Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 5 Environmental Studies Solutions Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Maharashtra State Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

5th Std EVS 1 Digest Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them Textbook Questions and Answers

1. What’s the solution?

Question 1.
You are hungry, but the food has been left uncovered.
Answer:
Heating kills all the disease germs present in the food. So if food is uncovered then one should heat (warm) the food and then eat it when hungry. Eating warm food is always good for health.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

2. Use your brain power!

Question 1.
Which method of preventing the breeding of mosquitoes will you recommend for your surroundings – not allowing water to stagnate or spraying insecticides on the water? Why?
Answer:
First of all it is better not to allow water to stagnate. Hence I would recommend this method for preventing breeding of mosquitoes. However if there are nullahs or gutters in the surrounding area then spraying insecticide on water will be recommended to kill the mosquito larvae growing in water. Therefore both the methods need to be applied sometimes.

3. Answer the following in one or two sentences:

Question (a)
What is an infectious disease?
Answer:
When diseases spread from one person to another person, they are called infectious diseases.

Question (b)
What are the mediums of the spread of diseases?
Answer:
Diseases spread through mediums like food, water, air and insect bite. Sometimes it also spreads by coming in direct contact with a diseased person.

Question (c)
What happens when there is an epidemic of disease?
Answer:
When many people in one area get the same infectious disease at the same time, we say there is an epidemic of the disease. During an epidemic air and water gets contaminated with the disease germs and the disease spreads rapidly. Contaminated water also contaminates the food. If the epidemic is severe many people become serious and need to be hospitalised. To control the epidemic one needs to maintain hygiene and a clean surrounding.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question (d)
What is vaccination?
Answer:
When a person is given a vaccine against a specific disease, he develops resistance to that disease. This process of giving vaccine is called vaccination. Whooping cough diphtheria and tetanus called triple vaccine is given.

Question (e)
Make a list of the vaccination given to a new bom baby.
Answer:
The table given below shows the list of vaccinations given to the new bom baby along with the schedule of when the vaccination is given:

Vaccine given Disease against which it is given Age of the new bom baby when it is given
BCG Vaccine Against Tuberculosis within 15 days after baby is just born
Hepa B vaccine Jaundice caused by Hepatitis B vims As soon as the baby is born
Oral Polio Against Polio Within 2 weeks
Triple vaccine Against Diphteria, whooping cough and tetanus After 6 weeks baby is born

Triple vaccine is repeated twice again after 10 weeks and 14 weeks after the baby is bom. Hep. B vaccine is also repeated twice after 4 weeks and 8 weeks after birth. After completing a year the baby is given vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. It is called MMR vaccine.

4. True or False:

Question (a)
Intestinal diseases spread though air.
Answer:
False

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question (b)
Some diseases are caused by the anger of gods
Answer:
False

5. Classify the diseases given below as diseases that spread through food, through water, and through air:

Question 1.
Classify the diseases given below as diseases that spread through food, through water, and through air:
Malaria, Typhoid, Cholera, Tuberculosis, Jaundice, Gastro, Diarrhoea, Diphtheria, Conjunctivitis, Chickenpox.
Answer:

Through Food Through Water Through Air
Typhoid Typhoid Tuberculosis
Cholera Cholera Diphtheria
Jaundice Jaundice Conjunctivitis
Gastro Diarrhoea Diarrhoea Chickenpox

6. Give reasons.

Question (a)
When there is an epidemic of cholera, we should boil water before drinking.
Answer:
Sometimes water gets mixed with faeces of person who is suffering from the cholera and it gets contaminated. When people drink this contaminated water an epidemic of cholera spreads.
Boiling the water kills the germs causing the disease and hence one is prevented from getting cholera.
Therefore during an epidemic of cholera one should boil water and drink.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question (b)
We should not allow puddles of water to stand in our surroundings.
Answer:
When water stagnates in a puddle, mosquitoes lay eggs in the water and they increase in number. Mosquito bite spread malaria germs and people suffer from malaria. To prevent people from getting malaria mosquitoes should be stopped from breeding. To prevent mosquitoes from breeding we should not allow puddle of water to stand in our surrounding.

Environmental Studies Part 1 Standard 5th Solutions Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them Additional Important Questions and Answers

Fill in the blank with the correct answers from the options given below:

Question 1.
……………….. cause diseases.
(a) Microorganisms
(b) Bacteria
(c) Germs
Answer:
(a) Microorganisms

Question 2.
Every …………………. is caused by a specific microorganism or germ.
(a) illness
(b) disease
(c) flu
Answer:
(b) disease

Question 3.
The germs of disease like influenza are present in the spit or ………………… of the person who has the disease.
(a) tongue
(b) nose
(c) saliva
Answer:
(c) saliva

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question 4.
When diseases spread through food it is called ………………. .
(a) food poisoning
(b) viral
(c) infection
Answer:
(a) food poisoning

Question 5.
Malaria is caused due to bite of a certain kind of ………………… .
(a) animal
(b) mosquito
(c) bird
Answer:
(b) mosquito

Question 6.
Germs of diseases like conjunctivitis spreads through …………………. .
(a) air
(b) water
(c) faces
Answer:
(a) air

Question 7.
Cholera spreads when people drink ……………. water.
(a) good
(b) contaminated
(c) bottled
Answer:
(b) contaminated

Question 8.
People who have a serious infectious disease like tuberculosis or swine flu are ……………….. .
(a) hospitalised
(b) educated
(c) quarantined
Answer:
(c) quarantined

Question 9.
As soon as the baby is born it is given ………………. vaccine.
(a) tuberculosis
(b) triple
(c) polio
Answer:
(a) tuberculosis

Question 10.
The …………………. vaccine is given orally.
(a) conjunctivitis
(b) polio
(c) malaria
Answer:
(b) polio

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question 11.
When the germs of a particular disease enter the body and begins to grow, the person gets the …………… .
(a) food
(b) disease
(c) cough
Answer:
(b) disease

Question 12.
Disease of the throat and the chest spread through the ………………. .
(a) water
(b) faeces
(c) air
Answer:
(b) faeces

Question 13.
People get ………………. or diarrhoea after eating contaminated food at a function.
(a) flue
(b) gastro
(c) viral
Answer:
(b) gastro

Question 14.
Maintaining ……………….. everywhere is beneficial for our health.
(a) food
(b) cleanliness
(c) disease
Answer:
(b) cleanliness

Question 15.
It is important to always keep our food ……………….. .
(a) covered
(b) uncovered
(c) uncooked
Answer:
(a) covered

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question 16.
Insects like mosquitoes, lice and fleas spread …………………. .
(a) beauty
(b) health
(c) disease
Answer:
(c) disease

Question 17.
Ringworm, scabies are disease that affect the …………….. .
(a) head
(b) skin
(c) bones
Answer:
(b) skin

Question 18.
Germs of disease like the flu or conjunctivitis spread quickly through the …………….. .
(a) air
(b) water
(c) fire
Answer:
(a) air

Question 19.
If, at some place, mosquitoes ……………… in large numbers then many people there can get malaria
(a) beautify
(b) breed
(c) creed
Answer:
(b) breed

Question 20.
Air, water, food and insects are the ……………….. through which disease spread.
(a) mediums
(b) area
(c) report
Answer:
(a) mediums

Question 21.
It is possible to ……………….. a disease from ecoming an epidemic.
(a) familiarize
(b) prevent
(c) breed
Answer:
(b) prevent

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question 22.
To prevent disease from spreading through water, it is ………………… at the water works.
(a) diluted
(b) polluted
(c) purified
Answer:
(c) purified

Question 23.
When there is an epidemic of gastro or jaundice, people are advised to ………………. water before drinking it.
(a) cook
(b) steam
(c) boil
Answer:
(c) boil

Question 24.
To prevent mosquitoes from breeding, we must ensure there is no ……………… water in the surroundings.
(a) stagnant
(b) flowing
(c) rippling
Answer:
(a) stagnant

Question 25.
Clothes and utensils used by patients are washed with ………………… .
(a) pesticides
(b) germicides
(c) fertilizers
Answer:
(b) germicides

Question 26.
Our body develops …………….. to a particular disease due to vaccination.
(a) resistance
(b) persistance
(c) deliverance
Answer:
(a) resistance

Question 27.
The vaccines for diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus are combined into a ………………. vaccine and given as an injection.
(a) single
(b) double
(c) triple
Answer:
(c) triple

Question 28.
Polio Vaccine is given …………………… .
(a) verbally
(b) mentally
(c) orally
Answer:
(c) orally

Question 29.
Primary Health Centres have been established at the ……………. level.
(a) urban
(b) village
(c) grass root
Answer:
(b) village

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question 30.
It is in now forbidden by law to ……………….. in a public place.
(a) spit
(b) sit
(c) stand
Answer:
(a) spit

Question 31.
………………….. media are also used for raising public awareness about health and hygiene issues.
(a) Mass
(b) Public
(c) Home
Answer:
(a) Mass

Question 2.
Match the columns:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Ringworm 1. Contaminated Air
(b) Jaundice 2. Direct contact
(c) Tuberculosis 3. Open wound contaminated with soil
(d) Dengue 4. Contaminated food and water
(e) Tetanus 5. Mosquito bite

Answer:

Group ‘A’ Group ‘B’
(a) Ringworm 2. Direct contact
(b) Jaundice 4. Contaminated food and water
(c) Tuberculosis 1. Contaminated Air
(d) Dengue 5. Mosquito bite
(e) Tetanus 3. Open wound contaminated with soil

Name the following:

Question 1.
Insect that causes Malaria.
Answer:
Female Anopheles Mosquito

Question 2.
Insect that causes Dengue.
Answer:
Aedes mosquito

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question 3.
Vaccine for diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus (Given as injection).
Answer:
Triple vaccine

Question 4.
Microorganisms that are useful to us.
Answer:
Microorganisms converting milk into yoghurt or microorganisms fermenting batter for idlis.

Question 5.
Germicide used to kill microorganisms in the spittle of a person having tuberculosis.
Answer:
Phenyl or dettol.

Question 5.
State whether the following statements are True or False:

  1. Vaccination helps our body to develop resistance against diseases.
  2. Community programmes are being undertaken every year at the National level to eradicate (put an end) polio, by giving oral vaccine of polio to children below five years.
  3. On television people are educated about right methods of handling, drinking water so to make them aware of how diseases can be prevented.
  4. Insects like lice and fleas spread diseases.
  5. Cancer is an infectious disease.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. True
  4. True
  5. False

Answer the following in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
Name the disease that has been completely eradicated (that is it has completely disappeared) by vaccination.
Answer:
The disease called small pox has been completely eradicated by vaccination.
(Note : Now no one in the world is gets the scare or is suffering from small pox.)

Question 2.
Which disease spreads through flea’s bite?
Answer:
Fleas spread diseases like plague when they bite.
(Note : Fleas are found on the bodies of pets like dogs, cat and also on rhodents like rats.)

Question 3.
Why should we cover our nose and mouth when we cough or sneeze?
Answer:
Disease of the throat and chest spread through the air. When other breathe the same air, germs enter their bodies. That is why we must cover our nose and mouth when we cough or sneeze.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question 4.
What is ‘food poisoning’?
Answer:
Gastro or diarrhoea spreads through contaminated3 food. When we eat this food the disease spread is called food poisoning.

Question 5.
Why should food always be kept covered?
Answer:
When some flies sit on our food, the germs enter the food. Later when we eat this food the germs enter our body, so we must always cover the food.

Question 6.
What is an epidemic?
Answer:
When many people in one area get the same infectious disease all at the same time, we say that there is an epidemic of the disease.

Question 7.
What precaution can be taken to prevent the spread of tuberculosis?
Answer:
The spittle of a person who has tuberculosis is collected in a vessel and covered with a germicide like phenyl. Such precautions can help to prevent the disease from spreading.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Give scientific reasons:

Question 1.
Doctors give tetanus vaccine after getting a cut or wound while handling a sharp instrument or after falling down and getting bruised badly while playing.
Answer:
Tetanus germs are present in the soil, dung and dust. The sharp instrument may be dirty, so it may carry the tetanus germs. These germs may then spread though the wound and cause disease. To prevent tetanus germs from spreading doctors give the vaccine which help us develop resistance against this disease.

Question 2.
A person suffering from a disease should cover the mouth when sneezing or coughing.
Answer:
Disease causing organisms are present in the spit or saliva of the person. When they sneeze or cough these gems spread in the air and cause disease in other people. To prevent the spread of disease through the air a person suffering from a disease should cover the mouth while sneezing or coughing.

Question 3.
Before eating or handling food one should wash the hands using soap and water.
Answer:
Soap kills the germs which cause diseases and water washes them away. If our hand is dirty then they may contain disease causing germs. If we handle food, or eat food without washing, the germs will enter the food and contaminate it with these germs. This can cause intestinal diseases or food poisoning. Hence it is advised that one should wash the hands using soap and water before eating or handling food.

Question 4.
People who are suffering from tuberculosis or swine flu are quarantined and kept in hospitals.
Answer:
The diseases like tuberculosis and swine flu are infectious. They spread through air easily. Also the germs spread cause disease in a healthy person if the healthy person comes in contact directly with the diseased person. In hospitals there are separate wards for such diseased people, where extra care and precautions are taken to prevent spread of diseases. Therefore patients suffering from these diseases are quarantined and kept in hospital.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Can you tell:

Question 1.
When your friends fall while playing and get hurt, does anyone tell you ‘Don’t go near them. You will also yet hurt’?
Answer:
No, no one tells us like that because we will not get hurt because the friend is hurt.

Question 2.
Suppose your mother has a headache. Do you also get a headache if you go near her?
Answer:
No, I do not get a headache if I go near her.

Question 3.
When is it that you are told not to go near a sick person, not to use their utensils for eating or drinking; not to use their hankies, towels or clothes?
Answer:
We are told not to go near a sisk person when the person is suffering from cold, flu, is having high fever, or if the person is suffering from chicken pox, measles, mumps etc.

Question 4.
Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them 1
What different activities are going on in the above picture.
Answer:
Women are washing clothes in the river. A boy is urinating in the water. A man is washing utensil and filling it with water. Buffaloes are being washed in the water. Children are swimming and a lady is filling pots with water to use for drinking purpose.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Question 5.
Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them 2
What do you see in the picture below above?
Answer:
Food is kept open. People are being served this uncovered food and they are eating it. The man serving the food is wearing dirty colthes. There is no cleanliness maintained in the restaurant.

Question 6.
What steps will you take to ensure that dust and flies do not settle on the food in your house?
Answer:
The food will be covered properly to see that no dust and flies settle on it. It will be kept in clean and closed utensils in the kitchen. Care will be taken to see that the kitchen is kept clean. So that no flies will sit there.

Question 7.
Why should you not go to school if you have conjunctivitis?
Answer:
Conjunctivitis causing germs spreads through air. If we go to school many other children will also get this disease. To prevent the spread of this disease, we should not go to school when suffering from conjunctivitis.

Maharashtra Board Class 5 EVS Solutions Part 1 Chapter 23 Infectious Diseases and how to Prevent them

Glossary:

  1. conjunctivitis – sore eyes, which causes irritation.
  2. forbidden -not allowed.
  3. contaminated – to make impure by adding some substance.
  4. stagnates – gets collected.

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