Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Class 9 History Chapter 8 Industry and Trade Textbook Questions and Answers

1A. Choose the right option and rewrite the sentence:

Question 1.
In 1948, Industrial Finance Corporation of India was formed for ________.
(a) better development of the industrial sector
(b) making available long term loans to industrial projects
(c) generating employment
(d) determining the quality of finished goods
Answer:
(b) making available long term loans to industrial projects

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Question 2.
industry in India is called the _____.
‘Sunrise Sector’.
(a) Jute
(b) Automobile
(c) Cement
(d) Khadi and village industries
Answer:
(b) Automobile

Question 3.
The major responsibility of the textiles committee is ________.
(a) Production of cloth
(b) Determining the quality standards of cloth
(c) Export of cloth
(d) Generate employment for people
Answer:
(b) Determining the quality standards of cloth

Question 4.
__________ is the major Indian city in the production of bicycles.
(a) Mumbai
(b) Ludhiana
(c) Cochin
(d) Calcutta
Answer:
(b) Ludhiana

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

B. Identify the wrong pair and rewrite the corrected one:

Question 1.
(1) Industrial Finance Corporation of India – makes long term loans available for industrial projects.
(2) Industrial Development Corporation – development of the industrial sector.
(3) Textiles Committee – the welfare of weavers.
(4) Khadi and Village Industries Commission – promotion of industrialization in rural areas
Answer:
Wrong Pair: Textiles Committee – the welfare of weavers.

Question 2.
(1) Bicycle – Ludhiana
(2) Seribiotic Research Laboratory – Nagpur
(3) Tractor Export – Africa
(4) Port for Trade – Mumbai.
Answer:
Wrong Pair: Seribiotic Research Laboratory -Nagpur.

2A. Create a concept picture based on the chapter:

Question 1.
Industries in India.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade 1

Question 2.
India’s imports and exports or foreign trade.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade 2

B. Explain the following concept:

Question 1.
Internal trade of India.
Answer:
(i) India’s internal trade takes place through railways, waterways, roads, airways, etc. Ports like Mumbai, Kolkata, Cochin and Chennai are important.
(ii) Commodities like coal, cotton, cotton textiles, rice, wheat, raw jute, iron, steel, oilseeds, salt, sugar, etc. are included in internal trade.
(iii) Due to the development of industries, the standard of life in the country improves.
(iv) Many opportunities for employment become available. On the whole, it helps in the progress of the country.

3A. Explain with reasons:

Question 1.
The tourism industry has developed to a great extent in India.
Answer:
(i) India has a rich cultural heritage. There are places of worship of different religions, pilgrimage centers, confluences of rivers, forts, caves, etc. all over our country.

(ii) Tourists from our country as well as from abroad travel in India throughout the year.

(iii) The facilities for tourists to stay, travel, etc. are provided through the Tourism Development Corporation. Sale of curios and the hotel industry thrives in tourist places. In some places, there are guides who give information to tourists about that area.

(iv) Sometimes when vehicles don’t reach the destination in some remote areas and difficult to reach tourist places, the local people help the tourists in return for a fee.

(v) Employment opportunities are generated out of these needs. Thus, the tourism industry has developed a lot in India.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Question 2.
The quality of life and standard of living of Indian citizens is increasing.
Answer:
(i) After India became independent, the Industrial Finance Corporation of India was established in 1948 to make available long term loans to Industrial projects.

(ii) The Industrial Development Corporation was established in 1954 in order to bring about greater development of the industrial sector.

(iii) Due to the development of industries, many opportunities for employment become available.

(iv) On the whole, it helps in the progress of the country.

(v) Thus the standard of life in the country improves.

B. Write the answer in 25 to 30 words:

Question 1.
What efforts are made by our government to promote agricultural industries?
Answer:
The following efforts are made by our Government to promote agriculture and industries:

(i) To encourage farming, loans are given to farmers through rural banks and cooperative institutions.

(ii) Study visits, agricultural outdoor trips and farmers’ get-togethers are organised through the Panchayat Samitis to bring about improvements in agriculture.

(iii) Tools and implements, seeds and fertilisers are also supplied. The farmers are given training regarding soil testing, nursery of fruit plants, pisciculture, poultry, cattle and goat rearing, dairy farming, etc.

(iv) Guidance is given to farmers by a district level training institute. Financial help is given to build warehouses for storing the farm produce.

Question 2.
How is employment generated in the tourism sector?
Answer:
(i) The facilities for tourists to stay, travel, etc. are provided through the Tourism Development Corporation.
(ii) Sale of curios and the hotel industry thrives in tourist places.
(iii) In some places, there are guides who give information to tourists about that area.
(iv) Sometimes when vehicles don’t reach the destination in some remote areas and difficult to reach tourist places, the local people help the tourists in return for a fee.
Thus, employment opportunities are generated out of these needs.

Question 3.
Which industries in India are based on forests?
Answer:
(i) Government has reserved some forests for the industries based on forests.
(ii) The task of conservation of the forests is done by the Central government, the State government, and by the local people.
(iii) Forests are necessary for the raw material for industries like construction, paper, newsprint, silk, matchboxes, medicinal herbs, honey, lacquer, and raw material needed for paint.

Question 4.
Write a short note on the leather industry in India.
Answer:
(i) It is a big industry in India. It is primarily export-oriented.
(ii) The Council for Leather Export is the main trade promotion organization for Indian leather Industry.
(iii) The Indian leather industry contributes almost 13% of world’s leather production.
(iv) India is the second largest producer of footwear and leather garments in the world.

4. Complete the table:

Question 1.

Goods imported in India ………………….
Goods exported from India ……………………

Answer:

Goods imported in India When planning started in 1951, the import of industrial goods and raw material required for production increased. India’s imports included machines, iron, mineral oil, fertilisers, medicines, etc.
Goods exported from India India also gave impetus to exports after independence in order to gain valuable foreign exchange. India’s exports included tea, coffee, spices, cotton textiles, leather, footwear, pearls, precious stones, etc.

Class 9 History Chapter 8 Industry and Trade Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct option from the given options and rewrite the statements:

Question 1.
Market mechanisms like ______ enables the craftsmen from rural and urban areas to get a market for their wares.
(a) Dilli Haat
(b) Mumbai Market
(c) Handloom Emporium
(d) Handicraft Expo.
Answer:
(a) Dilli Haat

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Question 2.
The textile industry forms ______ % of the total industrial production.
(a) 17
(b) 14
(c) 16
(d) 15
Answer:
(b) 14

Question 3.
________ industry functions under the Ministry of Textiles.
(a) Automobile
(b) Cement
(c) Leather
(d) Silk
Answer:
(d) Silk

Question 4.
_______ is a scheme that helps weavers through self-finance groups and nongovernmental organisations.
(a) MNREGA
(b) Employment Generation Program
(c) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana
(d) Mega Cluster
Answer:
(d) Mega Cluster

Question 5.
Industrial Finance Corporation of India was established in _______.
(a) 1948
(b) 1949
(c) 1951
(d) 1991
Answer:
(a) 1948

Question 6.
Industrial Development Corporation was established in ________.
(a) 1955
(b) 1956
(c) 1957
(d)1954
Answer:
(d)1954

Question 7.
Textile Committee Act was passed in ________.
(a)1961
(b) 1960
(c) 1963
(d) 1964
Answer:
(c) 1963

Question 8.
Industrial Licensing Policy was formulated in _______.
(а) 1970
(b) 1980
(c)1990
(d) 1991
Answer:
(а) 1970

Identify and write the wrong pair in the following sets:

Question 1.
(1) Industrial Licensing policy – 1970
(2) Textile Committee Act – 1963
(3) Industrial Finance Corporation of India – 1948
(4) Industrial Development Corporation – 1958
Answer:
Wrong Pair: Industrial Development Corporation -1958.

Question 2.
(1) Mega cluster – Welfare scheme for weavers.
(2) Dilli Haat – Enables the craftsmen to get a market
(3) Cement Industry – Sunrise sector
(4) Leather Industry – Export Oriented
Answer:
Wrong Pair: Cement Industry – Sunrise sector.

Question 3.
(1) Hand Sculpting – labour intensive
(2) Silk Industry – Ministry of textiles
(3) Khadi and Village Industry Commission – Fourth five year plan
(4) Tourism Development Corporation – facilities for tourist
Answer:
Wrong Pair: Khadi and Village Industry Commission -Fourth five year plan

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Do as Directed:

Question 1.
Arrange the following in chronological order:
(i) Textile Committee Act
(ii) Industrial Finance Corporation of India was established
(iii) Industrial Licensing Policy
(iv) Industrial Development Corporation was established
Answer:
(i) Industrial Finance Corporation of India was established in 1948
(ii) Industrial Development Corporation was established in 1954
(iii) Textile Committee Act 1963
(iv) Industrial Licensing Policy of 1970

Write short notes on:

Question 1.
Hand sculpting Industry.
Answer:
(i) This is a labour intensive craft.
(ii) Sculptors got employment due to the capacity of the craft to absorb more craftsmen, small investment, more profits, preference to exports and possibility of earning more foreign exchange.
(iii) Several cities have market mechanisms like ‘Dilli Haat’ which enables the craftsmen from rural and urban areas to get a market for their wares.

Question 2.
‘Mega cluster’ scheme and Jute Industry.
Answer:
(i) ‘Mega cluster’ is a scheme that helps weavers through self-finance groups and non-governmental organisations.
(ii) Help is given in the form of raw material, design banks, development of technology and welfare of the weavers.
(iii) India is the top ranking country in jute production. India is a major exporter of jute products.
(iv) We get cloth, sack cloth and ropes from jute.

Question 3.
Cement Industry.
Answer:
(i) The role of cement industry is important in the development of housing and infrastructure.
(ii) This industry is one of the most technologically advanced. India is currently an important producer of cement in the world.

Question 4.
Salt and Bicycle industry.
Answer:
(i) India is one of the top producers of salt in the world.
(ii) The annual production of salt in India is 200 lakh tons.
(iii) The production of iodised salt is 60 lakh tons.
(iv) India is a leading producer of bicycles in the world.
(v) Bicycles are made in the states of Punjab and Tamil Nadu.
(vi) The main centre of bicycle manufacturing in India is Ludhiana.
(vii) India exports bicycles to countries like Nigeria, Mexico, Kenya, Uganda and Brazil.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Question 5.
Mineral wealth and fisheries.
Answer:
(i) The availability of the minerals, iron and coal plays a major role in the industrial development of the country.
(ii) We have adequate stores of iron, manganese, coal and mineral oil in our country.
(iii) Fisheries include sea water fish and fresh water fish found in rivers, canals, ponds and lakes.
(iv) Harbours have been built or old harbours have been redeveloped, fish seed incubation centres and fishing industry training centres have been provided for the growth of this industry.

Question 6.
Khadi and Village Industries Commission.
Answer:
(i) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission was established to give impetus to industrialisation in rural areas.
(ii) The main objectives behind the establishment of the corporation were to develop the traditional industries, handicrafts, cottage industries and to encourage industries that use the material and human resources available at the local level and make the villages self-reliant by creating employment there.

Explain the statements with reason:

Question 1.
Agriculture fulfills man’s basic needs.
Answer:
(i) The major occupation in India is agriculture and other tasks based on agriculture.
(ii) Many varieties of crops are grown. Jowar, wheat, rice, pulses and oilseeds are mainly produced.
(iii) Agriculture also includes the production of fruits and vegetables. Nowadays, industries processing these fruits and vegetables have come up.
(iv) Thus, Agriculture fulfills man’s basic needs.

Read the following passage and answer the questions.

Forest resources: The government has reserved some forests for the industries based on forests. The task of conservation of the forests is done by the Central government, the State government, and by the local, people. Forests are necessary for the raw material for industries like construction, paper, newsprint, silk, matchboxes, medicinal herbs, honey lacquer, and raw material needed for paint.
Fisheries: Fisheries include seawater fish and fresh i water fish found in rivers, canals, ponds, and lakes.
Tourism: India has a rich cultural heritage. There are places of worship of different religions, pilgrimage centers, confluences of rivers, forts, caves, etc. all over our country. Tourists from our country as well as from abroad travel in India throughout the year.
The facilities for tourists to stay, travel, etc. are, provided through the Tourism Development Corporation. The sale of curios and the hotel industry thrives in tourist places. In some places, there are guides who give information, to tourists about that area. Sometimes when vehicles, don’t reach the destination in some remote and difficult to reach tourist places, the local people help the tourists in return for a fee. Employment, opportunities are generated out of these needs.

Question 1.
Name a few industries which depend upon forest resources for their production.
Answer:
A few industries which depend upon forest resources are – construction, newsprint, paper and silk industry. Even lacquer is required to paint and coat furniture, honey and herbs for medicinal use.

Question 2.
Do you think Tourism is an industry? How has this industry prospered in India so far?
Answer:
Yes, tourism is an industry. India attracts a lot of foreign tourists every year as it is a home of many pilgrimage places, has a confluence of rivers, scenic landscapes and historical monuments. The Tourism Development Corporation provides all facilities of stay and travel in India. Not just the guides but also local people of the tourist spots help the tourists to reach difficult destinations with ease. The sale of curios and the hotel industry thrives in tourist places. Hence India’s tourism is prospering at a fast pace.

Question 3.
Do you agree that cross-border terrorism in Kashmir has affected tourism in this region? what can be done to protect tourism there?
Answer:
It is true that cross-border terrorism has affected tourism in the Kashmir region. I think the following are a few measures which can ensure protection of tourists:

(i) The army and other paramilitary forces should become more tourist – friendly and convince them to refrain from visiting terror-prone areas.

(ii) Bilateral talks at the governmental level can also play a vital role in preventing unpleasant experiences for the tourists.

(iii) During skirmishes or conflicts of any kind, the tourists should be restricted from visiting the valley. Those already stuck in the regions during sudden eruption of violence must be given a safe passage with priority.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Answer the following questions in detail:

Question 1.
Explain Agriculture in India.
Answer:
(i) Agriculture, in India, is practised using traditional and modern methods. Tasks are performed using bullocks as well as machines.

(ii) Seventy percent of Indian society depends upon jobs related to agriculture and agricultural production.

(iii) Agriculture and animal husbandry are practised in villages. In this industry the participation of women is equal to that of men.

(iv) Variety of crops like jowar, wheat, rice, pulses and oilseeds, cotton and sugarcane are produced in India.

(v) To encourage farming, loans are given to farmers through rural banks and cooperative institutions.

(vi) Study visits, agricultural outdoor trips and farmers’ get-togethers are organised through the Panchayat Samitis to bring about improvements in agriculture.

(vii) Tools and implements, seeds and fertilisers are also supplied. The farmers are given training regarding soil testing, nursery of fruit plants, pisciculture, poultry, cattle and goat rearing, dairy farming, etc.

(viii) Guidance is given to farmers by a district level training institute. Financial help is given to build warehouses for storing the farm produce.

(ix) Modern techniques like drip irrigation, organic farming are used for farming.

Question 2.
Industries in India.
Answer:
(i) Textile industry: The textile industry forms 14% of the total industrial production.
It includes the powerloom and the handloom industries. The handloom industries are labour-intensive. According to the ‘Textile Committee Act 1963’, a Textile Committee has been established. This committee sets the quality standards for textiles manufactured for sale in the internal market as well as for export.

(ii) Silk industry: This industry functions under the Ministry of Textiles. The research about the species of the silkworm and mulberry trees is done in the Seribiotic Research Laboratory at Bengaluru. This industry is primarily in the States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir. Now it is being spread in states with predominantly tribal populations.

(iii) Jute industry: India is the top ranking country in jute production. India is a major exporter of jute products. We get cloth, sack cloth and ropes from jute.

(iv) Hand sculpting: This is a labour intensive craft. Sculptors got employment due to the capacity of the craft to absorb more craftsmen, small investment, more profits, preference to exports and possibility of earning more foreign exchange. Several cities have market mechanisms like ‘Dilli Haat’ which enables the craftsmen from rural and urban areas to get a market for their wares.

(v) Automobile industry: India is one of the major producers of vehicles. Vehicles are exported to 40 countries from India. The automobile industry is called the ‘sunrise sector’ in India. India’s tractor industry is the biggest in the world. One third of the tractors manufactured world-wide are produced in India. Tractors manufactured in India are exported to Turkey, Malaysia and several countries in Africa.

(vi) Cement industry: The role of cement industry is important in the development of housing and infrastructure. This industry is one of the most technologically advanced. India is currently an important producer of cement in the world.

(vii) Leather industry: It is a big industry in India. It is primarily export oriented.

(viii) Salt industry: India is one of the top producers of salt in the world. The annual production of salt in India is 200 lakh tons. The production of iodised salt is 60 lakh tons.

(ix) Bicycle industry: India is a leading producer of bicycles in the world. Bicycles are made in the States of Punjab and Tamil Nadu. The main centre of bicycle manufacturing in India is Ludhiana. India exports bicycles to countries like Nigeria, Mexico, Kenya, Uganda and Brazil.

(x) Khadi and village industry: The Khadi and Village Industries Commission was established to give impetus to industrialization in rural areas. The main objectives behind the establishment of the corporation were to develop the traditional industries, handicrafts, cottage industries and to encourage industries that use the material and human resources available at the local level and make the villages self-reliant by creating employment there.

Question 3.
India’s imports and exports or foreign trade.
Answer:
(i) When planning started in 1951, import of industrial goods and raw material was required for increasing the production.
(ii) India’s imports included machines, iron, mineral oil, fertilisers, medicines, etc.
(iii) India also gave impetus to exports after independence in order to gain valuable foreign exchange.
(iv) India’s exports included tea, coffee, spices, cotton textiles, leather, footwear, pearls, precious stones, etc.

Question 4.
Explain the policy of the Central Government.
Answer:
(i) In the fourth five year plan, focus was placed on paper industry, pharmaceutical industry, motor-tractor industry, leather goods, textile industry, food processing industry, oil, colour, sugar industries, etc.

(ii) According to the Industrial Licensing Policy of 1970, all those factories requiring an investment of more than 5 crore rupees were to be included as heavy industries.

(iii) The big industrial houses and foreign companies were allowed to invest in heavy industries that were not reserved for the public sector.

(iv) As a result of this policy, by the end of 1972,3 lakh 18 thousand small industries were registered with the government registration office.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 8 Industry and Trade

Question 5.
Write a note on Silk Industry.
Answer:
(i) The silk industry functions under the Ministry of Textiles.
(ii) The research about the species of the silkworm and mulberry trees is done in the Seribiotic Research Laboratory at Bengaluru.
(iii) This industry is primarily in the States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir.
(iv) Now it is being spread in States with predominantly tribal populations.

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