maharashtra State Board

There exists a large number of different things in the world than those we see in our surroundings. We see different educational and informative TV programs about wildlife. We become curious to know more about this wildlife. Why is this wildlife not seen in our areas? Why are they not similar to the wildlife found in our areas? What causes this difference? Let us try to find the reasons behind all this.

There are differences in terms of landforms, climate, soils, etc in different parts of the world. This difference is mainly due to the availability of sunlight and water in that region. The availability of sunlight and water keeps on changing from the equator to the poles. You have studied this in the previous standards. Differences in landforms, climate, and soil greatly influence the flora, fauna, and human life and give rise to variations in biodiversity in different parts of the world.

Natural Regions Class 7 Geography Notes Maharashtra Board

On the other hand, there are similarities in climate, vegetation, and animal life in different continents that spread between certain latitudes. These similarities stand out as the distinctive features of these regions. As these regions stand out based on natural factors, they are called natural regions. The natural environment of such regions affects the living world including human beings. The entire land area on the earth can be divided into these natural regions. Let us try to understand their distribution with the help of maps and tables given in this lesson.
Natural Regions Class 7 Geography Notes Maharashtra Board 1
Natural Regions Class 7 Geography Notes Maharashtra Board 2
The natural regions given in the table are found in specific latitudinal extents between the equator and the poles. The availability of water and temperatures found there determine the location and extent of these regions. Besides the regions mentioned above, some more regions stand out due to local conditions. They are the Monsoon, the Mediterranean, and the West European regions. While the Monsoon and West European regions stand out because of specific winds blowing there, the Mediterranean region is known for its rainfall in winter. These are described in the table below.

Monsoon Region Mediterranean Region West European Region
Location and Areas
  • North and South of the equator between 10० and 30० N & S parallels.
  • Areas: Indian subcontinent, Philippines, West Indies, N. Australia, E. Africa, C. America, etc.
  • Extends between 30० and 40० parallels in both the hemispheres on the western side of the continents.
  • Portugal, Spain, Algeria, Turkey, California, Central Chile, SW and NE Australia etc.
Located in the western parts of continents between 45० and 65० N and S. parallels, Norway, Denmark, Ireland, British Colombia, South Chile, New Zealand, etc.
  • Summer temperatures are between 27० and 32०C.
  • Winter temperatures are 15० to 24०C.
  • Rainfall 250 to 2500 mm.
  • Areas get rains in specific seasons from SW Monsoon.
  • Rainfall is highly variable and distribution is quite uneven.
  • Dry summers and rainfall in winters
  • Mean Summer Temperature from 21० C to 27०C.
  • Winter temperature between 10०C and 14०C.
  • Mean annual rainfall 500 to 1000 mm.
  • It rains in winter.
  • Mean summer temperature around 20०C, Mean winter temperature around 5०C,
  • Mean rainfall between 500 and 2500 mm.
  • Rainfall is mostly in the form of cyclones associated with Westerlies
  • It rains throughout the year.
  • The climate is mild.
Natural Vegetation
  • Semi-evergreen and deciduous forests.
  • Vegetation depends on the distribution of rainfall.
  • Banyan, peepal, teak, sal, sheesham, sandalwood, cinchona, bamboo, acacia, shrubs, grasses, etc.
  • Thick, small, and oily leaves.
  • Thick bark Examples: olive, oak, chestnut.
  • Grass in low rainfall regions.
  • Coniferous forests in mountainous regions.
  • Green grasses all the year round.
  • Trees shed their leaves in winter.
  • Coniferous trees and short grasses – oak, beech, maple, elm, pine, spruce, poplar, etc.
Animal Life
  • Wild animals such as tigers, lions, leopards, cheetahs, elephants, wolves, boars, monkeys, snakes, peacocks, cuckoos, etc.
  • Domesticated animals: cattle, goats, horses.
Due to animal husbandry domesticated animals are found in large numbers – goats, sheep, cows, mules, horses, etc.
  • Because of animal husbandry, domesticated animals in large numbers.
  • Wild animals include wolves, foxes, bears, etc.
Human Life
  • A large number of small hamlets.
  • Considerable differences in diet and costumes.
  • The population is mostly involved in primary occupations.
  • The main occupation is agriculture.
  • Seat of Greek and Roman civilisations.
  • The main occupation is agriculture.
  • Mostly fruit and flower cultivation.
  • Wheat and wheat products form the staple diet.
  • Colorful costumes.
  • Industrious and enthusiastic people.
  • Have been mainly sailors and explorers.
  • Use woolen clothing.
  • Have achieved progress in secondary and tertiary sectors.

Besides the nine regions given in the tables, certain other distinctive regions stand out because of their specific continental locations. For example, the China-type region, the St. Lawrence region, etc. See the extent of these regions in the figure.
Natural Regions Class 7 Geography Notes Maharashtra Board 3
As one travels from the equator to the poles, the spectrum of biodiversity narrows down. This leads to the issue of the availability of natural resources. This adversely affects human occupations. In monsoon regions, agriculture, and allied activities form the main occupation of the people. In equatorial regions, occupations like gathering gum, honey, rubber, lac, etc. are all based on forest produce. Taiga is a softwood forest. Therefore, lumbering is the main occupation there. In Tundra regions, the main occupation is hunting and fishing. Extensive farming is undertaken in grasslands nowadays.

Significant differences are found in the environment and available resources in different natural regions. The use of resources is dependent on that region’s progress in science and technology. Similarly, the history and cultural organization of that place also affect the life of the people. Not only human life but the entire living world on the earth depends on the available natural resources. Hence, while utilizing these resources, we must think of all the living organisms. The concept ‘the earth is one single family’ will become a reality only if we do that.

Natural Regions Class 7 Geography Notes Maharashtra Board

About 25% of the deserts on the earth are sandy deserts. Many of the deserts are occupied by rock exposures or covered by stony wastes and pebbles. Some have high hills with narrow rocky pinnacles. Deserts like Ladakh in our country or Arizona in the United States of America are of this type. Strong winds blow in the desert lifting and depositing sand to make sandy hills or dunes. Some dunes can be as high as 200m. These hills do not remain stationary but keep moving slowly under the influence of winds. At times, villages get buried under them.

Maharashtra State Board Class 7 Geography Notes Natural Regions can be used for revisiting and reinforcing previously learned content.

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