Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1 Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Class 9 History Chapter 9 Changing Life 1 Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Choose the proper option and rewrite the completed statements:

Question 1.
The first open-heart surgery under the leadership of Dr N Gopinath was successfully performed in the city of _____.
(a) Chennai
(b) Vellore
(c) Hyderabad
(d) Mumbai
Answer:
(b) Vellore

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Question 2.
_______is known as the father of the ‘Jaipur foot’.
(a) Dr N. Gopinathan
(b) Dr Pramod Sethi
(c) Dr Mohan Rao
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) Dr Pramod Sethi

2. Identify the wrong pair and rewrite the corrected one:

Question 1.
(1) Dr N. Gopinath – open heart surgery
(2) Ramchandra Sharma – a skilled craftsman
(3) Dr Subhash Mukhopadhyaya – test tube baby
(4) Dr Mohan Rao – polio
Answer:
Wrong Pair: Dr Mohan Rao – polio

3. Explain the concepts:

Question 1.
The institution of the family.
Answer:
The institution of family can be explained as follows:

  • During the pre-independence period, the institution of the family was an important identifying feature of Indian society.
  • India was known all over the world as the country of joint families.
  • However, the wave of globalisation has now given an impetus to the system of nuclear families.

Question 2.
Jaipur Foot technology
Answer:
(i) Dr Pramod Sethi designed and manufactured artificial limbs, noses and ears, with the help of the skilled craftsman Ramchandra Sharma.

(ii) These artificial body parts manufactured with the help of the Jaipur foot technology have made it easy for the differently-abled to walk bare-foot on rough surfaces, run, go cycling, work in the fields, climb trees, and even climb mountains, etc.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Question 3.
Urbanization
Answer:
(i) Urbanisation is a process of the concentration of population in a city or urban area. Increasing population is one major reason for urbanisation.

(ii) A few other factors affecting urbanisation are air, water and the economic as well as social organisations necessary for community life.

(iii) In the context of post-independence India, the increase in urban population is also due to factors such as a reduction in the mortality rate, industrialisation, unavailability of means of livelihood in rural areas, job opportunities in cities and the resulting migration.

Question 4.
Changing economic life
Answer:
(i) Earlier, every village was economically self-sufficient. A majority of the villagers were dependent on farming. Farm produce used to be distributed among artisans as payment for their work.
(ii) Now this situation has changed. Rural areas are engaged in agriculture and occupations ancillary to farming while urban society is engaged in non-agricultural production and the service sector.

4. Give reasons:

Question 1.
The campaign for pulse polio immunisation was initiated.
Answer:
The campaign of pulse polio immunisation was initiated because:

  • Before 1978, every year, six Indian infants out of every 10 who were bom faced fatal health problems in the very first year of their birth.
  • The immunisation programme was taken up to overcome the threat of polio, measles, tetanus, TB, diphtheria, and whooping cough.
  • The ‘pulse polio’ immunisation programme started in 1995 has controlled polio.

Question 2.
The Rural Water Supply Scheme was started.
Answer:
The State started the Rural Water Supply Scheme for sinking wells and providing piped water because:

(i) It is necessary to give priority to facilities for public hygiene and health-care. However even today, the rural population faces problems related to year-round provision of drinking water, toilets, open drainage, narrow roads, inadequate electrification and lack of facilities for medical treatment.

(ii) There is a lack of good quality educational facilities from primary level to higher education, centres for recreation and libraries.

(iii) The collective development scheme had an important place in all the first four five year plans of the government of India. The State of Maharashtra registered remarkable achievements under this scheme. By 1971,1677 small dams had also been built.

5. Answer the following questions in 25-30 words:

Question 1.
Which kinds of discrimination does the Constitution prohibit?
Answer:
(i) According to our Constitution, all Indians are equal before the law, and they cannot be discriminated against on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth.

(ii) All citizens have the right to freedom of speech and expression, freedom to assemble peacefully without arms, freedom to form associations, freedom to move, to live and settle down anywhere on Indian territory and to practice any occupation.

(iii) Indian citizens living anywhere in India enjoy the right to nurture their language, script and culture.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Question 2.
What is the aim of the social welfare programme?
Answer:
(i) The objective to establish the welfare state has been incorporated in the Constitution itself.

(ii) The social welfare programmes aim to make opportunities for full-time employment, health care, education and development available to all Indian citizens. Indian society is riddled with large scale economic, social, educational and cultural inequalities.

(iii) However, it is necessary that opportunities for development reach women, children, the differently-abled, the scheduled castes and tribes as well as other minorities.

(iv) Hence on 14th June 1964, the government of India constituted the Ministry of Social Welfare. Under this ministry, various programmes are implemented for nutrition and child- development, social security and social protection, women’s welfare and development.

Question 3.
What are the challenges facing rural development?
Answer:

(i) In 1961, 82% of India’s population resided in villages. In 1971, the percentage was 80.01%.
(ii) So far, the rural area has shouldered the responsibility of providing food grains and other raw material to urban areas, supplying labour to the industrial sectors of the city, and taking care of natural resources.
(iii) However there are three major challenges with reference to rural development, namely, bringing about economic development, developing facilities to meet social needs and finally bringing about a change of attitude in matters concerning society, culture and ways of thinking.
(iv) It is also equally necessary to expedite irrigation projects and bring about land reforms.

6. Write a brief review of the significant events in the field of public health in India.
Answer:
The Constitution of India states that the primary duty of the government is to raise the people’s standard of living, to ensure proper nutrition and to improve public health. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare at the Centre helps the state governments in this regard.

(i) To make primary health services as well as medical care available to rural people, the tribals and the poor was an objective of the Sixth Five Year plan. Efforts were made towards helping people maintain good health by giving recognition to Unani, Homoeopathy, Ayurveda and Naturopathy in addition to Allopathy.

(ii) In 1962, the first successful open heart surgery was performed under the leadership of Dr N. Gopinath at Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore in Tamil Nadu. Hence, it is no longer necessary to go abroad for such treatment.

(iii) The invention of the ‘Jaipur Foot’ has transformed the lives of the disabled in India.

(iv) Before 1968, if a person lost a leg in an accident, he had to suffer for the rest of his life. In order to remedy the situation, Dr Pramod Sethi designed and manufactured artificial limbs, noses and ears, with the help of the skilled craftsman Ramchandra Sharma.

(v) These artificial body parts manufactured with the help of the Jaipur foot technology have made it easy for the differently-abled to walk bare-foot on rough surfaces, run, go cycling, work in the fields, climb trees, and even climb mountains, etc.

(vi) They save on the expenses on shoes as there is no need for footwear on these artificial limbs. They can bend their legs at the knees and sit cross-legged.

(vii) These feet are also convenient while working in water or under wet conditions.

Class 9 History Chapter 9 Changing Life 1 Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct option from the given options and rewrite the statements:

Question 1.
On 14th June 1964, the government of India constituted the Ministry of ________.
(a) Home Affairs
(b) Social Justice
(c) Social Welfare
(d) Education
Answer:
(c) Social Welfare

Question 2.
According to the 1971 Census, _____ people in India belonged to scheduled castes.
(a) 21%
(b) 22%
(c) 23%
(d) 24%
Answer:
(b) 22%

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Question 3.
UNESCO awarded its international prize for the spread of literacy to ______ in 1972 and tribes.
(a) Gujarat
(b) Bengal
(c) Maharashtra
(d) Karnataka
Answer:
(c) Maharashtra

Question 4.
‘Sinhagad Express’ on the Pune-Mumbai route and ‘ _____’ on the Mumbai-Kolkata route were started which had no class divisions.
(a) Karmabhoomi Express
(b) Howrah Mail
(c) Shalimar Express
(d) Gitanjali Express
Answer:
(d) Gitanjali Express

Question 5.
A _______ was formed to help the development of industry in rural areas.
(a) Village Industries Planning Committee
(b) Co-operative Credit Societies
(c) Industrial Development Association
(d) Rural Industrial Council
Answer:
(a) Village Industries Planning Committee

Question 6.
A settlement smaller than a village is called a _____.
(a) Town
(b) Taluka
(c) Hamlet
(d) Locality
Answer:
(c) Hamlet

Identify and write the wrong pair in the following sets:

Question 1.
(1) Kothari Commission – Agricultural Universities
(2) Durga – Open heart surgery
(3) Pramod Sethi – Artifical limbs
(4) Dr Mohan Rao – Kidney transplant
Answer:
Wrong Pair : Durga – Open heart surgery

Question 2.
(1) Christian Medical College – Tamil Nadu
(2) Vidya Niketan – Chikhaldara
(3) Gitanjali Express – Pune-Mumbai route
(4) First successful artificial conception – Kolkata
Answer:
Wrong Pair : Gitanjali Express – Pune-Mumbai route

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Question 3.
(1) Ministry of Social welfare established in -1962
(2) Pulse polio immunisation started – 1995
(3) Maharashtra received a prize for literacy in Maharashtra -1972
(4) Rural Electrification Corporation – 1969
Answer:
Wrong Pair : Ministry of Social welfare established in -1962

Question 4.
(1) Village Industries Planning Committee – Development of Industries in rural areas
(2) Vidya Niketan – residential highschools
(3) Rural water supply schemes – sinking wells
(4) Objective of Sixth Five Year Plan – Advanced technology
Answer:
Wrong Pair : Objective of Sixth five year plan – Advanced technology

Do as Directed:

Complete the table

Question 1.
Answer:

Institutes Location
Rural Electrification Co-operative societies Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh
Agriculture Universities Rahuri, Akola, Parbhani and Dapoli in Maharashtra
Vidya Niketan Satara, Aurangabad, Nasik and Chikhaldara

Question 2.
Answer:

Rural Community in Pre-Globalisation period Urban Community in Pre-Globalisation period
Priority to farming and ancillary vocations (jobs) Priority to nonagricultural production and services.
Small in size, homogeneous in terms of language, culture and tradition. Large in size, heterogeneous in terms of languages, cultures and traditions.
Elementary kinds of vocations; trend of sending villagers to cities rather than accommodating outsiders in rural occupations. Large industries, production for global consumption, accommodating outsiders.
Large proportion of vocations running in the family Less proportion of vocations running in the family.
Priority to the head of the family and to the family as an institution. Joint family system. Family secondary, priority to individuals. Trend towards – nuclear families.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Complete the web diagram

Question 1.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1 2

Question 2.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1 3

Write short notes:

Question 1.
Rural Development
Answer:
(i) In 1961, 82% of India’s population resided in villages.

(ii) In 1971, the percentage was 80.01%. So far, the rural area has shouldered the responsibility of providing food grains and other raw material to urban areas, supplying labour to the industrial sectors of the city, and taking care of natural resources.

(iii) There are three major challenges with reference to rural development, namely, bringing about economic development, developing facilities to meet social needs and finally bringing about a change of attitude in matters concerning society, culture and ways of thinking.

(iv) It is equally necessary to expedite irrigation projects and bring about land reforms.

Question 2.
Social Welfare
Answer:
(i) The objective to establish the welfare state has been incorporated in the Constitution itself. India is the first country in the world to do so.

(ii) The social welfare programmes aim to make opportunities for full-time employment, health care, education and development available to all Indian citizens.

(iii) It is necessary that opportunities for development reach women, children, the differently abled, the scheduled castes and tribes as well as other minorities.

(iv) This was the greatest challenge facing the government during the post-independence period

(v) That is why, on 14 June 1964, the government of India constituted the Ministry of Social Welfare.

(vi) Under this ministry various programmes are implemented for nutrition and child development, social security and social protection, women’s welfare and development.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Question 3.
Kidney transplant
Answer:
(i) Since kidney transplant can now be performed in India, doctors have succeeded in saving patients’ lives. Such surgeries were not so common in India till 1971.

(ii) But in 1971, it was successfully performed at the Christian Medical College hospital at Vellore in Tamil Nadu.

(iii) Dr. Johny and Dr. Mohan Rao transplanted the kidney donated by a living person into the patient’s body.

(iv) Nowadays, patients from underdeveloped countries come to India for such surgeries.

Question 4.
Test-tube baby
Answer:
(i) Right from early times, having a baby is considered to be of utmost importance in the Indian family system.
(ii) The support of ‘test-tube baby’ technology has been available to childless couples since 1978.
(iii) It was under the supervision of Dr. Subhash Mukhopadhyaya that the experiment of the test-tube baby was successfully carried out at Kolkata.
(iv) This was the first successful attempt at artificial conception. A girl named Durga was born.
(v) This technology helped to solve the problem of childless couples who wanted children.

Explain statements with reason:

Question 1.
Rural electrification is essential.
Answer:
Rural electrification is essential because:

(i) Electricity is essential for the development of rural areas. Automatic pumps are needed to water the fields.

(ii) Electricity is also needed to preserve perishable food items such as milk, eggs, fruits, and vegetables, to run fertilizer projects and for fans and TV, and for lights for studying at night.

(iii) During the first five-year plan, electricity had been provided to three thousand villages in India. By 1973, it reached 1,38,646 villages. From 1966, it was decided to supply more electricity for pumps and borewells.

(iv) ‘Rural Electrification Corporation’ was established in 1969.

Question 2.
It is necessary to give special attention to rural areas.
Answer:
(i) It is necessary to give priority to facilities for public hygiene and health-care.

(ii) Even today the rural population faces problems related to year round provision of drinking water, toilets, open drainage, narrow roads, inadequate electrification and lack of facilities for medical treatment.

(iii) There is a lack of good quality educational facilities from primary level to higher education, centres for recreation and libraries. That is why it is necessary to give special attention to rural areas.

Question 3.
The Rural Local Self-Government was empowered with more authority.
Answer:
(i) Keeping in mind the goal of rural development, the collective development scheme has come into force.

(ii) Plans were made for improving farming technology, increasing the area of irrigated land, extending educational facilities, enacting the laws for land reform under this scheme.

(iii) It also aimed at increasing agricultural produce as well as expanding the means of transport, health services and scope for education in the rural areas.

(iv) The government undertook this work through the medium of Gram Panchayats which included the people from all castes and tribes.

(v) To achieve this, the Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis and Zilla Parishads were empowered with more authority.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

Public health: The Constitution of India states that ‘ the primary duty of the government is to raise the people’s standard of living, to ensure proper nutrition i and to improve public health. The ministry of health i and Social Welfare at the Centre helps the state governments in this regard. To make primary health services as well as medical care available to rural people, the tribals and the poor was an objective of the Sixth Five Year plan. Efforts were made towards helping people maintain good health by giving recognition to Unani, Homoeopathy, Ayurveda and Naturopathy in addition to Allopathy, Progress in the medical field has made the life of Indians relatively free of health concerns. In 1962, the first successful open heart surgery was performed under the leadership of Dr. N. Gopinath at Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore in Tamil Nadu, Hence, it is no longer necessary to go abroad for such treatment.

Question 1.
Prepare a concept map of recognised health care and medical treatments in India.
Answer:
Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1 1

Question 2.
Who was Dr. N. Gopinath? State his achievement?
Answer:
Dr. N. Gopinath was an experienced surgeon at Christian Medical College Hospital of Vellore under whose leadership an Open Heart Surgery was performed for the first time in India in 1962.

Question 3.
Which disease among children do you consider most threatful? Why?
Answer:
I would consider Polio as one of the most threatening diseases. It renders an infant physically impaired or incapacitated for life. Without physical development, it is not possible for a child to lead a normal life. He/she becomes dependent on others for daily chores and cannot become self-reliant.

Answer the following questions in detail:

Question 1.
State the achievements of Christian Medical College Hospital.
Answer:
(i) In 1962, the first successful open heart surgery was performed under the leadership of Dr. N. Gopinath at Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore in Tamil Nadu.

(ii) In 1971, kidney transplant was successfully performed at the Christian Medical College hospital at Vellore in Tamil Nadu. Dr Johny and Dr Mohan Rao transplanted the kidney donated by a living person into the patient’s body.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 History Solutions Chapter 9 Changing Life 1

Question 2.
Explain, how ‘Jaipur Foot’ has transformed the lives of the disabled in India?
Answer:
(i) The invention of the ‘Jaipur Foot’ has transformed the lives of the disabled in India. Before 1968, if a person lost a leg in an accident, he had to suffer for the rest of his life.

(ii) In order to remedy the situation, Dr Pramod Sethi designed and manufactured artificial limbs, noses and ears, with the help of the skilled craftsman Ramchandra Sharma.

(iii) These artificial body parts manufactured with the help of the Jaipur foot technology have made it easy for the differently abled to walk bare-foot on rough surfaces, rim, go cycling, work in the fields, climb trees, and even climb mountains, etc.

(iv) They save on the expenses on shoes as there is no need for footwear on these artificial limbs. They can bend their legs at the knees and sit cross-legged.

(v) These feet are also convenient while working in water or wet conditions.

Question 3.
What measures were taken up to uplift the scheduled castes and tribes?
Answer:
(i) According to the 1971 Census, 22% people in India belonged to scheduled castes and tribes.

(ii) Laws were enacted so that they got educational scholarships, and representation in Parliament as well State Assemblies. Some seats are also reserved for them in Government services.

Question 4.
Give an account of the collective development scheme that was featured in the first four Five Year Plans.
Answer:
(i) The collective development scheme had an important place in all the first four five year plans of the government of India.

(ii) The State of Maharashtra registered remarkable achievements under this scheme. For example, ‘Zilla Parishads’ was established in 1962.

(iii) Nutritious diet scheme was launched in 1970-1971. The State also started the ‘Rural Water Supply Scheme’ for sinking wells and providing piped water.

(iv) By 1971,1677 small dams had also been built.

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